Bird-banding in Japan had been operated since 1924 until 1946 with some interesting results which were analysed by the government staff in Bird and Mammal Bureau of Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (cf. literature). It was opened again during 1948 and 1951, but with little success. The new scheme was begun in 1961 under the support of Governmental budget and the center of research was placed in Yamashina Institute. Actual banding has been made by our staff and also by educated banders in 18 prefectures. This new scheme was planned based on a resolution of the Tokyo Congress of the International Council for Bird Preservation (1960), which recommended to the Asian Section the need of international research and protecticn of migratory birds in Asian area. I wish to express hearty thanks to the Forestry Bureau for financial support of this project. This paper is followed by a bibliography of the literature of Japanese bird-banding.
Our Bird Ringing Scheme came into operation again after the postwar intermission (cf. Yamashina, in this issue). Although some postwar ringing and recovery data (and a few of the present Scheme) are being compiled at the Wildlife Section, Government Forest Experiment Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, most of the ringing and all of the recovery data will hereafter be gathered by, held in and compiled at the Institute. In this year 7 agencies worked at ringing and ringing totals were summed up to 2, 321 birds (62 spp.) (Tables 1 and 2). Recoveries reported by 31st March 1962 were 10 birds (6 spp). During this year 5 birds (5 spp.) ringed in abroad were reported to the Institute. These are shown in Appendix I. And a special programme for the study of Short-tailed Albatross, now endangered to extinct, was begun on Torishima, Seven Is. of Izu, from this year (Appendix 11), and 10 chicks and a non-breeding subsdult (age unknown), and also 18 chicks of Black-footed Albatross, were ringed. The rings used are those of the Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. A. Each chick was attached a red colour ring, too.
1. Roost distribution, feeding dispersal and density and behaviour of feeding flocks before roosting flight in the Grey Starling, Sturnus cineraceus, were studied in Kanto Plain from 1953 to 1962. This paper describes the results of some 45 winter observations. The roost distribution will be further iuvestigated. 2. In Kanto Plain, extensive feeding range of big Koshigaya roost (about 50, 000 birds) north of Tokyo occupies 30-40km radius circle of the plain. Other smaller roosts are situated outside of this feeding range. 3. Daytime (late afternoon observation) feeding flocks usually consisted of several to 30, sometimes 100 birds and each flock was more or less 500m apart. This spacing by small flocks should be a response to the food availability which are minute mud fauna and rather sparcely distributed larger larvae, etc. 4. In feeding ground assembly towards evening, up to 300, rarely 500 or exceptionally 1, 000 birds gathered into a flock, the average flock size being 176 birds. Thus an area where a flock of over 150 birds was found could be regarded as a good feeding place. Evening flocks gradually moved always towards the direction of main roost (to which most of the flock members belonged). The distance of this late afternoon movement to final gathering place was usually 1.5-2.0km. 5.The density, the economic density, of daytime feeding flocks in the field was 30-500 (average 160) birds per 1km2, therefore 0.3-5.0 (average 1.6) birds per 1 ha, which coincided with previously calculated data. This may suggest that a space of about 1 ha is wanted by one starling. 6. Two types of feeding dispersal from a roost were noticed. In type A, the flock size decreased with greater distance along a certain direction and under similar conditions of the feeding environment (see NNW direction in the map). In type B, concentration to a certain feeding area was found. A remarkable concentration was at 40km from the roost which was about the maximum distance of feeding dispersal. On this feeding flight line, the size of feeding flocks decreased with shorter distance from the roost, i. e. greater flock size towards the concentration area. This concentration was possibly due to higher food resources plus good breeding envirnment (old trees with holes). 7. The middle area on the B type dispersal line was apparently occupied by a big feeding flock of another roost (confirmed by roosting flight direction). If this were a competitve segregation of feeding grounds by two different roost-flocks, it is a remarkable instance. 8. It commonly happens that at the peripheral feeding area, the feeding flocks make a joint flock with birds of other roost or roosts. Thus on starting for roosting flight they take off to different, or to each determined, directions. 9. Distribution and observation data at eleven roosts in the study asea (see fig. 1) are described.
In field study, already published, it was found that the rural Grey Starling chicks (Sturnus cineraceus) were fed primarily with mole-crickets and no vegetable matter mixed, while the city chicks were given variety of animal and vegetable foods, of which the cherries were predominant item. The growth rate of chicks under this different food supply by the parents was generally uniformly good in rural broods and somewhat more variable in those of the city zone, among which an exceptional case of inferior chick growth was included. This was suspected to be the result of over or exclusive feeding of cherries by the parents, since their cherry preference was variable as shown by the number of vomitted cherry stones (by chicks) left it the nest boxes. The present study was aimed to compare the growth rate of chicks artificially raised with animal food and cherries. As animal food, the mole-cricket was not available in sufficient number, so the basket-worms which were found abundantly enough in the garden were substituted. Two chicks, A (male) and B (female), of the fifth day of age were used, and during 7-10th days A was fed with basket-worms and B with cherries. As the result, the growth of B delayed and it was weakened. So, during the next four days, the foods were reversed (though A was fed first two days with artificial pasted food, the following two days with the cherries) and on the first two days the mole-crickets were given as supplemental food equally to A and B (This caused their equall acceleration of growth). This reverse feeding resulted in the reversal of body weights of A and B, this time B becoming heavier than A. Later they were equally fed with pasted food and nine days after A, the male, again became heavier than B, the female (thus the influence of the cherry ceased) and on the 24th day of age, the growth of the birds stopped, reaching maturity as young birds. These data were supported by the very low protein and nitrogen content in the cherries used in the experiment as compared with the basket-worms (Also, known nutrient analyses of edible cherries and silk-worm are cited (Table 6 and 7)). The body length, keel length and parts of limbs were also measured, but the influence of food change upon these was not disctinct as in the body weight and they were not reversed when food was reversed. However, longer bones seemed to be more affected than shorter bones, and the maturity (or stop) of growth was delayed in longer than shorter bones. The growth of wing quills was not affected by the subsequent change of food (after 10 days old) but the effect of initial food difference (before 10 days old) might have continued until their full growth.
Cervical muscles in eleven Orders and nineteen species of birds were compared by semidiagramatical illustrations of the lateral view. The main series of cervical muscles studied was given the following nomenclature: 1. Dorsal muscles 1. Biventer muscle, M. biventer cervicalis 2. Dorsal long cervical muscle, M. longus colli posticus (M. spinalis) a. Longitudinal part, pars longus b. Anterior part, pars anterior c. Posterior part, pars posterior d. Inferior part, pars inferior 3. Dorsal profound cervical muscle, M. profundus colli posticus 4. Intercrestal muscle, M. intercristalis II. Lateral muscles 1. Oblique cervical muscle, M. obliquus colli 2. Lateral cervical muscle, M. colli lateralis (M. intertransversalis) III. Ventral muscles 1. Ventral long cervical muscle, M. longus colli anticus a. Longitudinal part, pars longus b. Anterior part, pars anterior c. Posterior part, pars posterior The development of these muscles is extremely variable both adaptively and possibly taxonomically and in some groups is very specialized. These complexities of the avian cervical muscle system are the natural result of their variety of uses of the neck in food-getting and other activities. The myology of this interesting and important part of avian body, however, has been curiously neglected and is open to future detailed comparative studies.
As the result of this study it is concluded that 1) Corvus levaillantii connectens Stresemann is distributed on islands, Yakushima, Amani-Oshima, Tokunoshima, Okinawa, Zamami, and Miyako, 2) The breeding range of Jynx torquilla japonica (Bonap.) covers from Sakhalin, Hokkaido to Honshiu, 3) Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus L. so far included in Japanese hand-list is now referred to the race nihonensis Deignan, 4) Phasianus colchicus affinis Momiyama stands for the race of Oshima of Seven Is. of Izu in place of the name tanensis.
On 1 Septembr 1962, a bird of this speices, Pterodroma hypoleuca, unable to fly was found and was fed with dried sardines, pork, salted salmon and salt water for five days. It recovered its spirit and flew well to the sea when released.