IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E100.A , Issue 9
Showing 1-44 articles out of 44 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Signal Processing on Irregular Sampling Grids
  • Masahiro Okuda
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1742
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    Download PDF (256K)
  • Xi ZHANG
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1743-1750
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In this paper, we propose a novel design method of two channel critically sampled compactly supported biorthogonal graph wavelet filter banks with half-band kernels. First of all, we use the polynomial half-band kernels to construct a class of biorthogonal graph wavelet filter banks, which exactly satisfy the PR (perfect reconstruction) condition. We then present a design method of the polynomial half-band kernels with the specified degree of flatness. The proposed design method utilizes the PBP (Parametric Bernstein Polynomial), which ensures that the half-band kernels have the specified zeros at λ=2. Therefore the constraints of flatness are satisfied at both of λ=0 and λ=2, and then the resulting graph wavelet filters have the flat spectral responses in passband and stopband. Furthermore, we apply the Remez exchange algorithm to minimize the spectral error of lowpass (highpass) filter in the band of interest by using the remaining degree of freedom. Finally, several examples are designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

    Download PDF (1827K)
  • Kaoru YAMAMOTO, Masaki ONUKI, Yuichi TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1751-1759
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    We propose a non-blind deconvolution algorithm of point cloud attributes inspired by multi-Wiener SURE-LET deconvolution for images. The image reconstructed by the SURE-LET approach is expressed as a linear combination of multiple filtered images where the filters are defined on the frequency domain. The coefficients of the linear combination are calculated so that the estimate of mean squared error between the original and restored images is minimized. Although the approach is very effective, it is only applicable to images. Recently we have to handle signals on irregular grids, e.g., texture data on 3D models, which are often blurred due to diffusion or motions of objects. However, we cannot utilize image processing-based approaches straightforwardly since these high-dimensional signals cannot be transformed into their frequency domain. To overcome the problem, we use graph signal processing (GSP) for deblurring the complex-structured data. That is, the SURE-LET approach is redefined on GSP, where the Wiener-like filtering is followed by the subband decomposition with an analysis graph filter bank, and then thresholding for each subband is performed. In the experiments, the proposed method is applied to blurred textures on 3D models and synthetic sparse data. The experimental results show clearly deblurred signals with SNR improvements.

    Download PDF (5732K)
  • Chao ZHANG, Yufei ZHAO
    Type: LETTER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1760-1762
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) can be utilized to directly measure the geomagnetic map in deep sea. The traditional map interpolation algorithms based on sampling continuation above the sea level yield low resolution and accuracy, which restricts the applications such as the deep sea geomagnetic positioning, navigation, searching and surveillance, etc. In this letter, we propose a Three-Dimensional (3D) Compressive Sensing (CS) algorithm in terms of the real trajectory of AUV which can be optimized with the required accuracy. The geomagnetic map recovered with the CS algorithm shows high precision compared with traditional interpolation schemes, by which the magnetic positioning accuracy can be greatly improved.

    Download PDF (1337K)
Special Section on Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
  • Takashi Horiyama
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1763
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    Download PDF (188K)
  • Takayoshi SHOUDAI, Takashi YAMADA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1764-1772
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    This paper deals with a problem to decide whether a given graph structure appears as a pattern in the structure of a given graph. A graph pattern is a triple p=(V,E,H), where (V,E) is a graph and H is a set of variables, which are ordered lists of vertices in V. A variable can be replaced with an arbitrary connected graph by a kind of hyperedge replacements. A substitution is a collection of such replacements. The graph pattern matching problem (GPMP) is the computational problem to decide whether or not a given graph G is obtained from a given graph pattern p by a substitution. In this paper, we show that GPMP for a graph pattern p and a graph G is solvable in polynomial time if the length of every variable in p is 2, p is of bounded treewidth, and G is connected.

    Download PDF (1215K)
  • Jun KAWAHARA, Takeru INOUE, Hiroaki IWASHITA, Shin-ichi MINATO
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1773-1784
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    For subgraph enumeration problems, very efficient algorithms have been proposed whose time complexities are far smaller than the number of subgraphs. Although the number of subgraphs can exponentially increase with the input graph size, these algorithms exploit compressed representations to output and maintain enumerated subgraphs compactly so as to reduce the time and space complexities. However, they are designed for enumerating only some specific types of subgraphs, e.g., paths or trees. In this paper, we propose an algorithm framework, called the frontier-based search, which generalizes these specific algorithms without losing their efficiency. Our frontier-based search will be used to resolve various practical problems that include constrained subgraph enumeration.

    Download PDF (1337K)
  • Takuya TAKAGI, Shunsuke INENAGA, Kunihiko SADAKANE, Hiroki ARIMURA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1785-1793
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    We present a new data structure called the packed compact trie (packed c-trie) which stores a set S of k strings of total length n in nlog σ+O(klog n) bits of space and supports fast pattern matching queries and updates, where σ is the alphabet size. Assume that α=logσn letters are packed in a single machine word on the standard word RAM model, and let f(k,n) denote the query and update times of the dynamic predecessor/successor data structure of our choice which stores k integers from universe [1,n] in O(klog n) bits of space. Then, given a string of length m, our packed c-tries support pattern matching queries and insert/delete operations in $O(\frac{m}{\alpha} f(k,n))$ worst-case time and in $O(\frac{m}{\alpha} + f(k,n))$ expected time. Our experiments show that our packed c-tries are faster than the standard compact tries (a.k.a. Patricia trees) on real data sets. We also discuss applications of our packed c-tries.

    Download PDF (1270K)
  • Kazuki YONEYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1794-1803
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Asymmetric bilinear maps using Type-3 pairings are known to be advantageous in several points (e.g., the speed and the size of a group element) to symmetric bilinear maps using Type-1 pairings. Kremer and Mazaré introduce a symbolic model to analyze protocols based on bilinear maps, and show that the symbolic model is computationally sound. However, their model only covers symmetric bilinear maps. In this paper, we propose a new symbolic model to capture asymmetric bilinear maps. Our model allows us to analyze security of various protocols based on asymmetric bilinear maps (e.g., Joux's tripartite key exchange, and Scott's client-server ID-based key exchange). Also, we show computational soundness of our symbolic model under the decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption.

    Download PDF (277K)
  • Shuichi KATSUMATA, Noboru KUNIHIRO
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1804-1815
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Subspace membership encryption (SME), a generalization of inner product encryption (IPE), was recently formalized by Boneh, Raghunathan, and Segev in Asiacrypt 2013. The main motivation for SME was that traditional predicate encryptions did not yield function privacy, a security notion introduced by Boneh et al. in Crypto 2013 that captures the privacy of the predicate associated to the secret key. Although they gave a generic construction of SME based on any IPE, we show that their construction of SME for small attribute space was incorrect and provide an attack that breaks the attribute hiding security, a baseline security notion for predicate encryptions that captures the privacy of the attribute associated with the ciphertext. Then, we propose a generalized construction of SME and prove that the attribute hiding security can not be achieved even in the newly defined setting. Finally, we further extend our generalized construction of SME and propose a SME that achieves the attribute hiding property even when the attribute space is small. In exchange our proposed scheme does not yield function privacy and the construction is rather inefficient. Although we did not succeed in constructing a SME both yielding function privacy and attribute hiding security, ours is the first attribute hiding SME scheme whose attribute space is polynomial in the security parameter, and we formalized a richer framework for constructing SMEs and discovered a trade-off like relationship between the two security notions.

    Download PDF (751K)
  • Kazuyoshi TSUCHIYA, Yasuyuki NOGAMI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1816-1824
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Pseudorandom number generators have been widely used in Monte Carlo methods, communication systems, cryptography and so on. For cryptographic applications, pseudorandom number generators are required to generate sequences which have good statistical properties, long period and unpredictability. A Dickson generator is a nonlinear congruential generator whose recurrence function is the Dickson polynomial. Aly and Winterhof obtained a lower bound on the linear complexity profile of a Dickson generator. Moreover Vasiga and Shallit studied the state diagram given by the Dickson polynomial of degree two. However, they do not specify sets of initial values which generate a long period sequence. In this paper, we show conditions for parameters and initial values to generate long period sequences, and asymptotic properties for periods by numerical experiments. We specify sets of initial values which generate a long period sequence. For suitable parameters, every element of this set occurs exactly once as a component of generating sequence in one period. In order to obtain sets of initial values, we consider a logistic generator proposed by Miyazaki, Araki, Uehara and Nogami, which is obtained from a Dickson generator of degree two with a linear transformation. Moreover, we remark on the linear complexity profile of the logistic generator. The sets of initial values are described by values of the Legendre symbol. The main idea is to introduce a structure of a hyperbola to the sets of initial values. Our results ensure that generating sequences of Dickson generator of degree two have long period. As a consequence, the Dickson generator of degree two has some good properties for cryptographic applications.

    Download PDF (1454K)
  • Ai ISHIDA, Keita EMURA, Goichiro HANAOKA, Yusuke SAKAI, Keisuke TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1825-1837
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Group signatures are a class of digital signatures with enhanced privacy. By using this type of signature, a user can sign a message on behalf of a specific group without revealing his identity, but in the case of a dispute, an authority can expose the identity of the signer. However, it is not always the case that we need to know the specific identity of a signature. In this paper, we propose the notion of deniable group signatures, where the authority can issue a proof showing that the specified user is NOT the signer of a signature, without revealing the actual signer. We point out that existing efficient non-interactive zero-knowledge proof systems cannot be straightforwardly applied to prove such a statement. We circumvent this problem by giving a fairly practical construction through extending the Groth group signature scheme (ASIACRYPT 2007). In particular, a denial proof in our scheme consists of 96 group elements, which is about twice the size of a signature in the Groth scheme. The proposed scheme is provably secure under the same assumptions as those of the Groth scheme.

    Download PDF (1551K)
  • Md. Al-Amin KHANDAKER, Yasuyuki NOGAMI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1838-1845
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Scalar multiplication over higher degree rational point groups is often regarded as the bottleneck for faster pairing based cryptography. This paper has presented a skew Frobenius mapping technique in the sub-field isomorphic sextic twisted curve of Kachisa-Schaefer-Scott (KSS) pairing friendly curve of embedding degree 18 in the context of Ate based pairing. Utilizing the skew Frobenius map along with multi-scalar multiplication procedure, an efficient scalar multiplication method for KSS curve is proposed in the paper. In addition to the theoretic proposal, this paper has also presented a comparative simulation of the proposed approach with plain binary method, sliding window method and non-adjacent form (NAF) for scalar multiplication. The simulation shows that the proposed method is about 60 times faster than plain implementation of other compared methods.

    Download PDF (770K)
  • Go OHTAKE, Kazuto OGAWA, Goichiro HANAOKA, Shota YAMADA, Kohei KASAMAT ...
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1846-1856
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Attribute-based encryption (ABE) enables flexible data access control based on attributes and policies. In ciphertext-policy ABE (CP-ABE), a secret key is associated with a set of attributes and a policy is associated with a ciphertext. If the set of attributes satisfies the policy, the ciphertext can be decrypted. CP-ABE can be applied to a variety of services such as access control for file sharing systems and content distribution services. However, a CP-ABE scheme usually has larger costs for encryption and decryption than conventional public-key encryption schemes due to flexible policy setting. In particular, wildcards, which mean that certain attributes are not relevant to the ciphertext policy, are not essential for a certain service. In this paper, we propose a partially wildcarded CP-ABE scheme with a lower encryption and decryption cost. In our scheme, user's attributes are separated into those requiring wildcards and those not requiring wildcards. Our scheme embodies a CP-ABE scheme with a wildcard functionality and an efficient CP-ABE scheme without wildcard functionality. We show that our scheme is provably secure under the DBDH assumption. Then, we compare our scheme with the conventional CP-ABE schemes and describe a content distribution service as an application of our scheme. Also, we implement our scheme on a PC and measure the processing time. The result shows that our scheme can reduce all of the costs for key generation, encryption, and decryption as much as possible.

    Download PDF (1898K)
  • Yuyu WANG, Keisuke TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1857-1869
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In ProvSec 2014, Wang and Tanaka proposed a transformation which converts weakly existentially unforgeable (wEUF) signature schemes into strongly existentially unforgeable (sEUF) ones in the bounded leakage model. To obtain the construction, they combined leakage resilient (LR) chameleon hash functions with the Generalised Boneh-Shen-Waters (GBSW) transformation proposed by Steinfeld, Pieprzyk, and Wang. However, their transformation cannot be used in a more realistic model called continual leakage model since secret keys of LR chameleon hash functions cannot be updated. In this paper, we propose a transformation which can convert wEUF signature schemes into sEUF ones in the continual leakage model. To achieve our goal, we give a new definition of continuous leakage resilient (CLR) chameleon hash function and construct it based on the CLR signature scheme proposed by Malkin, Teranishi, Vahlis, and Yung. Although our CLR chameleon hash functions satisfy the property of strong collision-resistance, due to the existence of the updating algorithm, an adversary may find the kind of collisions such that messages are the same but randomizers are different. Hence, we cannot combine our chameleon hash functions with the GBSW transformation directly, or the sEUF security of the transformed signature schemes cannot be achieved. To solve this problem, we improve the original GBSW transformation by making use of the Groth-Sahai proof system and then combine it with CLR chameleon hash functions.

    Download PDF (639K)
  • Naoto YANAI, Tomoya IWASAKI, Masaki INAMURA, Keiichi IWAMURA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1870-1881
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Structured signatures are digital signatures where relationship between signers is guaranteed in addition to the validity of individually generated data for each signer, and have been expected for the digital right management. Nevertheless, we mention that there is no scheme with a tight security reduction, to the best of our knowledge. Loosely speaking, it means that the security is downgraded against an adversary who obtains a large amount of signatures. Since contents are widely utilized in general, achieving a tighter reduction is desirable. Based on this background, we propose the first structured signature scheme with a tight security reduction in the conventional public key cryptography and the one with a rigorous reduction proof in the ID-based cryptography via our new proof method. Moreover, the security of our schemes can be proven under the CDH assumption which is the most standard. Our schemes are also based on bilinear maps whose implementation can be provided via well-known cryptographic libraries.

    Download PDF (1033K)
  • Nuttapong ATTRAPADUNG, Goichiro HANAOKA, Shota YAMADA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1882-1890
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Identity-based encryption (IBE) is an advanced form of public key encryption and one of the most important cryptographic primitives. Of the many constructions of IBE schemes, the one proposed by Boneh and Boyen (in Eurocrypt 2004) is quite important from both practical and theoretical points of view. The scheme was standardized as IEEE P1363.3 and is the basis for many subsequent constructions. In this paper, we investigate its multi-challenge security, which means that an adversary is allowed to query challenge ciphertexts multiple times rather than only once. Since single-challenge security implies multi-challenge security, and since Boneh and Boyen provided a security proof for the scheme in the single-challenge setting, the scheme is also secure in the multi-challenge setting. However, this reduction results in a large security loss. Instead, we give tight security reduction for the scheme in the multi-challenge setting. Our reduction is tight even if the number of challenge queries is not fixed in advance (that is, the queries are unbounded). Unfortunately, we are only able to prove the security in a selective setting and rely on a non-standard parameterized assumption. Nevertheless, we believe that our new security proof is of interest and provides new insight into the security of the Boneh-Boyen IBE scheme.

    Download PDF (1134K)
  • Hyungrok JO, Christophe PETIT, Tsuyoshi TAKAGI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1891-1899
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Cayley hash functions are a family of cryptographic hash functions constructed from Cayley graphs, with appealing properties such as a natural parallelism and a security reduction to a clean, well-defined mathematical problem. As this problem involves non-Abelian groups, it is a priori resistant to quantum period finding algorithms and Cayley hash functions may therefore be a good foundation for post-quantum cryptography. Four particular parameter sets for Cayley hash functions have been proposed in the past, and so far dedicated preimage algorithms have been found for all of them. These algorithms do however not seem to extend to generic parameters, and as a result it is still an open problem to determine the security of Cayley hash functions in general. In this paper, we study the case of Chiu's Ramanujan graphs. We design a polynomial time preimage attack against the resulting Cayley hash function, showing that these particular parameters like the previous ones are not suitable for the construction. We extend our attacks on hash functions based on similar Cayley graphs as Chiu's Ramanujan graphs. On the positive side, we then suggest some possible ways to construct the Cayley hashes that may not be affected by this type of attacks. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the hard problems underlying the security of Cayley hash functions.

    Download PDF (1199K)
  • Kazumasa SHINAGAWA, Takaaki MIZUKI, Jacob C.N. SCHULDT, Koji NUIDA, Na ...
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1900-1909
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Cryptographic protocols enable participating parties to compute any function of their inputs without leaking any information beyond the output. A card-based protocol is a cryptographic protocol implemented by physical cards. In this paper, for constructing protocols with small numbers of shuffles, we introduce a new type of cards, regular polygon cards, and a new protocol, oblivious conversion. Using our cards, we construct an addition protocol on non-binary inputs with only one shuffle and two cards. Furthermore, using our oblivious conversion protocol, we construct the first protocol for general functions in which the number of shuffles is linear in the number of inputs.

    Download PDF (1393K)
  • Hiraku MORITA, Jacob C.N. SCHULDT, Takahiro MATSUDA, Goichiro HANAOKA, ...
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1910-1923
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Non-Interactive Key Exchange (NIKE) is a cryptographic primitive that allows two users to compute a shared key without any interaction. The Diffie-Hellman key exchange scheme is probably the most well-known example of a NIKE scheme. Freire et al. (PKC 2013) defined four security notions for NIKE schemes, and showed implications among them. In these notions, we consider an adversary that is challenged to distinguish a shared key of a new pair of users from a random value, using only its knowledge of keys shared between other pairs of users. To take into account side-channel attacks such as tampering and fault-injection attacks, Bellare and Kohno (Eurocrypt 2003) formalized related-key attacks (RKA), where stronger adversaries are considered. In this paper, we introduce four RKA security notions for NIKE schemes. In these notions, we consider an adversary that can also manipulate the secret keys of users and obtain shared keys computed under the modified secret keys. We also show implications and separations among the security notions, and prove that one of the NIKE schemes proposed by Freire et al. is secure in the strongest RKA sense in the random oracle model under the Double Strong Diffie-Hellman (DSDH) assumption over the group of signed quadratic residues, which is implied by the factoring assumption.

    Download PDF (1178K)
  • Goichiro HANAOKA, Jacob C. N. SCHULDT
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1924-1931
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In this paper, we propose a new generic construction of signatures from trapdoor commitments with strong openings in the random oracle model. Our construction is very efficient in the sense that signatures consist of just a single decommitment of the underlying commitment scheme, and verification corresponds to verifying this decommitment against a commitment derived via a hash function. Furthermore, assuming the commitment scheme provides sufficiently strong statistical hiding and trapdoor opening properties, the reduction of the security of the signature scheme to the binding property of the commitment scheme is tight. To instantiate our construction, we propose two new commitment schemes with strong openings. Both of these are statistically hiding, and have binding properties based on a Diffie-Hellman inversion problem and factoring, respectively. The signature schemes obtained from these are very efficient; the first matches the performance of BLS signatures, which currently provides the shortest signatures, and the second provides signatures of similar length to the shortest version of Rabin-Williams signatures while still being tightly related to factoring.

    Download PDF (573K)
  • Jou-Ming CHANG, Hung-Yi CHANG, Hung-Lung WANG, Kung-Jui PAI, Jinn-Shyo ...
    Type: LETTER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1932-1935
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Given a graph G, a set of spanning trees of G are completely independent spanning trees (CISTs for short) if for any vertices x and y, the paths connecting them on these trees have neither vertex nor edge in common, except x and y. Hasunuma (2001, 2002) first introduced the concept of CISTs and conjectured that there are k CISTs in any 2k-connected graph. Later on, this conjecture was unfortunately disproved by Péterfalvi (2012). In this note, we show that Hasunuma's conjecture holds for graphs restricted in the class of 4-regular chordal rings CR(n,d), where both n and d are even integers.

    Download PDF (321K)
  • Xiaoli ZENG, Longye WANG, Hong WEN
    Type: LETTER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1936-1941
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    An inter-subset uncorrelated zero-correlation zone (ZCZ) sequence pair set is one consisting of multiple ZCZ sequence pair subsets. What's more, two arbitrary sequence pairs which belong to different subsets should be uncorrelated sequence pairs in this set, i.e., the cross-correlation function (CCF) between arbitrary sequence pairs in different subsets are zeros at everywhere. Meanwhile, each subset is a typical ZCZ sequence pair set. First, a class of uncorrelated ZCZ (U-ZCZ) sequence pair sets is proposed from interleaving perfect sequence pairs. An U-ZCZ sequence pair set is a type of ZCZ sequence pair set, which of most important property is that the CCF between two arbitrary sequence pairs is zero at any shift. Then, a type of inter-subset uncorrelated ZCZ sequence pair set is obtained by interleaving proposed U-ZCZ sequence pair set. In particular, the novel inter-subset uncorrelated ZCZ sequence pair sets are expected to be useful for designing spreading codes for QS-CDMA systems.

    Download PDF (264K)
Regular Section
  • Naoto SASAOKA, Naoya HAMAHASHI, Yoshio ITOH
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1942-1950
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In a speech enhancement system for impact noise, it is important for any impact noise activity to be detected. However, because impact noise occurs suddenly, it is not always easy to detect. We propose a method for impact noise activity detection based on the kurtosis of an instantaneous power spectrum. The continuous duration of a generalized impact noise is shorter than that of speech, and the power of such impact noise varies dramatically. Consequently, the distribution of the instantaneous power spectrum of impact noise is different from that of speech. The proposed detection takes advantage of kurtosis, which depends on the sharpness and skirt of the distribution. Simulation results show that the proposed noise activity detection improves the performance of the speech enhancement system.

    Download PDF (3359K)
  • Jihyuck JO, In-Cheol PARK
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1951-1955
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    This paper presents a low-latency, low-cost architecture for computing square and cube roots in the fixed-point format. The proposed architecture is designed based on a non-iterative root calculation scheme to achieve fast computations. While previous non-iterative root calculators are restricted to a square-root operation due to the limitation of their mathematical property, the root computation is generalized in this paper to apply an approximation method to the non-iterative scheme. On top of that, a recurrent method is proposed to select parameters, which enables us to reduce the table size while keeping the maximum relative error value low. Consequently, the proposed root calculator can support both square and cube roots at the expense of small delay and low area overheads. This extension can be generalized to compute the nth roots, where n is a positive integer.

    Download PDF (747K)
  • Chenyang GUO, Yujie ZHOU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1956-1964
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    This paper presents a mathematical model for the oscillator-based true random number generator (TRNG) to study the influence of some key parameters to the randomness of the output sequence. The output of the model is so close to the output of the real design of the TRNG that the model can generate the random bits instead of the analog simulation for research. It will cost less time than the analog simulation and be more convenient for the researchers to change some key parameters in the design. The authors give a method to improve the existing design of the oscillator-based TRNG to deal with the possible bias of the key parameters. The design is fabricated with a 55-nm CMOS process.

    Download PDF (3578K)
  • Qinglan ZHAO, Dong ZHENG, Xiangxue LI, Yinghui ZHANG, Xiaoli DONG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1965-1972
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    As a with-carry analog (based on modular arithmetic) of the usual Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT), arithmetic Walsh transform (AWT) has been used to obtain analogs of some properties of Boolean functions which are important in the design and analysis of cryptosystems. The existence of nonzero linear structure of Boolean functions is an important criterion to measure the weakness of these functions in their cryptographic applications. In this paper, we find more analogs of linear structures of Boolean functions from AWT. For some classes of n-variable Boolean functions f, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of an invariant linear structure and a complementary linear structure 1n of f. We abstract out a sectionally linear relationship between AWT and WHT of n-variable balanced Boolean functions f with linear structure 1n. This result show that AWT can characterize cryptographic properties of these functions as long as WHT can. In addition, for a diagonal Boolean function f, a recent result by Carlet and Klapper says that the AWT of f can be expressed in terms of the AWT of a diagonal Boolean function of algebraic degree at most 3 in a larger number of variables. We provide for the result a complete and more modular proof which works for both even and odd weights (of the parameter c in the Corollary 19 by Carlet and Klapper (DCC 73(2): 299-318, 2014).

    Download PDF (1344K)
  • Takahiro OTA, Hiroyoshi MORITA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1973-1984
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In both theoretical analysis and practical use for an antidictionary coding algorithm, an important problem is how to encode an antidictionary of an input source. This paper presents a proposal for a compact tree representation of an antidictionary built from a circular string for an input source. We use a technique for encoding a tree in the compression via substring enumeration to encode a tree representation of the antidictionary. Moreover, we propose a new two-pass universal antidictionary coding algorithm by means of the proposal tree representation. We prove that the proposed algorithm is asymptotic optimal for a stationary ergodic source.

    Download PDF (431K)
  • Jaekeun YUN, Daehee KIM, Sunshin AN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1985-1992
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Since the sensor nodes are subject to faults due to the highly-constrained resources and hostile deployment environments, fault management in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is essential to guarantee the proper operation of networks, especially routing. In contrast to existing fault management methods which mainly aim to be tolerant to faults without considering the fault type, we propose a novel efficient fault-aware routing method where faults are classified and dealt with accordingly. More specifically, we first identify each fault and then try to set up the new routing path according to the fault type. Our proposed method can be easily integrated with any kind of existing routing method. We show that our proposed method outperforms AODV, REAR, and GPSR, which are the representative works of single-path routing, multipath routing and location based routing, in terms of energy efficiency and data delivery ratio.

    Download PDF (2006K)
  • Yutaka TAKAGI, Takanori FUJISAWA, Masaaki IKEHARA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 1993-2000
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In this paper, we propose a method for removing block noise which appears in JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) encoded images. We iteratively perform the 3D wiener filtering and correction of the coefficients. In the wiener filtering, we perform the block matching for each patch in order to get the patches which have high similarities to the reference patch. After wiener filtering, the collected patches are returned to the places where they were and aggregated. We compare the performance of the proposed method to some conventional methods, and show that the proposed method has an excellent performance.

    Download PDF (1730K)
  • Takayuki AKIYAMA, Masanori SUGIMOTO, Hiromichi HASHIZUME
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Measurement Technology
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2001-2012
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    We describe SyncSync, a time-of-arrival (ToA)-based localization method for smartphones. In general, ToA measurements show better precision than time-difference-of-arrival (TDoA) measurements, although ToA systems require a synchronization mechanism between anchor and mobile nodes. For this synchronization, we employ modulated LED light with an acoustic wave for time-of-flight distance measurements. These are detected by the smartphone's video camera and microphone. The time resolution in consumer video cameras is typically only a few tenths of a second, but by utilizing a CMOS image sensor's rolling shutter effect we obtain synchronization resolutions of a few microseconds, which is sufficient for precise acoustic ToA measurements. We conducted experiments to confirm operation of the system, and obtained ToA localization errors within 10mm. The characteristics of the error distributions for both TDoA and ToA measurements were explained by dilution of precision.

    Download PDF (4347K)
  • Wenbo XU, Yupeng CUI, Yun TIAN, Siye WANG, Jiaru LIN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: General Fundamentals and Boundaries
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2013-2020
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    This paper considers the recovery problem of distributed compressed sensing (DCS), where J (J≥2) signals all have sparse common component and sparse innovation components. The decoder attempts to jointly recover each component based on {Mj} random noisy measurements (j=1,…,J) with the prior information on the support probabilities, i.e., the probabilities that the entries in each component are nonzero. We give both the sufficient and necessary conditions on the total number of measurements $\sum\nolimits_{j = 1}^J M_j$ that is needed to recover the support set of each component perfectly. The results show that when the number of signal J increases, the required average number of measurements $\sum\nolimits_{j = 1}^J M_j/J$ decreases. Furthermore, we propose an extension of one existing algorithm for DCS to exploit the prior information, and simulations verify its improved performance.

    Download PDF (1472K)
  • Jun CHEN, Fei WANG, Jianjiang ZHOU, Chenguang SHI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2021-2025
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Recent research on the assessment of low probability of interception (LPI) radar waveforms is mainly based on limiting spectral properties of Wigner matrices. As the dimension of actual operating data is constrained by the sampling frequency, it is very urgent and necessary to research the finite theory of Wigner matrices. This paper derives a closed-form expression of the spectral cumulative distribution function (CDF) for Wigner matrices of finite sizes. The expression does not involve any derivatives and integrals, and therefore can be easily computed. Then we apply it to quantifying the LPI performance of radar waveforms, and the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD) is also used in the process of quantification. Simulation results show that the proposed LPI metric which considers the finite sample size and signal-to-noise ratio is more effective and practical.

    Download PDF (155K)
  • Wei ZHANG, Feng YU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2026-2030
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Spectral compressive sensing is a novel approach that enables extraction of spectral information from a spectral-sparse signal, exclusively from its compressed measurements. Thus, the approach has received considerable attention from various fields. However, standard compressive sensing algorithms always require a sparse signal to be on the grid, whose spacing is the standard resolution limit. Thus, these algorithms severely degenerate while handling spectral compressive sensing, owing to the off-the-grid issue. Some off-the-grid algorithms were recently proposed to solve this problem, but they are either inaccurate or computationally expensive. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm named parameterized ℓ1-minimization (PL1), which can efficiently solves the off-the-grid spectral estimation problem with relatively low computational complexity.

    Download PDF (394K)
  • JinMyung YOON, Kang-Il CHOI, HyunJin KIM
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2031-2033
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    A non-deterministic finite automaton (NFA)-based parallel string matching scheme is proposed. To parallelize the operations of NFAs, a graphic processing unit (GPU) is adopted. Considering the resource occupancy of threads and size of the shared memory, the optimized resource allocation is performed in the proposed string matching scheme. Therefore, the performance is enhanced significantly in all evaluations.

    Download PDF (337K)
  • Phuc Nguyen HONG, Chang Wook AHN, Jaehoon (Paul) JEONG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Numerical Analysis and Optimization
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2034-2037
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In this letter, we integrate domain information into the original artificial bee colony algorithm to create a novel, neighbor-interactive bee colony algorithm. We use the Hamming distance measure to compute variable dependency between two binary variables and employ the Gini correlation coefficient to compute variable relation between integer variables. The proposed optimization method was evaluated by minimizing binary Ising models, integer Potts models, and trapped functions. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperformed the traditional artificial bee colony and other meta-heuristics in all the testing cases.

    Download PDF (315K)
  • Shengchao SHI, Guangxia LI, Zhiqiang LI, Bin GAO, Zhangkai LUO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Numerical Analysis and Optimization
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2038-2043
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Broadband satellites, operating at Ka band and above, are playing more and more important roles in future satellite networks. Meanwhile, rain attenuation is the dominant impairment in these bands. In this context, a dynamic power allocation scheme based on rain attenuation prediction is proposed. By this scheme, the system can dynamically adjust the allocated power according to the time-varying predicted rain attenuation. Extensive simulation results demonstrate the improvement of the dynamic scheme over the static allocation. It can be concluded that the allocated capacities match the traffic demands better by introducing such dynamic power allocation scheme and the waste of power resources is also avoided.

    Download PDF (405K)
  • Xubo ZHAO, Xiaoping LI, Tongjiang YAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2044-2047
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In this letter, we present an improved method for the independence test procedure in the convolutional multicast algorithm proposed by Erez and Feder. We employ the linear independence test vectors to check the independence of the partial encoding vectors in the main program of Erez's convolutional multicast algorithm. It turns out that compared with the previous approach of computing the determinants of the correlative matrices, carrying out the independence test vectors can reduce the computational complexity.

    Download PDF (94K)
  • Xia LI, Deng TANG, Feng CHENG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2048-2051
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Cyclic codes are a subclass of linear codes and have applications in consumer electronics, data storage systems, and communication systems as they have efficient encoding and decoding algorithms compared with the linear block codes. The objective of this letter is to present a family of p-ary cyclic codes with length $\frac{p^m-1}{p-1}$ and dimension $\frac{p^m-1}{p-1}-2m$, where p is an arbitrary odd prime and m is a positive integer with gcd(p-1,m)=1. The minimal distance d of the proposed cyclic codes are shown to be 4≤d≤5 which is at least almost optimal with respect to some upper bounds on the linear code.

    Download PDF (118K)
  • Jung-Hyun KIM, Inseon KIM, Gangsan KIM, Hong-Yeop SONG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2052-2055
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    We propose three effective approximate belief propagation decoders for polar codes using Maclaurin's series, piecewise linear function, and stepwise linear function. The proposed decoders have the better performance than that of existing approximate belief propagation polar decoders, min-sum decoder and normalized min-sum decoder, and almost the same performance with that of original belief propagation decoder. Moreover, the proposed decoders achieve such performance without any optimization process according to the code parameters and channel condition unlike normalized min-sum decoder, offset min-sum decoder, and their variants.

    Download PDF (579K)
  • Deming KONG, Xiaoyu CHEN, Yubo LI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2056-2060
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    This letter presents two constructions of Gaussian integer Z-periodic complementary sequences (ZPCSs), which can be used in multi-carriers code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) systems to remove interference and increase transmission rate. Construction I employs periodic complementary sequences (PCSs) as the original sequences to construct ZPCSs, the parameters of which can achieve the theoretical bound if the original PCS set is optimal. Construction II proposes a construction for yielding Gaussian integer orthogonal matrices, then the methods of zero padding and modulation are implemented on the Gaussian integer orthogonal matrix. The result Gaussian integer ZPCS sets are optimal and with flexible choices of parameters.

    Download PDF (105K)
  • Ding XU, Qun LI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2061-2064
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In this letter, we consider a cognitive radio network where multiple secondary users (SUs) share the spectrum bands with multiple primary users (PUs) who are facing security threats from multiple eavesdroppers. By adopting the PU secrecy outage constraint to protect the PUs, we optimize the joint user and power allocation for the SUs to maximize the SU ergodic transmission rate. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing scheme, especially for a large number of PUs and a small number of SUs. It is also shown that the number of eavesdroppers has negligible impact on the performance improvement of the proposed algorithm compared to the existing scheme. In addition, it is shown that increasing the number of eavesdroppers has insignificant impact on the SU performance if the number of eavesdroppers is already large.

    Download PDF (254K)
  • Qun LI, Ding XU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2065-2068
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In underlay cognitive radio (CR) multicast networks, the cognitive base station (CBS) can transmit at the lowest rate of all the secondary users (SUs) within the multicast group. Existing works showed that the sum rate of such networks saturates when the number of SUs increases. In this letter, for CR multicast networks with multiple channels, we group the SUs into different subgroups, each with an exclusive channel. Then, the problem of joint user grouping and power allocation to maximize the sum rate of all subgroups under the interference power constraint and the transmit power constraint is investigated. Compared to exponential complexity in the number of SUs required by the optimal algorithm, we proposed an efficient algorithm with only linear complexity. Simulation results confirm that the proposed algorithm achieves the sum rate very closed to that achieved by the optimal algorithm and greatly outperforms the maximum signal-to-noise-ratio based user grouping algorithm and the conventional algorithm without user grouping.

    Download PDF (232K)
  • Wei ZHOU, Chengdong WU, Yuan GAO, Xiaosheng YU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 9 Pages 2069-2072
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Accurate optic disc localization and segmentation are two main steps when designing automated screening systems for diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, a novel optic disc detection approach based on saliency object detection and modified local intensity clustering model is proposed. It consists of two stages: in the first stage, the saliency detection technique is introduced to the enhanced retinal image with the aim of locating the optic disc. In the second stage, the optic disc boundary is extracted by the modified Local Intensity Clustering (LIC) model with oval-shaped constrain. The performance of our proposed approach is tested on the public DIARETDB1 database. Compared to the state-of-the-art approaches, the experimental results show the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

    Download PDF (841K)
feedback
Top