This study examined whether pubertal development influenced on adolescent aggression directly or this effect was mediated by athletic competence and body satisfaction. The pubertal development was assessed in terms of pubertal status and pubertal timing. Junior high school students (n=551) including 273 girls and 278 boys were asked to complete questionnaires. Main results were as the follows: (1) For girls, at any pubertal status and pubertal timing, athletic competence positively predicted linguistic aggression and negatively predicted hostility. (2) For boys, pubertal status positively predicted hostility. In addition, earlier matured boys showed higher athletic competence and body satisfaction than the counterparts; athletic competence positively predicted physical and linguistic aggression; and body satisfaction positively predicted linguistic aggression and negatively predicted physical aggression and hostility.
Psychological characteristics of young people not desiring a steady romantic relationship (Love-Unnecessary group) were compared with those that desired the steady relationship that they had (Love group), and those that desired a steady relationships that they did not have (Love-Longing group), from the perspectives of ego development, mental health, and individualism. A survey inquiring about psychological stress reactions, identity, sense of fulfillment, individualism, state of the romantic relationship, and the reason for not desiring a steady relationship, was conducted with university students (n =1350). The results indicated that 18.0 % of the participants belonged to the Love-Unnecessary group. Moreover, there was a bigger proportion of girls in the Love group and a bigger proportion of boys in the Love-Longing group, whereas no significant differences were observed in the proportion of boys to girls in the Love-Unnecessary group. Furthermore, the Love group scored high in identity establishment and mental health, whereas the Love-Longing group scored moderately in identity establishment and low in mental health. The Love-Unnecessary group scored low in identity establishment, lacked motivation, and displayed arbitrary thinking.
In this article, I made an exploratory study regarding the existence and the kinds of the self-formation mode in adolescence. The self-formation mode was defined as "a mode to promote self formation at a specific level, such as daily life and activities." In the study, 24 junior and senior female university students participated in the semi-structured interview and were asked to talk about how they changed and developed since they entered university. The analysis of their self-narratives revealed that there were several kinds of self-formation modes with different kinds. First, there were at least three kinds of self-formation modes from the perspective of activities: that is, the self-formation modes as "activity for achieving time perspective (SF1)", "basic activity for developing future (SF2)", and "activity without time perspective (SF3)." Second, SF1 was goal-oriented, while SF3 was not; SF2 was between these two. Adolescents with SF2 were interpreted not to have clear future goals, but to believe that basic activities could make their future. The article concluded with a discussion of how the positioning dynamics of SF2 especially had not been addressed in past studies of time perspectives and goals.
Previous studies have often related vocational indecision among Japanese university students to similar instances of immaturity, like student apathy. However, with advances in the field of psychology, new psychological factors of vocational indecision may have been identified. In the present study, 213 university students answered a battery of questionnaires, and the responses of the group that scored low on the vocational identity scale were examined by means of a cluster analysis in order to determine subtypes. Five subtypes were identified. The results also indicate a relationship between student apathy and vocational indecision, similar to that found in earlier studies. However, this study identifies and describes a new type of vocational indecision in which leisure is valued more than work.