Two studies were conducted to construct Amae-Type Scale (ATS) and to examine its validities. In Study 1, ATS was devised to assess 4 types of amae-engager, theoretically derived by combining positive(+) and negative(-) self(S)- and other(O)-views: Types A(Adaptive, +S+O), B(Suppressed, +S-O), C(Hesitant, -S+O), and D(Confused, -S-O). Then, ATS and scales for self- and other-views were administered to college students. It was theoretically predicted, and confirmed, that Types A and B are higher (more positive) in self-view than Types C and D and that Types A and C are higher in other-view than the other. In Study 2, we further included additional scales for self- and other-views in the questionnaire, so as to enhance the validities of ATS. Again, the findings confirmed our predictions. We took them to suggest that ATS has adequate validities and discussed their theoretical implications.
Daily reciprocal interactions between mother and daughter were investigated by applying dynamic factor analysis (DFA). A mother and her junior high school daughter participated in this study. The participants independently completed the Mother-Daughter Questionnaire, daily for 144 consecutive days. The data were analyzed by using factor analysis without a time lag, in order to construct a subscale (parceling). Then, we used Structural Equation Modeling to examine the latent factor series separately for models for the mother and the daughter. The results of lag-2 DFA confirmed the lagged structure of the interrelationships between the mother and the daughter. The results indicated that the mother-daughter relationship on a given day affected their relationship on the next day. Moreover, the “mother’s control factor” on a given day negatively affected the “daughter’s affiliation factor” on the next day. Furthermore, the “daughter’s affiliation factor” on a given day negatively affected the “mother’s acceptance factor” on the next day. It was concluded that the mother-daughter relationship interacted with each other on a day-to-day basis.
Most Japanese contemporary adolescents communicate with their friends by using “Chara,” which is a shortened form of “Character”. However, few studies have examined Chara from a psychological perspective. Thus, the purpose of this study was to clarify a) percentage of using Chara, b) thoughts about Chara, c) differences in friendship based on types of Chara types, & d) satisfaction with friendship that use Chara. A preliminary survey with 57 participants showed that around fifty percent had Charas, and that Charas could be divided into two types. Results of the main survey of 236 participants revealed that those who have Charas tend to form friendship groups, and satisfy their friendships more than those who do not perceive Charas. Moreover, the process of decreasing friendship satisfaction among participants with Chara was also examined.
The purpose of this study was to construct a scale to measure how adolescents question the meaning of life. It was administered to 336 college students. Factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure: doubting the value of life, questioning the purpose of life, and questioning the basis of existence. We investigated the relationships among the experience of questioning the meaning of life, purpose in life (PIL), the Big five personality traits, and sense of identity. We found that the experience of questioning the meaning of life is associated with a lack of a meaningful life, personality traits like neuroticism, and a poor sense of identity. Further, each factor had different content.