山階鳥類研究所研究報告
Online ISSN : 1883-3659
Print ISSN : 0044-0183
ISSN-L : 0044-0183
3 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
  • 山階 芳麿
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 135-137
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Bird-banding in Japan had been operated since 1924 until 1946 with some interesting results which were analysed by the government staff in Bird and Mammal Bureau of Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (cf. literature). It was opened again during 1948 and 1951, but with little success.
    The new scheme was begun in 1961 under the support of Governmental budget and the center of research was placed in Yamashina Institute. Actual banding has been made by our staff and also by educated banders in 18 prefectures. This new scheme was planned based on a resolution of the Tokyo Congress of the International Council for Bird Preservation (1960), which recommended to the Asian Section the need of international research and protecticn of migratory birds in Asian area.
    I wish to express hearty thanks to the Forestry Bureau for financial support of this project.
    This paper is followed by a bibliography of the literature of Japanese bird-banding.
  • 浦本 昌紀
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 138-143
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Our Bird Ringing Scheme came into operation again after the postwar intermission (cf. Yamashina, in this issue). Although some postwar ringing and recovery data (and a few of the present Scheme) are being compiled at the Wildlife Section, Government Forest Experiment Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, most of the ringing and all of the recovery data will hereafter be gathered by, held in and compiled at the Institute.
    In this year 7 agencies worked at ringing and ringing totals were summed up to 2, 321 birds (62 spp.) (Tables 1 and 2). Recoveries reported by 31st March 1962 were 10 birds (6 spp).
    During this year 5 birds (5 spp.) ringed in abroad were reported to the Institute. These are shown in Appendix I. And a special programme for the study of Short-tailed Albatross, now endangered to extinct, was begun on Torishima, Seven Is. of Izu, from this year (Appendix 11), and 10 chicks and a non-breeding subsdult (age unknown), and also 18 chicks of Black-footed Albatross, were ringed. The rings used are those of the Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. A. Each chick was attached a red colour ring, too.
  • 黒田 長久
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 144-154
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Roost distribution, feeding dispersal and density and behaviour of feeding flocks before roosting flight in the Grey Starling, Sturnus cineraceus, were studied in Kanto Plain from 1953 to 1962. This paper describes the results of some 45 winter observations. The roost distribution will be further iuvestigated.
    2. In Kanto Plain, extensive feeding range of big Koshigaya roost (about 50, 000 birds) north of Tokyo occupies 30-40km radius circle of the plain. Other smaller roosts are situated outside of this feeding range.
    3. Daytime (late afternoon observation) feeding flocks usually consisted of several to 30, sometimes 100 birds and each flock was more or less 500m apart. This spacing by small flocks should be a response to the food availability which are minute mud fauna and rather sparcely distributed larger larvae, etc.
    4. In feeding ground assembly towards evening, up to 300, rarely 500 or exceptionally 1, 000 birds gathered into a flock, the average flock size being 176 birds. Thus an area where a flock of over 150 birds was found could be regarded as a good feeding place. Evening flocks gradually moved always towards the direction of main roost (to which most of the flock members belonged). The distance of this late afternoon movement to final gathering place was usually 1.5-2.0km.
    5.The density, the economic density, of daytime feeding flocks in the field was 30-500 (average 160) birds per 1km2, therefore 0.3-5.0 (average 1.6) birds per 1 ha, which coincided with previously calculated data. This may suggest that a space of about 1 ha is wanted by one starling.
    6. Two types of feeding dispersal from a roost were noticed. In type A, the flock size decreased with greater distance along a certain direction and under similar conditions of the feeding environment (see NNW direction in the map). In type B, concentration to a certain feeding area was found. A remarkable concentration was at 40km from the roost which was about the maximum distance of feeding dispersal. On this feeding flight line, the size of feeding flocks decreased with shorter distance from the roost, i. e. greater flock size towards the concentration area. This concentration was possibly due to higher food resources plus good breeding envirnment (old trees with holes).
    7. The middle area on the B type dispersal line was apparently occupied by a big feeding flock of another roost (confirmed by roosting flight direction). If this were a competitve segregation of feeding grounds by two different roost-flocks, it is a remarkable instance.
    8. It commonly happens that at the peripheral feeding area, the feeding flocks make a joint flock with birds of other roost or roosts. Thus on starting for roosting flight they take off to different, or to each determined, directions.
    9. Distribution and observation data at eleven roosts in the study asea (see fig. 1) are described.
  • 中村 登流
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 155-173
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.この研究はエナガ(Aegithalos caudatus trivirgatus)の蕃殖期生活の特殊性を明確にするため野外観察の結果をまとめたものである。
    2.1951年から1961年までの蕃殖期におけるのべ147回の野外調査により,48番,71巣を観察した。雌雄の区別は行動差,尾羽の曲り方の差,尾羽の破損状態,足環によって判別した。
    3.蕃殖期は比較的早期性で新葉ののびる時期に育雛期が来るように調整されている。早期営巣者は2月からはじめるが寒波によって影響されやすく,営巣期間が晩期営巣者より長い。
    4.番形成は営巣場所決定以前に行なわれ,番群は冬期群移行範囲の局部執着により出現する。営巣に入っても寒冷気候が戻った場合再び番群が形成される。
    5.営巣場所は林縁ならびに林冠部で,常緑性針葉樹に執着し10m以上の枝先にもっとも多い。落葉広葉樹の樹幹には3~10m,小灌木またはブッシュでは3m以下である。
    6.蕃殖期内で巣が破壊された場合営巣場所を変更する。蕃殖期末に破壊された場合再度営巣はしない。
    7.営巣は雌雄共同で行なう,営巣活動時間は休息時間とほぼ同じ位で,むしろ休息の方が多い。営巣期間は早期営巣者で2ヶ月もかかる場合があるが晩期営巣者は10日位である。
    8.塒は営巣初期の外廓ができるまでブッシュの中にとり,外廓ができて以後巣内でとる。
    9.抱卵活動は,巣外時間に対する巣内時間の比で示すと,前半で1に近く,後半で2に近い。
    10.夕刻巣へ入る時には雄が先導して雌が先に入り,後から雄が入る儀式的行動がある。
    11.孵化当時の給餌は抱雛している雌に雄が口うつしにし,雌が雛に与えるが数日にして雌雄が給餌行動をとるようになる。
    12.1羽当り1分間の給餌回数は0.03であり,初期と晩期でやや少ない。
    13.雌雄の給餌行動には雄が先導して先に雌が給餌し,その間雄はデスプレイ行ない,次に雄が給餌するという儀式的行動がある。
    14.主として雄が行なうup-right flight displayは営巣期には特定の場所で大規模に行なわれ,産卵•抱卵•育雛期には巣の周辺の一定空間で行なわれ,その活動が最高に達するのは孵化直後である。
    15.テリトリーははっきりせず巣の防衛が主であり,デスプレイは持ちながらテリトリーの主張をしない。
  • 黒田 長久
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 174-184
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In field study, already published, it was found that the rural Grey Starling chicks (Sturnus cineraceus) were fed primarily with mole-crickets and no vegetable matter mixed, while the city chicks were given variety of animal and vegetable foods, of which the cherries were predominant item. The growth rate of chicks under this different food supply by the parents was generally uniformly good in rural broods and somewhat more variable in those of the city zone, among which an exceptional case of inferior chick growth was included.
    This was suspected to be the result of over or exclusive feeding of cherries by the parents, since their cherry preference was variable as shown by the number of vomitted cherry stones (by chicks) left it the nest boxes.
    The present study was aimed to compare the growth rate of chicks artificially raised with animal food and cherries. As animal food, the mole-cricket was not available in sufficient number, so the basket-worms which were found abundantly enough in the garden were substituted.
    Two chicks, A (male) and B (female), of the fifth day of age were used, and during 7-10th days A was fed with basket-worms and B with cherries. As the result, the growth of B delayed and it was weakened. So, during the next four days, the foods were reversed (though A was fed first two days with artificial pasted food, the following two days with the cherries) and on the first two days the mole-crickets were given as supplemental food equally to A and B (This caused their equall acceleration of growth).
    This reverse feeding resulted in the reversal of body weights of A and B, this time B becoming heavier than A. Later they were equally fed with pasted food and nine days after A, the male, again became heavier than B, the female (thus the influence of the cherry ceased) and on the 24th day of age, the growth of the birds stopped, reaching maturity as young birds.
    These data were supported by the very low protein and nitrogen content in the cherries used in the experiment as compared with the basket-worms (Also, known nutrient analyses of edible cherries and silk-worm are cited (Table 6 and 7)).
    The body length, keel length and parts of limbs were also measured, but the influence of food change upon these was not disctinct as in the body weight and they were not reversed when food was reversed. However, longer bones seemed to be more affected than shorter bones, and the maturity (or stop) of growth was delayed in longer than shorter bones. The growth of wing quills was not affected by the subsequent change of food (after 10 days old) but the effect of initial food difference (before 10 days old) might have continued until their full growth.
  • 中村 司
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 185-188
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    オオヨシキリの体脂質について渡来から渡り前までの乾燥重量及び体重に対する脂質インデックス等をしらべた。その結果は9月渡り前に於て脂質重量は急激に増加し,その増加率は約14%であった。抽出脂質について二,三の化学的性質を測定した。そのうち鹸化価は季節に伴ないやや増加を示した。之は脂肪酸に於ける平均鎖長の減小を意味するか,不鹸化物の減少を示すかの何れであろうと考えられる。測定期間に於ける平均値は190であった。
    ヨー素価も季節に依る変化がややみられ,殊に換羽期に於ける数値はかなり上昇している。ヨー素価の変化は脂質中の不飽和脂肪酸に何らかの変化があるものと思われる。
    脂質の量的変化と鹸化価との間には或相関関係がみられるようであるが,脂質の化学的性質については今後更に測定を重ねた上で検討する考えである。
  • Nagahisa Kuroda
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 189-211
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cervical muscles in eleven Orders and nineteen species of birds were compared by semidiagramatical illustrations of the lateral view. The main series of cervical muscles studied was given the following nomenclature:
    1. Dorsal muscles
    1. Biventer muscle, M. biventer cervicalis
    2. Dorsal long cervical muscle, M. longus colli posticus (M. spinalis)
    a. Longitudinal part, pars longus b. Anterior part, pars anterior
    c. Posterior part, pars posterior d. Inferior part, pars inferior
    3. Dorsal profound cervical muscle, M. profundus colli posticus
    4. Intercrestal muscle, M. intercristalis
    II. Lateral muscles
    1. Oblique cervical muscle, M. obliquus colli
    2. Lateral cervical muscle, M. colli lateralis (M. intertransversalis)
    III. Ventral muscles
    1. Ventral long cervical muscle, M. longus colli anticus
    a. Longitudinal part, pars longus b. Anterior part, pars anterior
    c. Posterior part, pars posterior
    The development of these muscles is extremely variable both adaptively and possibly taxonomically and in some groups is very specialized. These complexities of the avian cervical muscle system are the natural result of their variety of uses of the neck in food-getting and other activities. The myology of this interesting and important part of avian body, however, has been curiously neglected and is open to future detailed comparative studies.
  • 黒田 長久
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 212-217
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    筆者は1950年5月31日北海道恵山岬東方10浬でオオトウゾクカモメの暗色個体を採集した。これは普通の淡色型maccormickiより小型で翼の白斑の小さいものである。この鳥の同定について,ニュージーランドのFalla博士に照会中であったが,最近同博士及びReid氏から返信を得た。Falla博士の博物館標本調査その他によると暗色型は東部南極(南米の南)地方のもので,西方ロス海沿岸の淡色型の個体も混入して来て交雑している。
    一方黒色型のロス海地方への侵入は稀で,Reid氏の今回の発見(2例)がはじめてである。そして淡色型と共に日本近海に渡来したものを偶然筆者が採集したことになる。なお,この暗色型は換羽期も淡色型より早く,もし別亜種とする場合にはwilsoni Mathewsの名が採用される。
  • 三島 冬嗣
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 218-221
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    As the result of this study it is concluded that 1) Corvus levaillantii connectens Stresemann is distributed on islands, Yakushima, Amani-Oshima, Tokunoshima, Okinawa, Zamami, and Miyako, 2) The breeding range of Jynx torquilla japonica (Bonap.) covers from Sakhalin, Hokkaido to Honshiu, 3) Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus L. so far included in Japanese hand-list is now referred to the race nihonensis Deignan, 4) Phasianus colchicus affinis Momiyama stands for the race of Oshima of Seven Is. of Izu in place of the name tanensis.
  • 黒田 長久
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 222-224
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    この鳥は1962年7月29日,名古屋市鶴舞公園附近の道路で生きて拾われ,東山動物園に寄贈されたが,餌を摂らず10日ほどで死亡した。この報告は標本と共に同動物園の安藤洋一氏から山階研の高野伸二氏宛送にられて来たもので,12月21日筆者に同定を依頼され,Pterodroma externa cervicalis(Salvin)(Kermadec島産)なることが判明した。和名は大型であることから高野氏提案のオオシロハラミヅナギドリと命名した。
    本種は頭頂黒く,白頸輪で背の灰色と分離することが特徴で,英名をWhite-necked(Gadfly)Petrelと呼び,この点で一見大西洋のP.hasitata(Black-capped Petrel)に似るが上尾筒が白くない点でこの種と区別容易である。基亜種はチリ沿岸産である。北半球従って日本からは初記録である。この鳥が得られたのは台風7号が名古屋地方を27~28にかけ通過した翌日であったという。
  • 黒田 長久
    1962 年 3 巻 3 号 p. 225-226
    発行日: 1962/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    On 1 Septembr 1962, a bird of this speices, Pterodroma hypoleuca, unable to fly was found and was fed with dried sardines, pork, salted salmon and salt water for five days. It recovered its spirit and flew well to the sea when released.
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