Online ISSN : 1883-3659
Print ISSN : 0044-0183
ISSN-L : 0044-0183
7 巻 , 6 号
  • 黒田 長久
    1975 年 7 巻 6 号 p. 569-602
    発行日: 1975/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In 1969, a pair of Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos was kept under observation from later incubation period (April 13, five days before hatching) at Akasaka, Tokyo, where I lived in its breeding territory, which was about 45.83 ha, 1000m east to west (200m to west, 750m to east from nest) and 700m north to south (500m to north, 200m to south), thus oval in shape, with the nest situated near the round end. The northern (to the direction of winter roost) and eastern (toward summer roost) territorial boundaries are deliminated by big buildings of TBS television and Parliament respectively.
    The territory contains apartments, buildings of various sizes, small shops and private houses, with wooded shrine of Sanno on the hill of north-east border, wooded lawn slope of Prime Minister's official residence at eastern hill, and on the central hill, two big gingko trees, one of which having crow's nest, stand high with a patch of trees. Thus, there are some greens on central and surrounding hills, between which two main roads, one with highway, run crossing at Tameike (Fig. 1).
    Main buildings and other objects frequently used by crows, for resting, guarding, food storing and eating places, are numbered on territory map, with distance lines of 50m mesh (Fig. 3) and circles (Fig. 2).
    Observations were made on the roof of my home about 40m apart from the nesting gingko tree and I could see all directions of surrounding hills, except some blind area at south western part.
    Observation time, usually more than 2 hours for each observation, was selected according to its purpose of following the male's movements in its morning food search commenced as soon as he returns from flock roost to his territory before sunrise, female's attendance rate to nest and her daytime activity in relation to her mate or intruding other crows, feeding rates to chicks by male and female, food storing and hiding, roosting places, sexual and family life, as well as vocal communication.
    In the present paper (part 1; to be continued), observation data from April 13 to 30 are given with some tables and figures.
    1.The incbation is engaged by female only, but male may visits nest with 20-30 minutes intervals, calls her for confirmation or inviting for food, and if the male doesn't return long time from food search, the female may leave the nest in search of him, in some cases advertising herself by circling flight.
    2. Although sitting on nest in the foliage, the female is very keen to outside event or for vocal communication of the male and as soon as she perceives, or notices by male's voice, other crows trespass flying over beyond territorial boundary, the female at once takes off from the nest directly flying, with attack calls, to the intruders to chase them up from below. The male is, however, usually less aggressive, or even indifferent, being occupied by his job of food search for the day (But, when he is less occupied he may lead the defense chase of intruders).
    3. Finished the daytime activity of food search toward evening, the male rests on high top or antenna of building more or less 100m apart from the nest, and the female leaves the nest to pass some 15 minutes with the male preening or billing each other, and together return to nest site (to gingko tree adjacent to nesting gingko). Thus ended their activity of the day, the male leaves (with soft 'ka' of roosting signal vocal) to common flock roost about 1km from the nest site and the female gets back to the nest for her night incubation or brooding of early chicks (from 31st day after hatching the female also flew off to roost).
    4. Before sunrise, the male comes back to his territory in the dark of twilight, which the female on nest at once notices by his approaching call notes, and answering to him she flies out to adjacent tree to wait his arrival.
  • III カラ類の行動圏分布構造の比較
    中村 登流
    1975 年 7 巻 6 号 p. 603-636
    発行日: 1975/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • IV 混合群形成各種の採餌習性と餌の奪いあい (supplantimg attacks)
    小笠原 〓
    1975 年 7 巻 6 号 p. 637-651
    発行日: 1975/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1) カラ類(Paridae)混合群を形成している各種群及び混群内各種の採餌習性を比較し,更に混群内各種の種間関係(interaction)を明らかにするため,東北大学植物園において1963年10月から1963年1月および1963年10月から1964年1月の2冬期間にわたって調査を行なった。
    2) 各種群の採餌習性を加藤他(1952)の百分率信頼限界(90%)で比較検討した結果,エナガ(Aegithalos caudatus trivirgatus)種群では,樹皮(Bark)から餌をとる場合が多く,シジュウカラ(Parus major minor)種群ではBarkおよびGroundで採餌する習性が多かった。ヒガラ(Parus atar insulalis)種群ではFoliageで,キクイタダキ(Regulus regulus)種群ではFoliageで餌をとる場合が多い。すなわち,各種とも独自の採餌習性をもっているといえる。
    3) 各種群及びエナガのいる(Mf+),又はいない混群(Mf-)においては,百分率信頼幅(60%)による比較の結果,エナガとシジュウカラの各種群の採餌習性には明らかな変化は認められなかったが,ヒガラ,コガラ,キクイタダキの3種では,各採餌習性を,Sf,Mf+およびMf-で詳細に比較すると,採餌習性の割合の一部で明らかな変化が認められた。これは,これらの種が他種の攻撃の影響を受けるためと考えられる。
    4) 各種間の餌の奪い合い及び逃避行動から判断して,各種の攻撃性についていえば,シジュウカラが最も攻撃的であり,次いでヒガラで,その他,エナガ,コガラ,キクイタダキ等がこれに続くものと考えられるが,下位の種の間での順位は明らかでない。
    5) 上に述べた混群内における各種の攻撃性の順位は混群内各種群の移動順序(Ogasawara,1970b)とはその趣きを異にしていると思われる。
  • V 混合群の主構成種エナガの営巣場所とつがいの行動範囲
    小笠原 〓
    1975 年 7 巻 6 号 p. 652-664
    発行日: 1975/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.調査は1962年以来,東北大学植物園において,混群構成種の中でも,顕著な群行動を示し,採餌移動中先行種としての役割をもっているエナガ(Aegithalos caudatus trivirgatus)の繁殖期の特異な生活状態を明らかにする目的で行われた。
    4.21巣中7巣はモミの木(Adies firma)に,5巣がアカマツ(Pinus densiflora)に,4巣がスギ(Cryptomeria Japonica)につくられ他の5巣が広葉樹につくられた。
  • VIエナガ及びシジュウカラの年周期活動;特にエナガ群構成個体数の季節変動
    小笠原 〓
    1975 年 7 巻 6 号 p. 665-680
    発行日: 1975/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    2.エナガ(Aegithalos caudatus trivirgatus)の年周期活動を記載し,シジュウカラ(Parus major minor)のそれと比較した。
  • 1.干拓地内の分布と繁殖生態の概要
    西出 隆
    1975 年 7 巻 6 号 p. 681-696
    発行日: 1975/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.秋田県八郎潟干拓地で繁殖するオオセッカ(Megalurus pryeri)の分布と環境および繁殖期の生活を明らかにするため1973年と1974年,6月から9月にかけて調査を行った。
  • とくに1巣卵数の変化について
    由井 正敏
    1975 年 7 巻 6 号 p. 697-711
    発行日: 1975/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 黒田 長久
    1975 年 7 巻 6 号 p. Plate25-Plate31
    発行日: 1975/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー