The purpose of this study is the examination by comparing adolescent women's self-formations with the style of self-cognition of the first term adult period. As a result, adolescent women's self-formation's characteristic was to cause the low degree of the own judgment power and to have valued the outward, negative self side. Subjects were 90 adolescences, and 80 adult period people of the first term. SEI-B was used as a measurernent instrument. It is a change of the method of answering the Japanese translation version of Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) which consisted of 23 items which Janis and Field had made. And, the Awareness of Independence Scale which consisted of 37 items which Katou and Takagi (1980) had made was used. The self was caught from four categories of "outward-internal" and "affirmative-negative". And, this research was examined two points how the valuing degree to each self side and the awareness of independence from the parent influenced the self-formation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among family identity, ego identity and experiences in family-events. One hundred eighty eight university students completed the questionnaire composed of the items of experiences in past and present family-events, Family Identity Scale, and Ego Identity Scale. The main results were as follows: 1. Female students' scores of family identity achievement and experiences of past and present family-events were significantly higher than those of male students. 2. Achievement of family identity was positively related to experiences in past and present family-events. 3. Achievement of ego identity was related to experiences in present family-events. 4. Achievement of family identity was positively related to that of ego identity.
The purposes of the present study were to clarify the relationship between the characteristics of conversation in meals and parent-child psychological connection, and to investigate its developmental differences between elementary school and senior school children. The questionnaire was distributed to 140 families composed of fifth or sixth grade children and their parents, and 245 families composed of senior high school children and their parents. The main results were as follows: (1) Elementary school children and their fathers, and senior high school children and their parents in higher levels of psychological connection had more positive and frequent conversations with family members in meals, after meals and at different mealtime than ones in lower levels. Elementary school children's mothers in higher levels of psychological connection had more frequent conversations with children in meal and at different mealtime than ones in lower levels. (2) Senior high school children in higher levels of psychological connection with their fathers took meals together more frequently than the ones in lower levels. It was suggested that positive and frequent conversations in meals had a important role for parent-child psychological connection in early and middle adolescence.