Igaku Kyoiku / Medical Education (Japan)
Online ISSN : 2185-0453
Print ISSN : 0386-9644
ISSN-L : 0386-9644
Volume 39 , Issue 6
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 365-366
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Shuji TOHDA, Yoshio NITTA, Osamu FUKUSHIMA, Nobuo NARA
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 367-369
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: May 24, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1) We visited four universities in Australia where both graduate-entry and undergraduate-entry programs are adopted.
    2) Although there is not clear difference in the outcome between the two programs, preference for graduate-entry program was recognized.
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  • Hiroshi NISHIGORI, Osamu FUKUSHIMA, Yoshio NITTA, Tadahiko KOZU, Toshi ...
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 370-372
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: May 24, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1) We reported recent movement to graduate entry program (GEP) of medical education curriculum in the UK by both interviewing faculty members who are in charge of GEP and doing literature review.
    2) In GEP, we may be able to make better doctors in short term.However, as long term outcome is not known so far, further discussion is necessary.
    3) Many contents can be improved by just curriculum change, not by introducing GEP.Besides it can be said that GEP can make diverse doctors.
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  • Toshiya SUZUKI, Hiroshi NISHIGORI, Nobuo NARA
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 373-375
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1) We report here the introduction of graduate entry programmes (GEP) of medical education curriculum in Ireland. Shortness of the doctors stimulated the introduction of GEP in Ireland.Two of the five medical schools introduced GEP and one is planning to introduce, while the other two do not have any idea to introduce it at present.
    2) GEP can grow doctors of diverse abilities and is evaluated by Irish medical educators
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  • Toshiya SUZUKI, Hiroshi NISHIGORI, Nobuo NARA
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 376-379
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1) Simulation-based learning is well organized in Universities of Dundee and Glasgow.Medical students use skills centre to brush up their clinical skills frequently.
    2) University of Glasgow developed clinical final OSCE using 50 stations.In the United Kingdom, where national board examination is not necessary to be a doctor, OSCE using 50 stations is organized to foster good doctors.
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  • Shotaro DOKI, Satoshi YOSHINO, Shinichiro SASAHARA, Kazuki TANIGUCHI, ...
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 381-386
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The new postgraduate clinical training system that started in 2004 is expected to have positive effects on the health of residents and the quality of treatment they provide.We performed a survey to examine the effects of this training system on the mental health of residents.
    1) The subjects were first-year residents (458 in 2003 and 549 in 2004) who had started postgraduate clinical training at 38 hospitals in Japan.Self-administered questionnaires, which included items about working conditions and mental health, were mailed to each subject.
    2) The mean score on the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was 4.8 both before and after the new training system was introduced.The mean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score was 15.3 before and 14.4 after the system's introduction.The results showed no significant difference in mental health of residents before and after the system was changed.
    3) The results suggest that the new training system has a positive effect on residents' mental health by increasing sleep time and decreasing occupational stress; however, the new system has also decreased job satisfaction and negatively affected their mental health.
    4) Job satisfaction may significantly affect the mental health of residents.
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  • Masahiro TANABE, Atsushi HIRAIDE, Hirotaka ONISHI, Kazumasa UEMURA, Ta ...
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 387-396
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The interval between undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education causes residents to become disorganized when they start their first-year residency programs.This disorganized transition may be stressful for residents and preceptors and may cause resident to make medical errors.We performed a pilot study to examine the degree to which program directors agree about the abilities required for the start of the first of year residency.
    1) We asked the residency directors at university hospitals and residency hospitals nationwide (343 institutions) to indicate what abilities residents were expected to have at various stages of the residency program.The data received were then analyzed.
    2) A total of 134 residency directors (39%) returned the questionnaire.We calculated the percentage (expectation rate) of institutions that reported expected prerequisites at the start of the first year of residency and calculated the accumulated values (cumulative rate) of the percentages.
    3) Only 43 (30%) of 141 abilities upon the completion of residency-preparatory programs had a cumulative rate of more than 50%.
    4) Domains for which the expectation rate was more than 50% at the start of residency were medicine and related knowledge and practical skills for obtaining physical measurements.
    5) Physical examination and practical skills for which the cumulative rate was less than 50% on completion of residency-preparatory programs were those for the reproductive and urinary systems and pediatrics and the insertion and maintenance of intravenous lines and indwelling urinary catheters.
    6) Disparities are likely between the abilities of residents and the tasks expected of them upon entry into a residency program.This problem must be urgently addressed through medical education and graduate medical education.
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  • Akira NAKASHIMA, Akiko OSADA, Shin ISHIHARA, Masatsugu OHTSUKI, Shuji ...
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 397-406
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: May 24, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    At the Fujita Health University School of Medicine, about 30% of medical students are admitted on the basis of recommendations.To evaluate the performance of these students after admission, a placement test was given to all new students just after the entrance ceremony to examine basic academic abilities.The scores were compared with the number of absences from lectures and with examination results for the first and second years.
    1) The 398 students admitted from 2002 through 2005 were classified into three populations: 126 recommended students, 137 students who scored in the top half on the entrance examination, and 135 students who scored in the bottom half.
    2) Scores on the placement test were highest for the top-half students, intermediate for the bottom-half students, and lowest for the recommended students.Scores on examinations in the first and second years were highest for the top-half students, intermediate for the recommended students, and lowest for the bottom-half students.
    3) The average number of absences from lectures in the first and second years tended to be lower for recommended students than for the top-half or bottom-half students.
    4) The examination scores in the second year were correlated with scores in the first year, and the average number of absences in the second year correlated with those in the first year.
    5) These results indicate that the motivation of students in each classification to study in the 1st year is, in addition to their basic academic abilities obtained in high school, an important factor affecting their performance in the second year and beyond.
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  • HMG MARTINS, Yasuharu TOKUDA, Tsuguya FUKUI
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 411-416
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Worldwide societies are aging fast, demanding more and the rising burden of chronic and behavioural related disease increase pressure on healthcare systems.These healthcare challenges are alongside with the fact that formally Japanese doctors occupy a central role in the daily management of Japanese healthcare, as heads of departments, heads of hospitals in large urban settings or in the country side, and as responsible for thousands of clinics countrywide.This paper presents why we feel management education should be provided in medical education programs for Japanese doctors, how it could be structured and why it is relevant in today's Japanese healthcare.It further discusses some of the contents that ought to be taught, including the critical management area of leadership.We conclude that: i) Physician education in management is relevant as change management skills, leadership and motivation are increasingly called upon by new healthcare challenges;ii) The good aspects of Japanese healthcare need to be maintained and doctors'knowledge of management and leadership can prepare them to better defend and develop them with management and politicians; iii) Management education should be“spiral”, maybe starting with Japanese doctors who are heads of healthcare units possibly with a combination of workshops, residential and online courses.
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  • Chihiro KAWAKAMI, Kazuhiko FUJISAK
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 417-420
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1) Medical interview practice with simulated patients is an effective method for facilitating the learning of intervie w skills by health professionals.In particular, feedback from simulated patients is an extremely useful means for healti professionals to learn what patients are thinking.
    2) However, because simulated patients must have significant amounts of training and experience to provide effective feedback, many find the task challenging, difficult, and stressful.
    3) Therefore, we created a feedback worksheet so that simulated patient know what to keep in mind during interviews and how to share their feelings in a precise and simple manner.
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  • Fumino OKUTANI, Yoshihiko KAKINUMA, Shoshiro OKADA, Mikiya FUJIEDA, Yo ...
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 421-432
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To evaluate medical education at Kochi Medical School, a questionnaire survey was performed to assess the ability of residents who had graduated from Kochi Medical School.This project was managed by the Associate-Professor's Society of Kochi Medical School.1) Two preceptors (an internist and a surgeon) at each of 148 postgraduate clinical training hospitals other than Kochi Medical School Hospital were asked to answer a questionnaire concerning the objective or relative assessment of residents who had graduated from Kochi Medical School.
    2) Of the 108 questionnaires received from preceptors, 93 were considered to include effective assessments of residents who had graduated from Kochi Medical School.
    3) Twenty-one preceptors noted a deficiency of knowledge concerning community medicine.In addition, more than 15% of preceptors noted insufficient skills in performing laboratory examinations and making diagnoses with X-ray fi lms.In contrast, most preceptors were satisfied with skills in interviewing and performing physical examinations.
    4) Most preceptors judged residents who had graduated from Kochi Medical School to be superior to those who had graduated from other schools, whereas 8 preceptors thought that our graduates were inferior at acquiring medical knowledge or skills.
    5) Most preceptors encouraged residents from Kochi Medical School to be positive.
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  • Tadashi KITAHARA, Takeshi KUBO
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 433-436
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1) We report on a system implemented in 2007 in the Department of Otolaryngology, Osaka University School of Medicine, to allow medical students to evaluate the teaching skills of medical staff and report on the effects of interventions, based on the evaluations, to improve the teaching skills of the staff.
    2) The scores for teaching skills in clinical training as evaluated by medical students were significantly increased after the staff had checked their scores to improve their teaching skills.
    3) The number of students choosing to do clinical clerkships in the Department of Otolaryngology was higher in 2008, when students evaluated the staff s teaching skills, than in 2007, when they did not.
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  • Tsunekazu TAKASHINA, Masaya KINO, Takaharu SAITO, Kayoko KINOSHITA, Et ...
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 437-441
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1) A questionnaire survey was performed concerning at-home palliative care.A total of788responses were received from medical personnel and members of the general public.
    2) The results clearly showed that medical personnel had a lower-than-expected awareness of palliative care. However, 25%of the respondents answered that palliative care could be performed in a home-care setting.
    3) Further improvements in the education of medical personnel about palliative care are essential to ensure that patients and their families will be offered palliative care.
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  • Hiroki YASUI, Hirotaka KIDA, Tadaharu OKANO, Shozo WATANABE, Masaaki I ...
    2008 Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 443-447
    Published: December 25, 2008
    Released: October 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1) A program entitled Doc MMC was broadcast on FM Mie, a local FM radio station.“The Doc MMC Declaration”was performed on this program by residents.
    2) The declarations were classified into six groups: “Affection, ”“Contribution to Community Medicine, ”“Knowledge and Skill, ”“Special Training Course Selection or Self-Activation, ”and “Others.”
    3) This kind of broadcasting may enhance the motivation of residents and facilitate the understanding of medical issues by the community.
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