IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E93.A , Issue 4
Showing 1-28 articles out of 28 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Intelligent Transport Systems
  • Makoto ITAMI
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 671
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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  • Takaaki HASEGAWA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 672-678
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper describes diffusion of electric vehicles and novel social infrastructure from the viewpoint of systems innovation theory considering both human society aspects and elemental technological aspects. Firstly, fundamentals of the systems innovation theory and the platform theory are mentioned. Secondly, discussion on mobility from the viewpoint of the human-society layer and discussion of electrical vehicles from the viewpoint of the elemental techniques are carried out. Thirdly, based on those, R & D, measures are argued such as establishment of the ubiquitous noncontact feeding and authentication payment system is important. Finally, it is also insisted that after the establishment of this system the super smart grid with temporal and spatial control including demand itself with the low social cost will be expected.
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  • Tomotaka WADA, Yuki NAKANISHI, Ryohta YAMAGUCHI, Kazushi FUJIMOTO, Hir ...
    Type: PAPER
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 679-688
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    In recent years, researchers have studied extensively about vehicle collision avoidance. The authors have developed Vehicular Collision Avoidance Support System (VCASS) based on IVC in order to prevent a vehicular collision beforehand. The system grasps the relative locations of vehicles by exchanging the GPS information in each vehicle. Then the system warns drivers if it detects some danger of collision. VCASS can drastically reduce the potential accidents of vehicular collisions. However, VCASS can not avoid collisions between vehicles and pedestrians, but avoid collisions just between vehicles. About 30% of fatal accidents by vehicles are happened with pedestrians in Japan. So it is necessary to develop a new system for pedestrians. This paper deals with collision avoidance between pedestrians and vehicles. There are two problems to develop such system. First it is necessary to reduce the power consumption of the pedestrian terminal, because pedestrian terminals have small-sized battery compared with vehicles. Second it is necessary to consider the movement characteristic of the pedestrian. In this paper, we propose a new Pedestrian-Vehicular Collision Avoidance Support System (P-VCASS) which extends VCASS. P-VCASS solves above two problems. We show the validity of the proposed system by experiments using some vehicles.
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  • Ken NAKAOKA, Mamoru YOKOTA, Kunihiko SASAKI, Tetsuo HORIMATSU
    Type: PAPER
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 689-699
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper studies the feasibility of 700MHz band inter-vehicle communication system when it is put into practical use in urban area. To verify the system, a large-scale demonstration experiment in a quasi-street test course is performed. In the experiment, a number of vehicles which are equipped with communication devices conforming to ITS FORUM RC-006 specifications are employed. A simulation method that is applicable to large-scale communication model is also designed, and the validity of the method is verified by utilizing the results derived from the experiment. Based on this model, the quality of the inter-vehicle communication system in urban area communication environment is estimated. The results show that the system's performance satisfies the requirements of representative prevention scenes of traffic accident, and the feasibility of the 700MHz band inter-vehicle communication system specified in RC-006 is verified in the practical use in urban communication environment.
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  • Keiichi UCHIMURA, Masato KAWANO, Hiroki TOKITSU, Zhencheng HU
    Type: PAPER
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 700-710
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    In recent years, digital maps have been used in a variety of scenarios, including car navigation systems and map information services over the Internet. These digital maps are formed by multiple layers of maps of different scales; the map data most suitable for the specific situation are used. Currently, the production of map data of different scales is done by hand due to constraints related to processing time and accuracy. We conducted research concerning technologies for automatic generation of simplified map data from detailed map data. In the present paper, the authors propose the following: (1) a method to transform data related to streets, rivers, etc. containing widths into line data, (2) a method to eliminate the component points of the data, and (3) a method to eliminate data that lie below a certain threshold. In addition, in order to evaluate the proposed method, a user survey was conducted; in this survey we compared maps generated using the proposed method with the commercially available maps. From the viewpoint of the amount of data reduction and processing time, and on the basis of the results of the survey, we confirmed the effectiveness of the automatic generation of simplified maps using the proposed methods.
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  • Sunhong PARK, Shuji HASHIMOTO
    Type: PAPER
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 711-719
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper presents an autonomous navigation system for a mobile robot using randomly distributed passive RFID tags. In the case of randomly distributed RFID tags, it is difficult to provide the precise location of the robot especially in the area of sparse RFID tag distribution. This, combined with the wide turning radius of the robot, can cause the robot to enter a zigzag exploration path and miss the goal. In RFID-based navigation, the key is to reduce both the number of RFID tags and the localization error for practical use in a large space. To cope with these, we utilized the Read time, which measures the reading time of each RFID tag. With this, we could estimate accurately the localization and orientation without using any external sensors or increasing the RFID tags. The average estimation errors of 7.8cm in localization and 11 degrees in orientation were achieved with 102 RFID tags in the area of 4.2m by 6.2m. Our proposed method is verified with the path trajectories produced during navigation compared with conventional approaches.
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  • Daehyun CHA, Chansik HWANG
    Type: LETTER
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 720-723
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Previous vehicle surveillance researches on distributed sensor network focused on overcoming power limitation and communication bandwidth constraints in sensor node. In spite of this constraints, vehicle surveillance sensor node must have signal compression, feature extraction, target localization, noise cancellation and collaborative signal processing with low computation and communication energy dissipation. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for light-weight wireless sensor node signal processing based on lifting scheme wavelet analysis feature extraction in distributed sensor network.
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Regular Section
  • Seisuke KYOCHI, Masaaki IKEHARA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 724-733
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    The purpose of this study is to show a class of near shift-invariant and orientation-selective transform based on even-stacked cosine-modulated filter banks (ECFBs) which originally have been proposed by Lin and Vaidyanathan. It is well-known that ECFBs can be designed by the modulation of just one prototype filter and guarantee the linear phase property. We extend this class to delay-less oversampled ECFB and show two additional attractive features; high directional selectivity and near shift-invariant property. In this paper, these properties are verified by theoretical analysis and demonstrations.
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  • Taizo SUZUKI, Masaaki IKEHARA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 734-741
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper presents an integer discrete cosine transform (IntDCT) with only dyadic values such as k/2n (k, $n\in\mathbb{N}$). Although some conventional IntDCTs have been proposed, they are not suitable for lossless-to-lossy image coding in low-bit-word-length (coefficients) due to the degradation of the frequency decomposition performance in the system. First, the proposed M-channel lossless Walsh-Hadamard transform (LWHT) can be constructed by only (log2M)-bit-word-length and has structural regularity. Then, our 8-channel IntDCT via LWHT keeps good coding performance even if low-bit-word-length is used because LWHT, which is main part of IntDCT, can be implemented by only 3-bit-word-length. Finally, the validity of our method is proved by showing the results of lossless-to-lossy image coding in low-bit-word-length.
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  • Osama Ahmed OMER, Toshihisa TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 742-751
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    The problem of recovering a high-resolution frame from a sequence of low-resolution frames is considered. In general, video frames cannot be related through global parametric transformation due to the arbitrary individual pixel movement between frame pairs. To overcome this problem, we propose to employ region-matching technique for motion estimation with a modified model for frame alignment. To do that, the reference frame is segmented into arbitrary-shaped regions which are further matched with that of the other frames. Then, the frame alignment is accomplished by optimizing the cost function that consists of L1-norm of the difference between the interpolated low-resolution (LR) frames and the simulated LR frames. The experimental results demonstrate that using region matching in motion estimation step with the modified alignment model works better than other motion models such as affine, block matching, and optical flow motion models.
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  • Hyunsik KIM, Yungseon EO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 752-760
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    A novel modal signal decoupling algorithm for multi-coupled transmission lines is developed. Since the proposed method exploits a set of basis vectors associated with the characteristic impedances of the transmission line system, these multi-coupled signals can be efficiently decoupled regardless of dielectric media and conductors. Thus, compact forms of the signal integrity verification CAD models for multi-coupled transmission lines can be readily determined. It is shown that the analytical models are in excellent agreement with those obtained with SPICE simulation and its computation time is much faster than the conventional macro model (W-model) in the order of two.
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  • Hsi-An CHIEN, Cheng-Chiang LIN, Hsin-Hsiung HUANG, Tsai-Ming HSIEH
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 761-768
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Multiple supply voltage (MSV) assignment is a highly effective means of reducing power consumption. Many existing algorithms perform very well for power reduction. However, they do not handle the area issue of level shifters. In some cases, although one gets a superior result to reduce the power consumption, but many extra level shifters are needed to add so that the circuit area will be over the specification. In this paper, we present an effective integer linear programming (ILP)-based MSV assignment approach to solve two problems with different objectives. For the objective of power reduction under timing constraint, compared with GECVS algorithm [10], the power consumption obtained by our proposed approach can be further reduced 0 to 5.46% and the number of level shifters is improved 16.31% in average. For the objective of power reduction under constraints of both timing and area of level shifters, the average improvement of power consumption obtained by our algorithm is still better than GECVS while reducing the number of level shifters by 22.92% in average. In addition, given a constraint of total power consumption, our algorithm will generate a design having minimum circuit delay. Experimental results show that the proposed ILP-based MSV assignment algorithm solves different problems flexibly.
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  • Sangho YOON, Hanho LEE, Kihoon LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 769-777
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper presents a high-speed Forward Error Correction (FEC) architecture based on concatenated Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) for 100-Gb/s optical communication systems. The concatenated BCH code consists of BCH(3860, 3824) and BCH(2040, 1930), which provides 7.98dB net coding gain at 10-12 corrected bit error rate. The proposed BCH decoder features a low-complexity key equation solver using an error-locator computation RiBM (ECRiBM) algorithm and its architecture. The proposed concatenated BCH-based Super-FEC architecture has been implemented in 90-nm CMOS standard cell technology with a supply voltage of 1.1V. The implementation results show that the proposed architecture can operate at a clock frequency of 400MHz and has a throughput of 102.4-Gb/s for 90-nm CMOS technology.
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  • Ehab MORSY, Hiroshi NAGAMOCHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Algorithms and Data Structures
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 778-786
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    We consider the minimum cost edge installation problem(MCEI) in a graph G=(V, E) with edge weight w(e) ≥ 0, eE. We are given a vertex sV designated as a sink, an edge capacity λ > 0, and a source set SV with demand q(v) ∈ [0, λ], vS. For each edge eE, we are allowed to install an integer number h(e) of copies of e. MCEI asks to send demand q(v) from each source vs along a single path Pv to the sink s without splitting the demand of any source vS. For each edge eE, a set of such paths can pass through a single copy of e in G as long as the total demand along the paths does not exceed the edge capacity λ. The objective is to find a set P = {Pv | vS} of paths of G that minimizes the installing cost ∑e∈E h(e) w(e). In this paper, we propose a (15/8+ρST)-approximation algorithm to MCEI, where ρST is any approximation ratio achievable for the Steiner tree problem.
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  • Takafumi KANAMORI, Taiji SUZUKI, Masashi SUGIYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Algorithms and Data Structures
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 787-798
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Density ratio estimation has gathered a great deal of attention recently since it can be used for various data processing tasks. In this paper, we consider three methods of density ratio estimation: (A) the numerator and denominator densities are separately estimated and then the ratio of the estimated densities is computed, (B) a logistic regression classifier discriminating denominator samples from numerator samples is learned and then the ratio of the posterior probabilities is computed, and (C) the density ratio function is directly modeled and learned by minimizing the empirical Kullback-Leibler divergence. We first prove that when the numerator and denominator densities are known to be members of the exponential family, (A) is better than (B) and (B) is better than (C). Then we show that once the model assumption is violated, (C) is better than (A) and (B). Thus in practical situations where no exact model is available, (C) would be the most promising approach to density ratio estimation.
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  • Yukiyasu TSUNOO, Takeshi KAWABATA, Tomoyasu SUZAKI, Hiroyasu KUBO, Ter ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 799-807
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    A cache attack against DICING is presented. Cache attacks use CPU cache miss and hit information as side-channel information. DICING is a stream cipher that was proposed at eSTREAM. No effective attack on DICING has been reported before. Because DICING uses a key-dependent S-box and there is no key addition before the first S-box layer, a conventional cache attack is considered to be difficult. We therefore investigated an access-driven cache attack that employs the special features of transformation L to give the chosen IV. We also investigated reduction of the computational complexity required to obtain the secret key from the information gained in the cache attack. We were able to obtain a 40-bit key differential given a total of 218 chosen IVs on a Pentium III processor. From the obtained key differential, the 128-bit secret key could be recovered with computational complexity of from 249 to 263. This result shows that the new cache attack, which is based on a different attack model, is also applicable in an actual environment.
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  • Reza SOBHANI, Morteza ESMAEILI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 808-813
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    A generalized Gray map for codes over the ring $\F_q[u]/\gen{u^{t+1}}$ is introduced, where q = pm is a prime power. It is shown that the generalized Gray image of a linear length-N (1-ut)-cyclic code over $\F_q[u]/\gen{u^{t+1}}$ is a distance-invariant linear length-qtN quasi-cyclic code of index qt / p over $\F_q$. It turns out that if (N, p)=1 then every linear code over $\F_q$ that is the generalized Gray image of a length-N cyclic code over $\F_q[u]/\gen{u^{t+1}}$, is also equivalent to a linear length-qtN quasi-cyclic code of index qt/p over $\F_q$. The relationship between linear length-pN cyclic codes with (N, p)=1 over $\F_p$ and linear length-N cyclic codes over $\F_p+u\F_p$ is explicitly determined.
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  • Gia Khanh TRAN, Nguyen Dung DAO, Kei SAKAGUCHI, Kiyomichi ARAKI, Hiros ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 814-829
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper illustrates a large-scale MIMO propagation channel measurement in a real life environment and evaluates throughput performance of various MIMO schemes in that environment. For that purpose, 4 × 4 MIMO transceivers and a novel spatial scanner are fabricated for wideband MIMO channel measurements in the 5GHz band. A total of more than 50, 000 spatial samples in an area of 150m2, which includes a bedroom, a Japanese room, a hallway, and the living and dining areas, are taken in a real residential home environment. Statistical properties of the propagation channel and throughput performance of various MIMO schemes are evaluated by using measured data. Propagation measurement results show large dynamic channel variations occurring in a real environment in which statistical properties of the channel, such as frequency correlation and spatial correlation are not stationary any more, and become functions of the SNR. Furthermore, evaluation of throughput shows that although MIMO schemes outperform the SISO system in most areas, open loop systems perform badly in the far areas with low SNR. Paying for the cost of CSI or partial CSI at Tx, closed loop and hybrid systems have superior performance compared to other schemes, especially in reasonable SNR areas ranging from 10dB to 30dB. Spatial correlation, which is common in Japanese wooden residences, is also found to be a dominant factor causing throughput degradation of the open loop MIMO schemes.
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  • Ji-Soo KEUM, Hyon-Soo LEE, Masafumi HAGIWARA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 830-832
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    In this letter, we propose an improved speech/nonspeech classification method to effectively classify a multimedia source. To improve performance, we introduce a feature based on spectral duration analysis, and combine recently proposed features such as high zero crossing rate ratio (HZCRR), low short time energy ratio (LSTER), and pitch ratio (PR). According to the results of our experiments on speech, music, and environmental sounds, the proposed method obtained high classification results when compared with conventional approaches.
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  • Mohd Hairi HALMI, Mohamad Yusoff ALIAS, Teong Chee CHUAH
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 833-836
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    A semi-coherent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scheme, which only requires one of its receivers to operate coherently while others can be non-coherent, is proposed. In this scheme, the information symbols at the non-coherent receivers are estimated with the aid of a coherent receiver through a covariance estimator, thus allowing signals to be decoded coherently in the final stage. Results show that the proposed system is able to provide performance on par with that of the more complicated fully coherent MIMO systems.
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  • Young Ik SON
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 837-839
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Output voltage regulation problem of DC-DC boost power converters is studied based on an averaged model with a practical inductor. This paper exploits the effect of inductor's parasitic resistance on the performance of an existing parallel-damped (PD) passivity-based controller (PBC) under load variations. As an attempt to apply the passivity-based framework to the converter with parasitic resistance we have combined a new proportional-integral (PI) controller with the PBC. Simulation results show that the combined (PBC and PI) dynamic output feedback controller successfully achieves the performance improvement under reference step changes and load variations.
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  • Yun BU, Guang-jun WEN, Hai-Yan JIN, Qiang ZHANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 840-842
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    The approximation expression about error accumulation of a long-term prediction is derived. By analyzing this formula, we find that the factors that can affect the long-term predictability include the model parameters, prediction errors and the derivates of the used basis functions. To enlarge the maximum attempting time, we present that more suitable basis functions should be those with smaller derivative functions and a fast attenuation where out of the time series range. We compare the long-term predictability of a non-polynomial based algorithm and a polynomial one to prove the success of our method.
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  • Jin-Fa LIN, Yin-Tsung HWANG, Ming-Hwa SHEU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Circuit Theory
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 843-845
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    A novel signal transition detector design using as few as 8 transistors is presented. The proposed design cleverly exploits the property of a specific internal state transition to mitigate the voltage degradation problem by employing only one extra transistor. It is thus capable of supporting level intact output signals and eliminating DC power consumption in the trailing buffer. The proposed design, featuring low circuit complexity and low power consumption, is considered useful for applications in self-timed circuits. Simulation results show that, when compared with other pass transistor logic based counterpart designs, as much as 46% savings in power and 28% in area can be achieved by the proposed design.
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  • Taesoon PARK
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Reliability, Maintainability and Safety Analysis
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 846-849
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper presents a fault-tolerance scheme based on mobile agents for the reliable mobile computing systems. Mobility of the agent is suitable to trace the mobile hosts and the intelligence of the agent makes it efficient to support the fault tolerance services. This paper presents two approaches to implement the mobile agent based fault tolerant service and their performances are evaluated and compared with other fault-tolerant schemes.
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  • Eun-Jun YOON, Kee-Young YOO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Reliability, Maintainability and Safety Analysis
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 850-853
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This research paper points out that the gateway-oriented password-based authenticated key exchange protocol recently developed by Shim (S-GPAKE) was inefficiently and incorrectly designed to overcome an undetectable on-line password guessing attack. To resolve the computation efficiency and security problems, an optimized GPAKE protocol (O-GPAKE), which was not only secure against various security attacks, but also had considerably lower computational cost and provided mutual authentication unlike previous related protocols including the S-GPAKE protocol was proposed.
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  • Jian WENG, Min-Rong CHEN, Kefei CHEN, Robert H. DENG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 854-856
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption (HIBE) is a generalization of identity-based encryption that mirrors an organizational hierarchy, and allows the root Private Key Generator (PKG) to distribute the workload of key generations to lower-level PKGs. In Indocrypt'08, Ren and Gu proposed a new HIBE scheme, and claimed that their scheme is fully chosen-ciphertext secure in the standard model. However, by giving a concrete attack, we show that Ren-Gu's HIBE is even not chosen-plaintext secure.
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  • Shojiro SAKATA, Masaya FUJISAWA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 857-862
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    It is a well-known fact [7], [9] that the BMS algorithm with majority voting can decode up to half the Feng-Rao designed distance dFR. Since dFR is not smaller than the Goppa designed distance dG, that algorithm can correct up to $\lfloor \frac{d_G-1}{2}\ floor$ errors. On the other hand, it has been considered to be evident that the original BMS algorithm (without voting) [1], [2] can correct up to $\lfloor \frac{d_G-g-1}{2}\ floor$ errors similarly to the basic algorithm by Skorobogatov-Vladut. But, is it true? In this short paper, we show that it is true, although we need a few remarks and some additional procedures for determining the Groebner basis of the error locator ideal exactly. In fact, as the basic algorithm gives a set of polynomials whose zero set contains the error locators as a subset, it cannot always give the exact error locators, unless the syndrome equation is solved to find the error values in addition.
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  • Ji-Soo KEUM, Hyon-Soo LEE, Masafumi HAGIWARA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image
    2010 Volume E93.A Issue 4 Pages 863-866
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    In this letter, we propose an improved anchor shot detection (ASD) method in order to effectively retrieve anchor shots from news video. The face location and dissimilarity of icon region are used to reduce false alarms in the proposed method. According to the results of the experiment on several types of news video, the proposed method obtained high anchor detection results compared with previous methods.
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