Strength training performed while restricting blood flow is believed to cause the secretion of growth hormones under low load intensities and allow for muscle hypertrophy and increased muscle strength. This has potential clinical applications for elderly individuals and people with existing conditions. However, previous research has been performed on land, with hemodynamics and growth hormone secretion trends for training performed underwater unclear. Against this background, we investigated the effects of blood flow restriction training underwater on hemodynamics and plasma growth hormone (GH) levels. Twelve healthy university students were divided into two groups: a localized immersion group where only the upper limb of the dominant hand was submerged, and a whole-body immersion group where participants were submerged to the xiphoid process. Immersed according to respective group protocols, both groups performed flexion and extension of the shoulder joint for 10 minutes with a pressurized cuff at the base of the upper arm under both 0 mmHg and 50 mmHg cuff pressures. Measured hemodynamics were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Plasma GH levels were measured from blood samples. This study revealed that underwater blood flow restriction strength training induced plasma GH level secretion under 50 mmHg conditions. In addition, high levels of GH secretion were shown in the localized immersion group for strength training even when the cuff was not pressurized. Conversely, no significant differences were evident in any measured hemodynamic categories. Results suggest that, in addition to cuff pressure, blood flow restriction training is affected by the body part immersed in water.
Background: This study aimed to clarify the effects of bathing on cardiovascular and psychological responses during winter and summer, focusing on three different time points (immediately after entering the bathtub, during bathing, and immediately after leaving the bathtub).
Methods: Ten young (29.6 ± 1.5 years) individuals were asked to bathe for 20 min with 40℃ hot water in summer and with 42℃ hot water in winter. The room temperature and humidity in winter were 20.1℃ and 56.7%, while those in summer were 27.0℃ and 58.3%, respectively. Tympanic temperature (Tty) was measured using a thermistor thermometer; systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured using an auto-sphygmomanometer, and double product (DP) was calculated using the value of HR multiplied by SBP value. Subjective thermal and comfortable sensations were evaluated using a seven-point rating scale.
Results: Results showed a significant increases in SBP values in both seasons immediately after bathing. In winter, DP increased significantly after bathing. Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed in all parameters immediately after bathing between winter and summer. On the contraly, significant differences were observed in Tty, HR, and DP value between winter and summer during bathing. HR and DP values in winter were significantly lower than those in summer immediately after leaving the bathtub. A relationship between thermal sensation and comfortable sensation was observed in both seasons, but the strength of the relationship was more relevant in summer than in winter.
Conclusion: The effects of bathing in 42℃ hot water on the cardiovascular system in winter are greater than those in 40℃ hot water in summer. The high temperature of the bath water may not produce as much discomfort during winter than that during summer, therefore bathing time may be longer.
At Kobe Minato Hot Spring Lotus, a hot spring health promotion facility certified by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the effect of subjective evaluation and measurement of blood pressure and autonomic nerves before and after the intervention of the participants. We verified and aimed to build a hot spring utilization type health promotion accommodation type program that can contribute to the physical and mental improvement of participants by short-term accommodation. As a relaxation-based program, basic yoga, underwater exercise, healing yoga, morning yoga, wellness walking, sound healing, bedrock hot yoga, bathing, were carried out.
The survey target was recruited after obtaining approval for the use of the “Healthcare Development Citizen Supporter” at the Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation at Kobe, and was recruited on 31 women participated in this program (age 53.4±7.3 years old, BMI 22.4±3.4). One week before and one week after the intervention, the Chalder’s fatigue survey was carried out by mail, and blood pressure and autonomic nerves were measured immediately before and immediately after the intervention. The effects were verified from two viewpoints of subjective evaluation and changes in mind and body by measuring autonomic nerves by blood pressure and ccvTP.
Before and after the intervention, systolic blood pressure (121.1±13.9 mmHg and 114.6±13.3 mmHg; p＝0.0101) decreased, and diastolic blood pressure (79.0±16.0 mmHg and 72.8±16.6 mmHg; p＝0.0027) also decreased. The overall fatigue (3.07±2.29 and 2.11±2.10; p＝0.0080) of the Chalder’s fatigue survey before and after the intervention was also reduced. No change in autonomic nerves due to ccvTP before and after the intervention was confirmed. In this survey, it was confirmed that Chalder’s fatigue was improved and blood pressure was improved, but the autonomic nerve was not improved. However, since blood pressure has been reported to be related to the autonomic nerves, it may improve the autonomic nerves after long-term stay and after home life, but further investigation is required.
Aquatic walking, which is influenced by the physical characteristics of water such as buoyancy, resistance, water pressure, and water temperature, is known to be effective for reducing stress on joints and increasing muscular strength. However, there is no consensus on its influence on blood pressure changes in elderly people. To address this uncertainty, we researched the effects of aquatic walking on the blood pressure of elderly people. Study participants were 48 females enrolled in a class to prevent the need for nursing care. In accordance with the diagnostic criteria for hypertension, participants were divided into two groups based on initial blood pressure measurements: a “high blood pressure group” with 27 people and a control group with 21 people. Both groups did the following program once a week for five weeks: 10 minute warmup, 15 minutes of aquatic walking (forward, backward, and sideways walking), 10 minute break, and additional 10 minutes of aquatic walking. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and average blood pressure of the participants were recorded. Results showed that the high blood pressure group showed significant decreases in systolic blood pressure after one week, and significant decreases in both diastolic blood pressure and average blood pressure from three weeks onward. No significant change was evident in the control group. However, comparing values measured immediately before and after aquatic walking showed that the control group had a significant post-aquatic walking increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as a significant decrease in heart rate. Similar significant post-aquatic walking increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as a significant decrease in heart rate was also evident in the high blood pressure group from five weeks onward, once their measured values had improved. These results suggest that continuing an aquatic walking program will lower the blood pressure of elderly individuals meeting the diagnostic criteria for hypertension, but it is necessary to be attentive to physical condition because blood pressure increases immediately after aquatic walking in non-hypertensive individuals.
Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been noted as an effective pre-conditioning intervention for an increase of the rate of development (RFD). However, it is unknown whether NMES increases muscle flexibility. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque level for 5 seconds used as a warm-up is effective for improving the range of motion (ROM) following increased tolerance for muscle extensibility with/without alteration of the MTU stiffness.
Methods and Results: Maximum ROM and ROM with standardized torque (30N) were measured in both legs in thirteen healthy males before and after NMES intervention at a 20% MVIC level for 5 seconds. The maximum ROM increased after intervention compared with before intervention on the NMES side, while it was not changed on the non-NMES side. In addition, there were no significant differences in the ROM with standardized torque in any measurements.
Conclusion: It is concluded that NMES at 20% MVIC for 5 seconds could be effective for improving ROM following an increased tolerance for muscle extensibility without alteration of the MTU stiffness.
The Ministry of the Environment’s the Onsen Stay policy calls for the creation of a plan to increase the demand for long-term stays in spa health resorts. A report on the development of such plans, focusing on spa health resorts, has been published. According to the report, it was suggested that five external environments around the spa resort should be utilized in combination with each other, namely: making the most of the natural environment, making the most of the historical and cultural environment, making the most of the artificial environment and facilities, making the most of different environments by moving around, and making the most of the nighttime hours. In this report, I will try to verify whether these five types of programs are appropriate or not by using the program for a stay in the national park resort village. In addition, I will evaluate whether the proposed program will enhance the demand for a stay in the national park resort village, and suggest improvements.
The 11 national park resort villages in this report are Retreat Azumino Hotel, Norikura Kogen, Minami-Izu, Fuji, Noto-Senrihama, Echizen-Mikuni, Omihachiman, Minami-Awaji, Takeno Kaigan, Nanki-Katsuura, and Hiruzen Kogen.
I confirmed the validity of the five types, and the necessity to create a program for a stay in these villages by making the best use of the five external environments of the spa. In addition, it was shown that the importance of the program was not so much the diversity of the external environment of the spa along the walking course, but rather the nearness to the place of origin and destination and the sustainability of the program as well as the time to complete it.