IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E94.A , Issue 11
Showing 1-50 articles out of 53 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Information Theory and Its Applications
  • Hiroyoshi MORITA
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2071-2072
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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  • Hiroki KOGA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Source Coding
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2073-2082
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In information-spectrum methods proposed by Han and Verdú, quantities defined by using the limit superior (or inferior) in probability play crucial roles in many problems in information theory. In this paper, we introduce two nonconventional quantities defined in probabilistic ways. After clarifying basic properties of these quantities, we show that the two quantities have operational meaning in the eps-coding problem of a general source in the ordinary and optimistic senses. The two quantities can be used not only for obtaining variations of the strong converse theorem but also establishing upper and lower bounds on the width of the entropy-spectrum. We also show that the two quantities are expressed in terms of the smooth Rényi entropy of order zero.
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  • Ryo NOMURA, Toshiyasu MATSUSHIMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Source Coding
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2083-2091
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    The overflow probability is one of criteria that evaluate the performance of fixed-to-variable length (FV) codes. In the single source coding problem, there were many researches on the overflow probability. Recently, the source coding problem for correlated sources, such as Slepian-Wolf coding problem or source coding problem with side information, is one of main topics in information theory. In this paper, we consider the source coding problem with side information. In particular, we consider the FV code in the case that the encoder and the decoder can see side information. In this case, several codes were proposed and their mean code lengths were analyzed. However, there was no research about the overflow probability. We shall show two lemmas about the overflow probability. Then we obtain the condition that there exists a FV code under the condition that the overflow probability is smaller than or equal to some constant.
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  • Hamed NARIMANI, Mohammadali KHOSRAVIFARD, T. Aaron GULLIVER
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Source Coding
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2092-2096
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    Consider the source coding problem of finding the optimal code, in the sense of average redundancy, for the class of monotone sources with n symbols. The solution of this problem, known as the M code, is the Huffman code for the average distribution of the monotone sources. In this paper, we evaluate the average redundancy of the M code (on the class of monotone sources), and compare it with that of the Huffman code. It is demonstrated that for large n, although the M code is a fixed code (i.e., the codewords are independent of the symbol probabilities) for all monotone sources, its average redundancy is very close to that of the Huffman code. Moreover, it is shown that when n is large, the M code is a near-optimal code not only in the sense of average redundancy, but also the redundancy of almost all monotone sources. In particular, the redundancy of the M code converges in probability to its average value (≅0.029). As a result, the maximum redundancy of the M code, which can be as large as log n - log ln n, rarely occurs.
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  • Tomohiko UYEMATSU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Channel Coding
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2097-2104
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    This paper investigates the performance of a combination of the affine encoder and the maximum mutual information decoder for symmetric channels, and proves that the random coding error exponent can be attained by this combination even if the conditional probability of the symmetric channel is not known to the encoder and decoder. This result clarifies that the restriction of the encoder to the class of affine encoders does not affect the asymptotic performance of the universal code for symmetric channels.
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  • Tetsunao MATSUTA, Tomohiko UYEMATSU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Channel Coding
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2105-2120
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    The multiple-access channel (MAC) becomes very popular in various communication systems, because multi-terminal communication systems have been widely used in practical systems, e.g., mobile phones and P2P, etc. For some MACs, it is known that feedback can enlarge the capacity region, where the capacity region is the set of rate pairs such that the error probability can be made arbitrarily small for sufficiently large block length. The capacity region for general MACs, which are not required to satisfy ergodicity and stationarity with perfect feedback was first shown by Tatikonda and Mitter without the proof, where perfect feedback means that the channel output is perfectly fed back to senders. In this paper, we generalize Tatikonda and Mitter's result to the case of deterministic feedback, where the values of deterministic functions of past channel outputs is fed back to senders. We show that the capacity region for general MACs with deterministic feedback can be represented by the information-spectrum formula introduced by Han and Verdú, and directed information introduced by Massey. We also investigate the compound MAC problem, the ε-coding problem, the strong converse property and the cost constraint problem for general MACs with deterministic feedback.
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  • Tomoharu SHIBUYA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2121-2126
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    Recently, Haley and Grant introduced the concept of reversible codes — a class of binary linear codes that can reuse the decoder architecture as the encoder and encodable by the iterative message-passing algorithm based on the Jacobi method over $\\mathbb{F}_2$. They also developed a procedure to construct parity check matrices of a class of reversible codes named type-I reversible codes by utilizing properties specific to circulant matrices. In this paper, we refine a mathematical framework for reversible codes based on circulant matrices through a ring theoretic approach. This approach enables us to clarify the necessary and sufficient condition on which type-I reversible codes exist. Moreover, a systematic procedure to construct all circulant matrices that constitute parity check matrices of type-I reversible codes is also presented.
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  • Hironori UCHIKAWA, Kenta KASAI, Kohichi SAKANIWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2127-2134
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    We consider spatially-coupled protograph-based LDPC codes for the three terminal erasure relay channel. It is observed that BP threshold value, the maximal erasure probability of the channel for which decoding error probability converges to zero, of spatially-coupled codes, in particular spatially-coupled MacKay-Neal code, is close to the theoretical limit for the relay channel. Empirical results suggest that spatially-coupled protograph-based LDPC codes have great potential to achieve theoretical limit of a general relay channel.
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  • Hironori UCHIKAWA, Kenta KASAI, Kohichi SAKANIWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2135-2143
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this paper, we present a construction method of non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes. Our construction method is an extension of Felström and Zigangirov construction [1] for non-binary LDPC convolutional codes. The rate-compatibility of the non-binary convolutional code is also discussed. The proposed rate-compatible code is designed from one single mother (2,4)-regular non-binary LDPC convolutional code of rate 1/2. Higher-rate codes are produced by puncturing the mother code and lower-rate codes are produced by multiplicatively repeating the mother code. Simulation results show that non-binary LDPC convolutional codes of rate 1/2 outperform state-of-the-art binary LDPC convolutional codes with comparable constraint bit length. Also the derived low-rate and high-rate non-binary LDPC convolutional codes exhibit good decoding performance without loss of large gap to the Shannon limits.
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  • Takayuki NOZAKI, Kenta KASAI, Kohichi SAKANIWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2144-2152
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this paper, we investigate the error floors of non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes transmitted over the memoryless binary-input output-symmetric (MBIOS) channels. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for successful decoding of zigzag cycle codes over the MBIOS channel by the belief propagation decoder. We consider an expurgated ensemble of non-binary LDPC codes by using the above necessary and sufficient condition, and hence exhibit lower error floors. Finally, we show lower bounds of the error floors for the expurgated LDPC code ensembles over the MBIOS channels.
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  • Takayuki NOZAKI, Kenta KASAI, Kohichi SAKANIWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2153-2160
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    The fixed points of the belief propagation decoder for non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are referred to as stopping constellations. In this paper, we give the stopping constellation distributions for the irregular non-binary LDPC code ensembles defined over the general linear group. Moreover, we derive the exponential growth rate of the average stopping constellation distributions in the limit of large codelength.
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  • Kenta KASAI, Kohichi SAKANIWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2161-2168
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    Kudekar et al. recently proved that for transmission over the binary erasure channel (BEC), spatial coupling of LDPC codes increases the BP threshold of the coupled ensemble to the MAP threshold of the underlying LDPC codes. One major drawback of the capacity-achieving spatially-coupled LDPC codes is that one needs to increase the column and row weight of parity-check matrices of the underlying LDPC codes. It is proved, that Hsu-Anastasopoulos (HA) codes and MacKay-Neal (MN) codes achieve the capacity of memoryless binary-input symmetric-output channels under MAP decoding with bounded column and row weight of the parity-check matrices. The HA codes and the MN codes are dual codes each other. The aim of this paper is to present an empirical evidence that spatially-coupled MN (resp. HA) codes with bounded column and row weight achieve the capacity of the BEC. To this end, we introduce a spatial coupling scheme of MN (resp. HA) codes. By density evolution analysis, we will show that the resulting spatially-coupled MN (resp. HA) codes have the BP threshold close to the Shannon limit.
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  • Shinichiro MIYAZAKI, Shoichiro YAMASAKI, Ryuji KOHNO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2169-2177
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    This paper proposes a single-carrier transmission method based on an overlap frequency-domain equalizing (FDE) and a coherent averaging. FDE is a block-based equalizing technique using discrete Fourier transform. A cyclic prefix is often used to avoid inter-block interference under multipath channel conditions, which reduces transmission efficiency. An overlap FDE is a technique to avoid the cyclic prefix insertion, but the residual interferences often exist after the FDE processing according to the channel conditions. The method proposed in this paper suppresses the residual interferences by applying a coherent averaging to the FDE outputs and improve the equalization performances. Computer simulation shows the effect of the proposed technique over the multipath channels.
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  • Takao MAEDA, Takafumi HAYASHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2178-2187
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    A perfect array is an array for which the autocorrelation function is impulsive. A parameterization of perfect arrays of real numbers is presented. Perfect arrays are represented by trigonometric functions. Three formulae are obtained according to the parities of the size of the array. Examples corresponding to each formula are shown. In the case of 6×6 arrays, the existence of a set of perfect arrays having integer components is shown.
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  • Yusuke KOZAWA, Hiromasa HABUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Spread Spectrum Technologies and Applications
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2188-2193
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this paper, N-CSK (N parallel Codes Shift Keying) using modified pseudo orthogonal M-sequence sets (MPOMSs) to realize the parallel combinatory spread spectrum (PC/SS) communication system for the optical communications is proposed. Moreover, the upper bound of data transmission rate and the bit error rate (BER) performance of this N-CSK system using the chip-level detection are evaluated through theoretical analysis by taking into account the scintillation, background-noise, avalanche photo-diode (APD) noise, thermal noise, and signal dependence noise. It is shown that the upper bound of data transmission rate of the proposed system is better than those of OOK/CDM and SIK/CDM. Moreover, the upper bound of data transmission rate of the proposed system can achieve about 1.5[bit/chip] when the code length of MPOMS is 64[chip].
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  • Jiageng CHEN, Atsuko MIYAJI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2194-2206
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    The fact that the stream cipher RC4 can generate colliding key pairs with hamming distance one was first discovered by Matsui in FSE 2010. This kind of weakness demonstrates that two different secret keys have the same effect on the cipher's encryption and the corresponding decryption procedure. In this paper, we further investigate the property of RC4 key collisions and achieved the following results:
    1. We show that RC4 can generate colliding key pairs with various hamming distances, which cannot be generated by Matsui's pattern. We also give concrete examples of colliding key pairs with hamming distances greater than one.
    2. We formalize RC4 colliding key pairs into two large patterns, namely, Transitional pattern and Self-Absorbing pattern. All the currently known colliding key pairs can be categorized into either two patterns.
    3. We analyze both patterns and clarified the relations among the probability of key collision, key length and hamming distances which yield the colliding key pairs.
    4. We demonstrate the vulnerability of key collisions by showing collisions of RC4-Hash function proposed in INDOCRYPT 2006. Some concrete experimental results of RC4-Hash collision are also given in this paper.
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  • Varin CHOUVATUT, Suthep MADARASMI, Mihran TUCERYAN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image, Vision
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2207-2219
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    This paper presents a novel method for reconstructing 3D geometry of camera motion and human-face model from a video sequence. The approach combines the concepts of Powell's line minimization with gradient descent. We adapted the line minimization with bracketing used in Powell's minimization to our method. However, instead of bracketing and searching deep down a direction for the minimum point along that direction as done in their line minimization, we achieve minimization by bracketing and searching for the direction in the bracket which provides a lower energy than the previous iteration. Thus, we do not need a large memory as required by Powell's algorithm. The approach to moving in a better direction is similar to classical gradient descent except that the derivative calculation and a good starting point are not needed. The system's constraints are also used to control the bracketing direction. The reconstructed solution is further improved using the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. No average face model or known-coordinate markers are needed. Feature points defining the human face are tracked using the active appearance model. Occluded points, even in the case of self occlusion, do not pose a problem. The reconstructed space is normalized where the origin can be arbitrarily placed. To use the obtained reconstruction, one can rescale the computed volume to a known scale and transform the coordinate system to any other desired coordinates. This is relatively easy since the 3D geometry of the facial points and the camera parameters of all frames are explicitly computed. Robustness to noise and lens distortion, and 3D accuracy are also demonstrated. All experiments were conducted with an off-the-shelf digital camera carried by a person walking without using any dolly to demonstrate the robustness and practicality of the method. Our method does not require a large memory or the use of any particular, expensive equipment.
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  • Ryo NOMURA, Toshiyasu MATSUSHIMA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2220-2225
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    Source coding theorem reveals the minimum achievable code length under the condition that the error probability is smaller than or equal to some small constant. In the single user communication system, the source coding theorem was proved for general sources. The class of general source is quite large and it is important result since the result can be applied for a wide class of sources. On the other hand there are several studies to evaluate the achievable code length more precisely for the restricted class of sources by using the restriction. In the multi-user communication system, although the source coding theorem was proved for general correlated sources, there is no study to evaluate the achievable code length more precisely. In this study, we consider the stationary memoryless correlated sources and show the coding theorem for Slepian-Wolf type problem more precisely than the previous result.
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  • Sayed Jalal ZAHABI, Mohammadali KHOSRAVIFARD, Ali A. TADAION, T. Aaron ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2226-2229
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    This letter considers the problem of detecting an offset quadrature phase shift keying (O-QPSK) modulated signal in colored Gaussian noise. The generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) is employed for detection. By deriving the GLRT, it is shown that the assumption of colored Gaussian noise results in a more complicated problem than with the white noise assumption that was previously examined in the literature. An efficient solution for the detection maximization problem is proposed, based on which the GLRT is implemented. Performance results are presented to illustrate the detector performance.
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  • Takafumi HAYASHI, Takao MAEDA, Shinya MATSUFUJI, Satoshi OKAWA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Sequence
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2230-2235
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    The present paper introduces a novel construction of ternary sequences having a zero-correlation zone. The cross-correlation function and the side-lobe of the auto-correlation function of the proposed sequence set is zero for the phase shifts within the zero-correlation zone. The proposed sequence set consists of more than one subset having the same member size. The correlation function of the sequences of a pair of different subsets, referred to as the inter-subset correlation function, has a wider zero-correlation zone than that of the correlation function of sequences of the same subset (intra-subset correlation function). The wide inter-subset zero-correlation enables performance improvement during application of the proposed sequence set. The proposed sequence set has a zero-correlation zone for periodic, aperiodic, and odd correlation functions.
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Special Section on Smart Multimedia & Communication Systems
  • Hiroshi OCHI, Arata KAWAMURA
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2236
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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  • Ziji MA, Minoru OKADA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2237-2245
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    Impulsive noise interference is a significant problem for the Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting for Terrestrial (ISDB-T) receivers due to its effect on the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In this paper, an adaptive scheme to suppress the effect of impulsive noise is proposed. The impact of impulsive noise can be detected by using the guard band in the frequency domain; furthermore the position information of the impulsive noise, including burst duration, instantaneous power and arrived time, can be estimated as well. Then a time-domain window function with adaptive parameters, which are decided in terms of the estimated information of the impulsive noise and the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), is employed to suppress the impulsive interference. Simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed scheme, which improved the bit error rate (BER) performance for the ISDB-T receivers in both AWGN channel and Rayleigh fading channel.
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  • Jui-Hui HUNG, Sau-Gee CHEN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2246-2253
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    This work first investigates two existing check node unit (CNU) architectures for LDPC decoding: self-message-excluded CNU (SME-CNU) and two-minimum CNU (TM-CNU) architectures, and analyzes their area and timing complexities based on various realization approaches. Compared to TM-CNU architecture, SME-CNU architecture is faster in speed but with much higher complexity for comparison operations. To overcome this problem, this work proposes a novel systematic optimization algorithm for comparison operations required by SME-CNU architectures. The algorithm can automatically synthesize an optimized fast comparison operation that guarantees a shortest comparison delay time and a minimized total number of 2-input comparators. High speed is achieved by adopting parallel divide-and-conquer comparison operations, while the required comparators are minimized by developing a novel set construction algorithm that maximizes shareable comparison operations. As a result, the proposed design significantly reduces the required number of comparison operations, compared to conventional SME-CNU architectures, under the condition that both designs have the same speed performance. Besides, our preliminary hardware simulations show that the proposed design has comparable hardware complexity to low-complexity TM-CNU architectures.
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  • Tetsuki TANIGUCHI, Yoshio KARASAWA, Nobuo NAKAJIMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2254-2262
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In cellular systems, particular in the cell edge, the user terminals (UTs) are suffered from the attenuation of the signal from their target base station (BS) and the relatively strong interferences from BSs of other users. This paper investigates the performance improvement under this bad situation by BS cooperation (BSC) in the downlink scenario using multiantenna transmission assuming the perfect channel state information (CSI), and compares the effectiveness of several strategies based on a three cell model. Through computer simulations, the performance improvement by BSC is verified. Then the result is extended to multiple stream transmission utilizing the feature of multiantenna, and advantage of BSC with data sharing is shown.
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  • Yuyuan CHANG, Kiyomichi ARAKI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2263-2270
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) wireless downlink systems, block diagonalization (BD) is a technique, where the transmit precoding matrix of each user is designed such that its subspace lies in the null space of all the other remaining users, so that multiuser interference (MUI) is completely canceled. In low signal to noise power ratio (SNR) or low signal to interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) environments, regularized BD, that lets some MUI remain and maximizes the sum rate capacity of the BD MIMO channel, was also proposed. One of the problems of both the approaches is high complexity of computation due to a lot of singular value decomposition (SVD) processes. In this paper we propose new BD techniques utilizing QR decomposition (QRD) which can be practically achieved by Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization (GSO) with lower complexity compared to the conventional method employing SVD. We can show that the performance of the proposed approaches is close to the conventional approaches, while the proposed approaches have much lower complexity.
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  • Emmanuel MANASSEH, Shuichi OHNO, Masayoshi NAKAMOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2271-2278
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this paper, challenges regarding the provision of channel state information (CSI) and carrier frequency synchronization for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems with null subcarriers are addressed. We propose novel maximum likelihood (ML) based schemes that estimate the aggregate effects of the CFO and channel by using two successive OFDM preambles. In the presented scheme, CFO is estimated by considering the phase rotation between two consecutive received OFDM preambles. Both single input single output (SISO) as well as multiple input multiple output (MIMO) OFDM systems are considered. The mean squared errors (MSE) of the channel and CFO are used to evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme. By using two successive OFDM preambles, the estimation of channel and the estimation of CFO are decoupled, which leads to a simple estimation method. Simulation results show that the BER performance of the proposed estimators is comparable to that of known channel state information and the CFO MSE performance achieves the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) of the fully loaded OFDM system.
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  • Muhammad TARIQ, Zhenyu ZHOU, Yong-Jin PARK, Takuro SATO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2279-2286
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    The involvement of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in diverse applications has made the realistic analysis of sensor power dissipation in distributed network environments an essential research issue. In this paper, we propose and thoroughly analyze a power dissipation model for Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) based IEEE 802.15.4 distributed multi-hop WSNs. Our model takes the loss rate of frames, neighbor sensors density in communication range of a sensor, number of hops, distance of source to the sink, and density of the network into account. We evaluate the impact of these factors on overall power dissipation. We also perform comprehensive analysis of overheads caused by message routing through multi-hop distributed networks. We validate our proposed model through Monte Carlo simulations. Results show that our power dissipation model is more realistic compared to other proposed models in terms of accuracy and multiplicity of the environments.
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  • Toshihiro KONISHI, Shintaro IZUMI, Koh TSURUDA, Hyeokjong LEE, Takashi ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2287-2294
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    Concomitantly with the progress of wireless communications, cognitive radio has attracted attention as a solution for depleted frequency bands. Cognitive radio is suitable for wireless sensor networks because it reduces collisions and thereby achieves energy-efficient communication. To make cognitive radio practical, we propose a low-power multi-resolution spectrum sensing (MRSS) architecture that has flexibility in sensing frequency bands. The conventional MRSS scheme consumes much power and can be adapted only slightly to process scaling because it comprises analog circuits. In contrast, the proposed architecture carries out signal processing in a digital domain and can detect occupied frequency bands at multiple resolutions and with low power. Our digital MRSS module can be implemented in 180-nm and 65-nm CMOS processes using Verilog-HDL. We confirmed that the processes respectively dissipate 9.97mW and 3.45mW.
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  • Jingyuan WANG, Hongbo LI, Zhongwu ZHAI, Xiang CHEN, Shiqiang YANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2295-2305
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    TCP Friendly Rate Control (TFRC) has been widely used in the Internet multimedia streaming applications. However, performance of traditional TFRC algorithm degrades significantly when deployed over wireless networks. Although numerous TFRC variants have been proposed to improve the performance of TFRC over wireless networks, designing a TFRC algorithm with graceful performance both in throughput and fairness still remains a great challenge. In this paper, a novel TFRC algorithm, named TFRC-FIT, is proposed to improve the performance of TFRC over wireless environments. In the proposed approach, the behavior of multiple TFRC flows is simulated in single connection, while the number of simulated flows is adjusted by the network queuing delay. Through this mechanism, TFRC-FIT can fully utilize the capacity of wireless networks, while maintaining good fairness and TCP friendliness. Both theoretical analysis and extensive experiments over hardware network emulator, Planetlab test bed as well as commercial 3G wireless networks are carried out to characterize and validate the performance of our proposed approach.
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  • Akira SOGAMI, Arata KAWAMURA, Youji IIGUNI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Speech Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2306-2314
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    We have previously proposed a howling canceller which cancels howling by using a cascade notch filter designed from a distance between a loudspeaker and a microphone. This method utilizes a pilot signal to estimate the distance. In this paper, we introduce two methods into the distance-based howling canceller to improve speech quality. The first one is an adaptive cascade notch filter which adaptively adjusts the nulls to eliminate howling and to keep speech components. The second one is a silent pilot signal whose frequencies exist in the ultrasonic band, and it is inaudible while on transmission. We implement the proposed howling canceller on a DSP to evaluate its capability. The experimental results show that the proposed howling canceller improves speech quality in comparison to the conventional one.
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  • Ryusuke MIYAMOTO, Hiroki SUGANO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2315-2322
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    Pedestrian detection from visual images, which is used for driver assistance or video surveillance, is a recent challenging problem. Co-occurrence histograms of oriented gradients (CoHOG) is a powerful feature descriptor for pedestrian detection and achieves the highest detection accuracy. However, its calculation cost is too large to calculate it in real-time on state-of-the-art processors. In this paper, to obtain optimal parallel implementation for an NVIDIA GPU, several kinds of parallelism of CoHOG-based detection are shown and evaluated suitability for implementation. The experimental result shows that the detection process can be performed at 16.5fps in QVGA images on NVIDIA Tesla C1060 by optimized parallel implementation. By our evaluation, it is shown that the optimal strategy of parallel implementation for an NVIDIA GPU is different from that of FPGA. We discuss about the reason and show the advantages of each device. To show the scalability and portability of GPU implementation, the same object code is executed on other NVIDA GPUs. The experimental result shows that GTX570 can perform the CoHOG-based pedestiran detection 21.3fps in QVGA images.
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  • Ryusuke MIYAMOTO, Hiroki SUGANO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2323-2333
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    Nowadays, pedestrian recognition for automotive and security applications that require accurate recognition in images taken from distant observation points is a recent challenging problem in the field of computer vision. To achieve accurate recognition, both detection and tracking must be precise. For detection, some excellent schemes suitable for pedestrian recognition from distant observation points are proposed, however, no tracking schemes can achieve sufficient performance. To construct an accurate tracking scheme suitable for pedestrian recognition from distant observation points, we propose a novel pedestrian tracking scheme using multiple cues: HSV histograms and HOG features. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can properly track a target pedestrian where tracking schemes using only a single cue fails. Moreover, we implement the proposed scheme on NVIDIA® Tesla C1060 processor, one of the latest GPU, to achieve real-time processing of the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that computation time required for tracking of a frame by our implementation is reduced to 8.80ms even though Intel® Core i7 CPU 975 @ 3.33GHz spends 111ms.
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  • Xinwei XUE, Takao JINNO, Xin JIN, Masahiro OKUDA, Satoshi GOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2334-2341
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    High Dynamic Range (HDR) images have been widely applied in daily applications. However, HDR image is a special format, which needs to be pre-processed known as tone mapping operators for display. Since the visual quality of HDR images is very sensitive to luminance value variations, conventional watermarking methods for low dynamic range (LDR) images are not suitable and may even cause catastrophic visible distortion. Currently, few methods for HDR image watermarking are proposed. In this paper, two watermarking schemes targeting HDR images are proposed, which are based on µ-Law and bilateral filtering, respectively. Both of the subjective and objective qualities of watermarked images are greatly improved by the two methods. What's more, these proposed methods also show higher robustness against tone mapping operations.
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  • Hideaki ORII, Hideaki KAWANO, Hiroshi MAEDA, Norikazu IKOMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2342-2349
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    We propose a novel background and foreground estimation algorithm in MAP-MRF approach for binarization of degraded document image. In the proposed algorithm, an assumption that background whiteness and foreground blackness is not employed differently from the conventional algorithm, and we employ character's irregularities based on local statistics. This makes the method possible to apply to the image with various colored characters, ex. outlined characters by colored background. The effectiveness and the validity are shown by applying the proposed method to various degraded document images.
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  • Sekchin CHANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2350-2352
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this letter, a two-stage TOA estimation scheme is proposed for positioning in OFDM-based WLAN systems under indoor environments. The estimation scheme consists of coarse estimation and fine estimation. The presented scheme effectively exploits the preamble of the OFDM-based WLAN for accurate estimation. The simulation results exhibit that the performance of the proposed approach is comparable to that of super-resolution estimation even with lower computational complexity.
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  • Hwi-Gang KIM, Sung-Hak LEE, Tae-Wuk BAE, Kyu-Ik SOHNG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2353-2357
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    An image appearance model called iCAM06 was designed for high dynamic range (HDR) image rendering. The dynamic range of an HDR image needs to be mapped on output devices, which is called tone compression or tone mapping. The iCAM06, the representative HDR rendering algorithm, uses tone compression for image reproduction on the low dynamic range of output devices. However, color saturation reduction occurs during its tone compression process. We propose a saturation correction method using the inverse compensation in order to recover the saturation reduction in the iCAM06. Experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance than the iCAM06 from the viewpoint of saturation accuracy and rendering preference.
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  • Masayuki KUROSAKI, Masateru MATSUO, Yoshimitsu KUROKI, Yuhei NAGAO, Ba ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2358-2360
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this paper, we propose a CUDA implementation of DWT for JPEG 2000 codec. We show that the performance of JPEG 2000 codec implemented by CUDA is better than CPU based implementation. The performance of the DWT implemented by CUDA is achieved 27.7 frame/second in 4K digital cinema.
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Regular Section
  • Fahad QURESHI, Oscar GUSTAFSSON
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2361-2368
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this work we consider optimized twiddle factor multipliers based on shift-and-add-multiplication. We propose a low-complexity structure for twiddle factors with a resolution of 32 points. Furthermore, we propose a slightly modified version of a previously reported multiplier for a resolution of 16 points with lower round-off noise. For completeness we also include results on optimal coefficients for eight-points resolution. We perform finite word length analysis for both coefficients and round-off errors and derive optimized coefficients with minimum complexity for varying requirements.
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  • Aloys MVUMA, Shotaro NISHIMURA, Takao HINAMOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2369-2375
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this paper, analysis of average bit error ratio (BER) performance of a quadriphase shift keying (QPSK) direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) system with narrow-band interference (NBI) suppression complex adaptive infinite-impulse response (IIR) notch filter is presented. QPSK DS-CDMA signal is transmitted over a Rayleigh frequency-nonselective fading channel and the NBI has a randomly-varying frequency. A closed-form expression that relates BER with complex coefficient IIR notch filter parameters, received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), number of DS-CDMA active users and processing gain is derived. The derivation is based on the Standard Gaussian Approximation (SGA) method. Accuracy of the BER expression is confirmed by computer simulation results.
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  • Kisun JUNG, Hanho LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2376-2383
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    This paper presents a low-complexity multi-mode fast Fourier transform (FFT) processor for Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial 2 (DVB-T2) systems. DVB-T2 operations need 1K/2K/4K/8K/16K/32K-point multiple mode FFT processors. The proposed architecture employs pipelined shared-memory architecture in which radix-2/22/23/24 FFT algorithms, multi-path delay commutator (MDC), and a novel data scaling approach are exploited. Based on this architecture, a novel low-cost data scaling unit is proposed to increase area efficiency, and an elaborate memory configuration scheme is designed to make single-port SRAM without degrading throughput rate. Also, new scheduling method of twiddle factor is proposed to reduce the area. The SQNR performance of 32K-point FFT mode is about 45.3dB at 11-bit internal word length for 256QAM modulation. The proposed FFT processor has a lower hardware complexity and memory size compared to conventional FFT processors.
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  • Hirofumi IJICHI, Hiroyuki TORIKAI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2384-2393
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    An asynchronous sequential logic spiking neuron is an artificial neuron model that can exhibit various bifurcations and nonlinear responses to stimulation inputs. In this paper, a pulse-coupled system of the asynchronous sequential logic spiking neurons is presented. Numerical simulations show that the coupled system can exhibit various lockings and related nonlinear responses. Then, theoretical sufficient parameter conditions for existence of typical lockings are provided. Usefulness of the parameter conditions is validated by comparing with the numerical simulation results as well as field programmable gate array experiment results.
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  • JeeYoung HONG, Daisuke IMANISHI, Kenichi OKADA, Akira MATSUZAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Circuit Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2394-2401
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    This paper presents three CMOS power amplifiers (PA) which realize wide-tunable output impedance matching. For realization of multi-standard and single-chip transceiver, the prototypes were fabricated by 0.18µm CMOS process. The proposed PAs can achieve a tunable impedance matching within a wide frequency range by utilizing a resistive feedback and parallel resonator with an inductor and capacitor array. Therefore, the proposed PA has a realization possibility of isolator-less PA which contributes to decrease die area including external component. In other words, the PAs have tunable impedance matching function at their output ends. With a 3.3-V supply, three power amplifiers can cover frequency ranges of 0.9-3.0GHz, 2.1-5.8GHz, and 5.7-9.7GHz, respectively. The PAs realize P1dB of 21dBm, Psat of 22dBm, and PAEpeak of larger than 23%. The proposed PAs present a potential to realize multi-band transceivers without isolators.
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  • Hsin-Hsiung HUANG, Jui-Hung HUNG, Cheng-Chiang LIN, Tsai-Ming HSIEH
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2402-2411
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    This study formulates and solves the wire planning problem with electro-migration and interference using an effective integer linear programming (ILP)-based approach. For circuits without obstacles, the proposed approach obtains a wire planning with the minimum wiring area. An effective approach for estimating the length of feasible routing wire is proposed to handle circuits with obstacles. In addition, the space reservation technique, which allocates the ring of the free silicon space around obstacles, is presented to improve interference among routing wires and on-obstacle wires. For circuits with obstacles, the proposed method minimizes total wiring area and reduces interference. Experimental results show that the integer linear-programming-based approach effectively and efficiently minimizes wiring area of routing wires.
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  • Po-Tsang HUANG, Wei HWANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2412-2424
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    The on-chip interconnection network (OCIN) is an integrated solution for system-on-chip (SoC) designs. The buffer architecture and size, however, dominate the performance of OCINs and affect the design of routers. This work analyzes different buffer architectures and uses a data-link two-level FIFO (first-in first-out) buffer architecture to implement high-performance routers. The concepts of shared buffers and multiple accesses for buffers are developed using the two-level FIFO buffer architecture. The proposed two-level FIFO buffer architecture increases the utilities of the storage elements via the centralized buffer organization and reduces the area and power consumption of routers to achieve the same performance achieved by other buffer architectures. Depending on a cycle-accurate simulator, the proposed data-link two-level FIFO buffer can realize performance similar to that of the conventional virtual channels, while using 25% of the buffers. Consequently, the two-level FIFO buffer can achieve about 22% power reduction compared with the similar performance of the conventional virtual channels using UMC 65nm CMOS technology.
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  • Jung Man HONG, Jong Hyup LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Numerical Analysis and Optimization
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2425-2433
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    This paper deals with the configuration of a wireless network with the aim of minimizing the overall cost of both operation and network installation. The trade-off between the operation cost and the installation cost is the key consideration when designing cellular telecommunication networks, and can save costs and improve the performance of the network. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework for selecting Mobile Switching Center (MSC) among the candidate MSCs and assigning Base Stations (BSs) to the selected MSCs with the objective function of minimizing the cost of MSC setup, BS to MSC cabling, as well as the cost of handover. Capacity constraint for the selected MSC is also considered in the problem. The problem is expressed in an integer programming model and the Lagrangian relaxation method is proposed to solve the problem by dualizing some constraints. The Lagrangian relaxed problem is decomposed into subproblems that can be resolved optimally. The Lagrangian heuristic algorithm is suggested to find feasible solutions to the original problem. Computational experiments are performed to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed heuristic algorithm. In the experiments, Lagrangian bounds on the optimal solution are used to show the effectiveness of the algorithm. The results of the proposed algorithm are also compared with those of some conventional meta-heuristics, Tabu search (TS) and Genetic algorithm (GA). The computational experiments show that the performance of the proposed heuristics is satisfactory in both the speed and the quality of the solution generated.
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  • Toan Dinh NGUYEN, Gueesang LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2434-2441
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    A novel grouping approach to segment text lines from handwritten documents is presented. In this text line segmentation algorithm, for each text line, a text string that connects the center points of the characters in this text line is built. The text lines are then segmented using the resulting text strings. Since the characters of the same text line are situated close together and aligned on a smooth curve, 2D tensor voting is used to reduce the conflicts when building these text strings. First, the text lines are represented by separate connected components. The center points of these connected components are then encoded by second order tensors. Finally, a voting process is applied to extract the curve saliency values and normal vectors, which are used to remove outliers and build the text strings. The experimental results obtained from the test dataset of the ICDAR 2009 Handwriting Segmentation Contest show that the proposed method generates high detection rate and recognition accuracy.
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  • Seokjin LEE, Sang Ha PARK, Koeng-Mo SUNG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Engineering Acoustics
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2442-2447
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this paper, a geometric source separation system using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is proposed. The adaptive beamformer is the best method for geometric source separation, but it suffers from a “target signal cancellation” problem in multi-path situations. We modified the HALS-NMF algorithm for decomposition into bases, and developed an interference suppression module in order to cancel the interference bases. A performance comparison between the proposed and subband GSC-RLS algorithm using a MATLAB® simulation was executed; the results show that the proposed system is robust in multi-path situations.
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  • Yung-Yi WANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2448-2452
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    In this study, we propose a one dimensional (1D) based successive generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) structure for the implementation of 2D adaptive beamformers using a uniform rectangular antenna array (URA). The proposed approach takes advantage of the URA feature that the 2D spatial signature of the receive signal can be decomposed into an outer product of two 1D spatial signatures. The 1D spatial signatures lie in the column and the row spaces of the receive signal matrix, respectively. It follows that the interferers can be successively eliminated by two rounds of 1D-based GSC structure. As compared to the conventional 2D-GSC structure, computer simulations show that in addition to having significantly low computational complexity, the proposed adaptive approach possesses higher convergence rate.
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  • Myeongwoon JEON, Kyungchul KIM, Sungkyu CHUNG, Seungjae CHUNG, Beomju ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Analog Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2453-2457
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    NAND multilevel cell flash memory devices are gaining popularity because they can increase the memory capacity by storing two or more bits to a single cell. However, when the number of levels of a cell increases, the inter-cell interference which shifts threshold voltage becomes more critical. There are two approaches to alleviate the errors caused by the voltage shift. One is the error correcting codes, and the other is the signal processing methods. In this paper, we focus on signal processing methods to reduce the inter-cell interference which causes the voltage shift, and propose two algorithms which reduce the voltage shift effects by adjusting read voltages. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithms are effective for interference mitigation.
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  • Kon-Woo KWON, Kwang-Hyun BAEK, Jeong Woo LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 11 Pages 2458-2461
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
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    We propose a high-speed and low-complexity architecture for the very large-scale integration (VLSI) implementation of the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) algorithm suited to the double binary turbo decoder. For this purpose, equation manipulations on the conventional Linear-Log-MAP algorithm and architectural optimization are proposed. It is shown by synthesized simulations that the proposed architecture improves speed, area and power compared with the state-of-the-art Linear-Log-MAP architecture. It is also observed that the proposed architecture shows good overall performance in terms of error correction capability as well as decoder hardware's speed, complexity and throughput.
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