We investigated composite plating of Ni-WC using pulse current electrolysis with surfactants having an azobenzene group (AZTAB). The WC content of Ni/WC plating using 1 μm WC particles increased with increased pulse frequency from 15 vol.% to 25 vol.%. This value increased to more than 50 vol.% for 40−70 nm WC particles. Roughness of the plating using 1 μm WC particles decreased from 8 μm to 2 μm with increased pulse frequency. This value decreased to 1.5 μm for WC 40−70 nm particles. The hardness and wear resistance of these platings were compared.
Ab initio molecular orbital (MO) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were applied to surface diffusion analysis of a zinc adatom on a zinc (001) surface. An energetic contour map for surface diffusion of adatoms on surfaces of terrace, step, and kink sites were drawn to evaluate the activation energies for surface diffusion of each path. These sites' potential energies were higher in the order of terrace, step, and kink. The activation energy for surface diffusion on the terrace and through the step is considerably low. These results were consistent with the general terrace–step–kink model proposed for epitaxial growth during metal deposition. Validation of activation energy obtained by MO calculation is discussed along with remaining problems of MO calculation applied to electrochemical systems.
This paper addresses the formation of the nickel mask on glass using electroless nickel plating without a pinhole. The resultant fine-patterned mask formed on the glass using electroless Ni plating with precision filtration is almost pore-free. The optical density of the glass was greater than 4.0 because of the nickel deposits, with thickness greater than 0.15 μm. The adhesion strength between the deposited Ni and glass is slightly lower than that of the sputtered Cr. The adhesion strength is, however, increased and reaches an almost identical value after heat treatment at 350°C for 1 hr. Fine circuit patterns without a pinhole were formed by the etchant, a HNO3 and H3PO4 mixture. Furthermore, the conventional repair method for the chromium mask pattern is applicable for the repair of nickel patterns on glass.