IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E100.A , Issue 1
Showing 1-43 articles out of 43 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Cryptography and Information Security
  • Masahiro MAMBO
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 1-2
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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  • Takaaki MIZUKI, Hiroki SHIZUYA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 3-11
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Card-based protocols enable us to easily perform cryptographic tasks such as secure multiparty computation using a deck of physical cards. Since the first card-based protocol appeared in 1989, many protocols have been designed. A protocol is usually described with a series of somewhat intuitive and verbal descriptions, such as “turn over this card,” “shuffle these two cards,” “apply a random cut to these five cards,” and so on. On the other hand, a formal computational model of card-based protocols via abstract machine was constructed in 2014. By virtue of the formalization, card-based protocols can be treated more rigorously; for example, it enables one to discuss the lower bounds on the number of cards required for secure computations. In this paper, an overview of the computational model with its applications to designing protocols and a survey of the recent progress in card-based protocols are presented.

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  • Masayuki ABE
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 12-17
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    The Even-Goldreich-Micali framework is a generic method for constructing secure digital signature schemes from weaker signature schemes and one-time signature schemes. Several variations are known due to properties demanded on the underlying building blocks. It is in particular interesting when the underlying signature scheme is a so-called F-signature scheme that admits different message spaces for signing and verification. In this paper we overview these variations in the literature and add a new one to the bucket.

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  • Yasufumi HASHIMOTO
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 18-25
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    One of major ideas to design a multivariate public key cryptosystem (MPKC) is to generate its quadratic forms by a polynomial map over an extension field. In fact, Matsumoto-Imai's scheme (1988), HFE (Patarin, 1996), MFE (Wang et al., 2006) and multi-HFE (Chen et al., 2008) are constructed in this way and Sflash (Akkar et al., 2003), Quartz (Patarin et al., 2001), Gui (Petzoldt et al, 2015) are variants of these schemes. An advantage of such extension field type MPKCs is to reduce the numbers of variables and equations to be solved in the decryption process. In the present paper, we study the security of MPKCs whose quadratic forms are derived from a “quadratic” map over an extension field and propose a new attack on such MPKCs. Our attack recovers partial information of the secret affine maps in polynomial time when the field is of odd characteristic. Once such partial information is recovered, the attacker can find the plain-text for a given cipher-text by solving a system of quadratic equations over the extension field whose numbers of variables and equations are same to those of the system of quadratic equations used in the decryption process.

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  • Naoto ITAKURA, Kaoru KUROSAWA, Kazuki YONEYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 26-33
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    There are two extensions of oblivious polynomial evaluation (OPE), OPEE (oblivious polynomial evaluation in the exponent) and OPEE2. At TCC 2015, Hazay showed two OPEE2 protocols. In this paper, we first show that her first OPEE2 protocol does not run in polynomial time if the computational DH assumption holds. We next present a constant round OPEE protocol under the DDH assumption.

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  • Kazuto OGAWA, Goichiro HANAOKA, Hideki IMAI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 34-49
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    A lot of encryption and watermarking schemes have been developed as countermeasures to protect copyrights of broadcast or multicast content from malicious subscribers (traitors) that make pirate receivers (PRs) to use the content illegally. However, solo use of these schemes does not necessarily work well. Traitor tracing encryption schemes are a type of broadcasting encryption and have been developed for broadcasting and multicast services. There are multiple distinct decryption keys for each encryption key, and each service subscriber is given a unique decryption key. Any subscriber that redistributes his or her decryption key to a third party or who uses it and maybe other keys to make a PR can be identified with using the tracing algorithm of the scheme that is used by the services. However, almost all previous schemes have the same weakness; that is, they are vulnerable to an attack (content comparison attack). This is a concrete example such that solo use of the scheme does not work well. The attack involves multiple distinct decryption keys and a content-data comparison mechanism. We have developed a method, called complementary traitor tracing method (CTT), that makes traitor tracing schemes secure against content comparison attacks. It makes it impossible for PRs to distinguish ordinary content data from test data and makes traitor tracing schemes effective against all PRs, even those with multiple distinct decryption keys. CTT is made with a simple combination of schemes that are absolutely necessary. It makes broadcasting or multicast services secure.

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  • Atsushi TAKAYASU, Noboru KUNIHIRO
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 50-61
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    In 1999, Boneh and Durfee introduced the small inverse problem, which solves the bivariate modular equation x(N+y)≡1(mod e. Absolute values of solutions for x and y are bounded above by X=Nδ and Y=Nβ, respectively. They solved the problem for β=1/2 in the context of small secret exponent attacks on RSA and proposed a polynomial time algorithm that works when δ<(7-2√7)/6≈0.284. In the same work, the bound was further improved to δ<1-1/≈2≈0.292. Thus far, the small inverse problem has also been analyzed for an arbitrary β. Generalizations of Boneh and Durfee's lattices to obtain the stronger bound yielded the bound δ<1-≈β. However, the algorithm works only when β≥1/4. When 0<β<1/4, there have been several works where the authors claimed their results are the best. In this paper, we revisit the problem for an arbitrary β. At first, we summarize the previous results for 0<β<1/4. We reveal that there are some results that are not valid and show that Weger's algorithms provide the best bounds. Next, we propose an improved algorithm to solve the problem for 0<β<1/4. Our algorithm works when δ<1-2(≈β(3+4β)-β)/3. Our algorithm construction is based on the combinations of Boneh and Durfee's two forms of lattices and it is more natural compared with previous works. For the cryptographic application, we introduce small secret exponent attacks on Multi-Prime RSA with small prime differences.

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  • Masahiro ISHII, Atsuo INOMATA, Kazutoshi FUJIKAWA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 62-72
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    In this paper, we provided a new variant of Weil pairing on a family of genus 2 curves with the efficiently computable automorphism. Our pairing can be considered as a generalization of the omega pairing given by Zhao et al. We also report the algebraic cost estimation of our pairing. We then show that our pairing is more efficient than the variant of Tate pairing with the automorphism given by Fan et al. Furthermore, we show that our pairing is slightly better than the twisted Ate pairing on Kawazoe-Takahashi curve at the 192-bit security level.

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  • Hiraku MORITA, Jacob C.N. SCHULDT, Takahiro MATSUDA, Goichiro HANAOKA, ...
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 73-90
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    In the ordinary security model for signature schemes, we consider an adversary that tries to forge a signature on a new message using only his knowledge of other valid message and signature pairs. To take into account side channel attacks such as tampering or fault-injection attacks, Bellare and Kohno (Eurocrypt 2003) formalized related-key attacks (RKA), where stronger adversaries are considered. In the RKA security model for signature schemes, we consider an adversary that can also manipulate the signing key and obtain signatures computed under the modified key. RKA security is defined with respect to the related-key deriving functions which are used by an adversary to manipulate the signing key. This paper considers RKA security of three established signature schemes: the Schnorr signature scheme, a variant of DSA, and a variant of ElGamal signature scheme. First, we show that these signature schemes are secure against a weak notion of RKA with respect to polynomial functions. Second, we demonstrate that, on the other hand, none of the Schnorr signature scheme, DSA, nor the ElGamal signature scheme achieves the standard notion of RKA security with respect to linear functions, by showing concrete attacks on these. Lastly, we show that slight modifications of the Schnorr signature scheme, (the considered variant of) DSA, and the variant of ElGamal signature scheme yield fully RKA secure schemes with respect to polynomial functions.

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  • Dan YAMAMOTO, Wakaha OGATA
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 91-102
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    We present a new notion of public-key encryption, called multi-divisible on-line/off-line encryptions, in which partial ciphertexts can be computed and made publicly available for the recipients before the recipients' public key and/or the plaintexts are determined. We formalize its syntax and define several security notions with regard to the level of divisibility, the number of users, and the number of encryption (challenge) queries per user. Furthermore, we show implications and separations between these security notions and classify them into three categories. We also present concrete multi-divisible on-line/off-line encryption schemes. The schemes allow the computationally-restricted and/or bandwidth-restricted devices to transmit ciphertexts with low computational overhead and/or low-bandwidth network.

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  • Wakaha OGATA, Toshinori ARAKI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 103-114
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Many researchers studied computationally-secure (verifiable) secret sharing schemes which distribute multiple secrets with a bulletin board. However, the security definition is ambiguous in many of the past articles. In this paper, we first review existing schemes based on formal definitions of indistinguishability of secrets, verifiability of consistency, and cheater-detectability. And then, we propose a new secret sharing scheme which is the first scheme with indistinguishability of secrets, verifiability, and cheater-detectability, and allows to share secrets with arbitrary access structures. Further, our scheme is provably secure under well known computational assumptions.

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  • Rui XU, Kirill MOROZOV, Tsuyoshi TAKAGI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 115-125
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    We introduce two cheater identifiable secret sharing (CISS) schemes with efficient reconstruction, tolerating t<k/2 cheaters and one robust secret sharing scheme (RSS). Our constructions, which provide public cheater identification, feature a novel application of multi-receiver authentication codes to ensure integrity of shares. The first CISS scheme, which tolerates rushing cheaters, has the share size |S|(n-t)n+t+2n+t+2 in the general case, that can be ultimately reduced to |S|(k-t)k+t+2k+t+2 assuming that all the t cheaters are among the k reconstructing players. The second CISS scheme, which tolerates non-rushing cheaters, has the share size |S|(n-t)2t+22t+2. These two constructions have the smallest share size among the existing CISS schemes of the same category, when the secret is a single field element. Finally, we use the tool of multi-receiver authentication to construct a robust secret sharing scheme, which updates the start-of-art against rushing adversary by reducing the share overhead by slightly more than one half. In addition, we point out that an improvement in the share size to |S|/εn-⌊(k-1)/3⌋+1 can be achieved for a CISS tolerating t<k/3 rushing cheaters presented by Xu et al. at IWSEC 2013.

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  • Bungo TAGA, Shiho MORIAI, Kazumaro AOKI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 126-137
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    In this paper, we present several cryptanalyses of Hierocrypt-L1 block cipher, which was selected as one of the CRYPTREC recommended ciphers in Japan in 2003. We present a differential attack and an impossible differential attack on 8 S-function layers in a related-key setting. We first show that there exist the key scheduling differential characteristics which always hold, then we search for differential paths for the data randomizing part with the minimum active S-boxes using the above key differentials. We also show that our impossible differential attack is a new type.

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  • Ryoma ITO, Atsuko MIYAJI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 138-148
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    The RC4 stream cipher is widely used including WEP and WPA, which are the security protocols for IEEE 802.11 wireless standard. WPA improved a construction of the RC4 key setting known as TKIP to avoid the known WEP attacks. The first 3-byte RC4 keys generated by IV in WPA are known since IV can be obtained by observing packets. The weaknesses in TKIP using the known IV were reported by Sen Gupta et al. at FSE 2014 and by Ito and Miyaji at FSE 2015. Both showed that TKIP induces many RC4 key correlations including the keystream bytes or the unknown internal states. Ideally TKIP should be constructed in such a way that it can keep the security level of generic RC4. In the first part of this paper, we will provide newly theoretical proofs of 17 correlations remain unproven in our previous work theoretically. Our theoretical analysis can make clear how TKIP induces biases of internal states in generic RC4. In the second part of this paper, we will further provide a refined construction of the RC4 key setting. As a result, we can reduce the number of correlations in the refined construction by about 70% in comparison with that in the original setting.

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  • Ville YLI-MÄYRY, Naofumi HOMMA, Takafumi AOKI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 149-157
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    This paper explores the feasibility of power analysis attacks against low-latency block ciphers implemented with unrolled architectures capable of encryption/decryption in a single clock cycle. Unrolled architectures have been expected to be somewhat resistant against side-channel attacks compared to typical loop architectures because of no memory (i.e. register) element storing intermediate results in a synchronous manner. In this paper, we present a systematic method for selecting Points-of-Interest for power analysis on unrolled architectures as well as calculating dynamic power consumption at a target function. Then, we apply the proposed method to PRINCE, which is known as one of the most efficient low-latency ciphers, and evaluate its validity with an experiment using a set of unrolled PRINCE processors implemented on an FPGA. Finally, a countermeasure against such analysis is discussed.

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  • Alper KANAK, Salih ERGÜN
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 158-166
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    IDMs are getting more effective and secure with biometric recognition and more privacy-preserving with advanced cryptosystems. In order to meet privacy and security needs of an IDM, the cryptographic background should rely on reliable random number generation. In this study, a Biometric Random Number Generator (BRNG) is proposed which plays a crucial role in a typical cryptosystem. The proposed novel approach extracts the high-frequency information in biometric signal which is associated with uncertainty existing in nature of biometrics. This bio-uncertainty, utilized as an entropy source, may be caused by sensory noise, environmental changes, position of the biometric trait, accessories worn, etc. The filtered nondeterministic information is then utilized by a postprocessing technique to obtain a random number set fulfilling the NIST 800-22 statistical randomness criteria. The proposed technique presents random number sequences without need of an additional hardware.

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  • Naoto KAWAGUCHI, Kazumasa OMOTE
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 167-175
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Malware proliferation has become a serious threat to the Internet in recent years. Most current malware are subspecies of existing malware that have been automatically generated by illegal tools. To conduct an efficient analysis of malware, estimating their functions in advance is effective when we give priority to analyze malware. However, estimating the malware functions has been difficult due to the increasing sophistication of malware. Actually, the previous researches do not estimate the functions of malware sufficiently. In this paper, we propose a new method which estimates the functions of unknown malware from APIs or categories observed by dynamic analysis on a host. We examine whether the proposed method can correctly estimate the malware functions by the supervised machine learning techniques. The results show that our new method can estimate the malware functions with the average accuracy of 83.4% using API information.

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  • Muhamad Erza AMINANTO, HakJu KIM, Kyung-Min KIM, Kwangjo KIM
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 176-183
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Attacks against computer networks are evolving rapidly. Conventional intrusion detection system based on pattern matching and static signatures have a significant limitation since the signature database should be updated frequently. The unsupervised learning algorithm can overcome this limitation. Ant Clustering Algorithm (ACA) is a popular unsupervised learning algorithm to classify data into different categories. However, ACA needs to be complemented with other algorithms for the classification process. In this paper, we present a fuzzy anomaly detection system that works in two phases. In the first phase, the training phase, we propose ACA to determine clusters. In the second phase, the classification phase, we exploit a fuzzy approach by the combination of two distance-based methods to detect anomalies in new monitored data. We validate our hybrid approach using the KDD Cup'99 dataset. The results indicate that, compared to several traditional and new techniques, the proposed hybrid approach achieves higher detection rate and lower false positive rate.

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Special Section on Wideband Systems
  • Hiromasa HABUCHI
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 184
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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  • Xin LIN
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 185-193
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    One of the major subjects for marine resources development and information processing is how to realize underwater short-range and large-capacity data transmissions. The acoustic wave is an effective carrier and has been used for underwater data transmissions because it has lower attenuation in seawater than the radio wave, and has average propagation distance of about 10km or more. However, along with the imaging of transmission data, the inherent low speed of the acoustic wave makes it cannot and become an ideal carrier for high-speed and large-capacity communications. On the other hand, visible-light wave with wavelength of 400nm-650nm is an ideal carrier, which has received much attention. Its attractive features are high transparency and low attenuation rate in underwater, easily control the propagation direction and range by the visibility, and high data rate and capacity, making it excellent for application in underwater wireless communications. However, visible-light waves in the seawater have the spectral attenuation characteristics due to different marine environment. Therefore, in this paper an underwater optical wireless communication method with adaptation seawater function is considered for seawater turbidity of the spatio-temporal change. Two crucial components in the underwater optical wireless communication system, the light wavelength and the modulation method are controlled using wavelength- and modulation-adaptation techniques, respectively. The effectiveness of the method of the adaptation wavelength is demonstrated in underwater optical image transmissions.

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  • Rabia YAHYA, Akira NAKAMURA, Makoto ITAMI, Tayeb A. DENIDNI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 194-199
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    In this paper, we propose a technique to improve the gain of ultra wide-band (UWB) planar antennas by using low profile reflectors based on frequency selective surfaces (FSS). This technique not only enhances the gain of the planar UWB antennas but also guarantees a constant gain with weak variation across the entire UWB while keeping their attractive merits such as planar structure and easy fabrication. An UWB coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed antenna is installed above the proposed reflectors, to prove the effectiveness of the proposed technique. As a result, a constant gain is achieved across a very large bandwidth.

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  • Parit KANJANAVIROJKUL, Nguyen NGOC MAI-KHANH, Tetsuya IIZUKA, Toru NAK ...
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 200-209
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    This paper discusses a pulse generator implemented by CMOS flipped on a glass substrate aiming at low power applications with low duty cycle. The pulse generator is theoretically possible to generate a pulse at a frequency near and beyond Fmax. It also features a quick starting time and zero stand-by power. By using a simplified circuit model, analytical expressions for Q factor, energy conversion efficiency, output energy, and oscillation frequency of the pulse generator are derived. Pulse generator prototypes are designed on a 0.18 μm CMOS chip flipped over a transmission line resonator on a glass substrate. Measurement results of two different prototypes confirm the feasibility of the proposed circuit and the analytical model.

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  • Hirokazu ABE, Masahiro FUJII, Takanori IWAMATSU, Hiroyuki HATANO, Atsu ...
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 210-218
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    It is necessary to estimate channel state information coherently to equalize the received signal in wireless communication systems. The pilot symbol, known at the receiver, aided channel estimator degrades the transmission efficiency because it requires the signal spaces and the energy for the transmission. In this paper, we assume a fixed wireless communication system in line of sight slowly varying channel and propose a new blind channel estimation method without help from the pilot symbol for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing systems. The proposed estimator makes use of the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and the correlation property among the channel frequency responses by considering the assumed channel environment. By computer simulations, we show that the proposed estimator can asymptotically achieve bit error rate performance by using the ideal channel estimation.

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  • Hirotaka HAYASHI, Tomoaki OHTSUKI
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 219-226
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    We propose a new direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method of wideband signals. In several decades, many approaches to estimate DOA of wideband signal sources have been proposed. Test of orthogonality of projected subspaces (TOPS) and Squared TOPS are the estimation algorithms to realize high resolution performance of closely spaced signal sources. These methods, however, are not suitable for DOA estimation of multiple signal sources, because the spatial spectrum calculated by Squared TOPS has some false peaks. Therefore, the authors have proposed the weighted squared TOPS (WS-TOPS) to suppress these false peaks by modifying the orthogonality evaluation matrix, WS-TOPS also achieves better DOA estimation accuracy than that of Squared TOPS. On the other hand, WS-TOPS has a drawback, it requires high computational complexity. Our new method can realize good DOA estimation performance, which is better than that of Squared TOPS, with low computational complexity by reducing the size of orthogonality evaluation matrix and the number of subspaces to be used. Simulation results show that the new method can provide high resolution performance and high DOA estimation accuracy with low computational complexity.

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  • Ilmiawan SHUBHI, Yuji HAYASHI, Hidekazu MURATA
    Type: LETTER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 227-231
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    In multi user multiple input multiple output systems, spatial precoding is typically employed as an interference cancellation technique. This technique, however, requires accurate channel state information at the transmitter and limits the mobility of the mobile station (MS). Instead of spatial precoding, this letter implements collaborative interference cancellation (CIC) for interference suppression. In CIC, neighboring MSs share their received signals without decoding and equivalently increase the number of received antennas. The performance is evaluated through a field experiment using a vehicle that is equipped with seven MSs and moves around an urban area.

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  • Kota IWANAGA, Keiji JIMI, Isamu MATSUNAMI
    Type: LETTER
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 232-235
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Case studies have reported that pedestrian detection methods using vehicle radar are not complete systems because each system has specific limitations at the cost of the calculating amounts, the system complexity or the range resolution. In this letter, we proposed a novel pedestrian detection method by template matching using Gabor filter bank, which was evaluated based on the data observed by 24GHz UWB radar.

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Regular Section
  • Osamu TODA, Masahiro YUKAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 236-250
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    We study a use of Gaussian kernels with a wide range of scales for nonlinear function estimation. The estimation task can then be split into two sub-tasks: (i) model selection and (ii) learning (parameter estimation) under the selected model. We propose a fully-adaptive and all-in-one scheme that jointly carries out the two sub-tasks based on the multikernel adaptive filtering framework. The task is cast as an asymptotic minimization problem of an instantaneous fidelity function penalized by two types of block l1-norm regularizers. Those regularizers enhance the sparsity of the solution in two different block structures, leading to efficient model selection and dictionary refinement. The adaptive generalized forward-backward splitting method is derived to deal with the asymptotic minimization problem. Numerical examples show that the scheme achieves the model selection and learning simultaneously, and demonstrate its striking advantages over the multiple kernel learning (MKL) method called SimpleMKL.

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  • Moonki CHO, Yungsup YOON
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 251-258
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    The overdrive technique is widely used to eliminate motion blur in liquid-crystal displays (LCDs). However, this technique requires a large frame memory to store the previous frame. A reduction in the frame memory requires an image compression algorithm suitable for real-time data processing. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on multimode-color-conversion block truncation coding (MCC-BTC) to obtain a constant output bit rate and high overdrive performance. The MCC-BTC algorithm uses four compression methods, one of which is selected. The four compression modes either use the single-bitmap-generation method or the subsampling method for chrominance. As shown in the simulation results, the proposed algorithm improves the performance of both coding (up to 2.73dB) and overdrive (up to 2.61dB), and the visual quality is improved in comparison to other competing algorithms in literature.

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  • Qiusheng WANG, Xiaolan GU, Yingyi LIU, Haiwen YUAN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 259-265
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Multiple notch filters are used to suppress narrow-band or sinusoidal interferences in digital signals. In this paper, we propose a novel optimization design technique of an infinite impulse response (IIR) multiple notch filter. It is based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method. Firstly, the system function of the desired notch filter is constructed to form the objective function of the optimization technique. Secondly, the design parameters of the desired notch filter are optimized by Nelder-Mead simplex method. A weight function is also introduced to improve amplitude response of the notch filter. Thirdly, the convergence and amplitude response of the proposed technique are compared with other Nelder-Mead based design methods and the cascade-based design method. Finally, the practicability of the proposed notch filter design technique is demonstrated by some practical applications.

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  • Yuichi TANJI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Circuit Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 266-274
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    An efficient balanced truncation for RC and RLC networks is presented in this paper. To accelerate the balanced truncation, sparse structures of original networks are considered. As a result, Lyapunov equations, the solutions of which are necessary for making the transformation matrices, are efficiently solved, and the reduced order models are efficiently obtained. It is proven that reciprocity of original networks is preserved while applying the proposed method. Passivity of the reduced RC networks is also guaranteed. In the illustrative examples, we will show that the proposed method is compatible with PRIMA in efficiency and is more accurate than PRIMA.

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  • Ting-Chou LU, Ming-Dou KER, Hsiao-Wen ZAN, Jen-Chieh LIU, Yu LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 275-282
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    A multi-phase crystal-less clock generator (MPCLCG) with a process-voltage-temperature (PVT) calibration circuit is proposed. It operates at 192 MHz with 8 phases outputs, and is implemented as a 0.18µm CMOS process for digital power management systems. A temperature calibrated circuit is proposed to align operational frequency under process and supply voltage variations. It occupies an area of 65µm × 75µm and consumes 1.1mW with the power supply of 1.8V. Temperature coefficient (TC) is 69.5ppm/°C from 0 to 100°C, and 2-point calibration is applied to calibrate PVT variation. The measured period jitter is a 4.58-ps RMS jitter and a 34.55-ps peak-to-peak jitter (P2P jitter) at 192MHz within 12.67k-hits. At 192MHz, it shows a 1-MHz-offset phase noise of -102dBc/Hz. Phase to phase errors and duty cycle errors are less than 5.5% and 4.3%, respectively.

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  • Byoung-Yoon MIN, Wonkwang SHIN, Dong Ku KIM
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 283-293
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Wireless caching is one of the promising technologies to mitigate the traffic burden of cellular networks and the large cost of deploying a higher volume of wired backhaul by introducing caching storage. In the manner of “cutting” wired equipments, all types of vehicles can be readily leveraged as serving access points with caching storage, where their moving nature should be taken into account to improve latency and data throughput. In this paper, we consider a mobility-aware vehicular caching which has a role in offloading delay-tolerable contents from cellular networks. We first clarify the influence of mobility in cellular caching networks, then set the mobility-aware optimization problem of vehicular caching to carry on delay-tolerable contents. Trace-driven numerical results based on rural and urban topographies show that, in presence of individual demand for delay-tolerable contents, the proposed vehicular caching scheme enhances the quality-of-service (QoS) (maximally twofold) relying on the contents delivery being centrally or distributedly controlled.

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  • Shiyu REN, Zhimin ZENG, Caili GUO, Xuekang SUN, Kun SU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 294-300
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Compressed sensing (CS)-based wideband spectrum sensing approaches have attracted much attention because they release the burden of high signal acquisition costs. However, in CS-based sensing approaches, highly non-linear reconstruction methods are used for spectrum recovery, which require high computational complexity. This letter proposes a two-step compressive wideband sensing algorithm. This algorithm introduces a coarse sensing step to further compress the sub-Nyquist measurements before spectrum recovery in the following compressive fine sensing step, as a result of the significant reduction in computational complexity. Its enabled sufficient condition and computational complexity are analyzed. Even when the sufficient condition is just satisfied, the average reduced ratio of computational complexity can reach 50% compared with directly performing compressive sensing with the excellent algorithm that is used in our fine sensing step.

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  • Tetsuya ARAKI, Koji M. KOBAYASHI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Algorithms and Data Structures
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 301-303
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    The online unit clustering problem is one of the most basic clustering problems proposed by Chan and Zarrabi-Zadeh (WAOA2007 and Theory of Computing Systems 45(3), 2009). Several variants of this problem have been extensively studied. In this letter, we propose a new variant of the online unit clustering problem, called the online unit clustering problem with capacity constraints. For this problem, we use competitive analysis to evaluate the performance of an online algorithm. Then, we develop an online algorithm whose competitive ratio is at most 3.178, and show that a lower bound on the competitive ratio of any online algorithm is 2.

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  • Changyuan WANG, Daiyuan PENG, Xianhua NIU, Hongyu HAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 304-307
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    In this paper, a new class of low-hit-zone (LHZ) frequency-hopping sequence sets (LHZ FHS sets) is constructed based upon the Cartesian product, and the periodic partial Hamming correlation within its LHZ are studied. Studies have shown that the new LHZ FHS sets are optimal according to the periodic partial Hamming correlation bounds of FHS set, and some known FHS sets are the special cases of this new construction.

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  • Shanqi PANG, Ying WANG, Jiao DU, Wenju XU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 308-311
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Orthogonal arrays and orthogonal partitions have great significance in communications and coding theory. In this letter, by using a generalized orthogonal partition, Latin squares and orthogonal Latin squares, we present an iterative construction method of orthogonal arrays of strength t and orthogonal partitions. As an application of the method, more orthogonal arrays of strength t and orthogonal partitions than the existing methods can be constructed.

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  • Jong-ho KIM, Donghyun BAEK, Jeong Woo LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 312-316
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Group device-to-device (GD2D) communication is a good solution for data dissemination to devices in proximity without imposing a heavy load on cellular networks. We propose an operating strategy for GD2D communication regarding the mode selection and the power allocation in order to maximize the sum rate of the overall system satisfying QoS requirements of both cellular and D2D links. We derive the maximum sum rate for each class of distance profile of participating devices in the interference-dominant scenario. Using the result, the operating strategy of GD2D communication can be determined in a table-look-up manner.

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  • Sang-Young KIM, Yong-Jun KIM, Hyoung-Kyu SONG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 317-321
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    This letter proposes a cooperative communication scheme with pre-coding in order to improve a performance in a wireless communication system. In a conventional scheme, a performance of the system is degraded due to the signal attenuation by the path loss and inter-cell interference (ICI). The proposed scheme uses two relays in order to obtain a diversity gain. Additionally, the proposed scheme uses a constructive spatial phase coding (SPC) using the phase relation of the channels in order to obtain an improved diversity gain. Therefore, the proposed scheme can prevent the performance degradation caused by the path loss. When a mobile is located in the cell edge, the signal suffers from the ICI by the other signals transmitted from a neighboring base station. In the proposed scheme, the other signals broadcast from neighboring base station are destructively superimposed by using the destructive SPC scheme. And then the power of the destructively superimposed signal is reduced. Therefore, the proposed scheme can reduce the ICI effect in the cell edge. Also, the destructively superimposed signal does not cause the performance degradation of other mobiles in the neighboring cell. The simulation results show that the bit error performance of the proposed scheme is better than the conventional scheme.

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  • Liping XIAO, Zhibo LIANG, Kai LIU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 322-326
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    Mutipath matching pursuit (MMP) is a new reconstruction algorithm based on compressed sensing (CS). In this letter, we applied the MMP algorithm to channel estimation in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication systems, and then proposed an improved MMP algorithm. The improved method adjusted the number of children generated by candidates. It can greatly reduce the complexity. The simulation results demonstrate that the improved method can reduce the running time under the premise of guaranteeing the performance of channel estimation.

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  • Junil AHN, Jaewon CHANG, Chiho LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 327-331
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    The integer least-squares (ILS) problem frequently arises in wireless communication systems. Sphere decoding (SD) is a systematic search scheme for solving ILS problem. The enumeration of candidates is a key part of SD for selecting a lattice point, which will be searched by the algorithm. Herein, the authors present a computationally efficient Schnorr-Euchner enumeration (SEE) algorithm to solve the constrained ILS problems, where the solution is limited into the finite integer lattice. To trace only valid lattice points within the underlying finite lattice, the authors devise an adaptive computation of the enumeration step and counting the valid points enumerated. In contrast to previous SEE methods based on a zig-zag manner, the proposed method completely avoids enumerating invalid points outside the finite lattice, and it further reduces real arithmetic and logical operations.

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  • Shuchao JIANG, Feng LIU, Shengming JIANG, Xuan GENG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 332-334
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    X communication model with two receivers is introduced to underwater acoustic networks, in which each transmitter sends an independent message to each receiver. Based on distance aligned structure, we propose a scheme, which can perform perfect interference alignment. The feasibility is also illustrated in three dimensional Euclidean space.

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  • Janghoon YANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 335-340
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    By installing the various types of cells, imbalance in traffic load and excessive handover among cells in a heterogenous network can be prevalent. To deal with this problem, we propose a mobility-based cell association algorithm for load balancing in a heterogenous network. By defining a dynamic system load as a function of the mobility of mobile stations (MSs) and the transmit powers of cells, the proposed algorithm is designed such that it can optimize a utility function based on the fairness of the dynamic system load. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm improves the user perceived rate of MSs located at cell edges with slight increase in the number of handovers compared to a conventional cell association based on received signal strength.

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  • Minako KAMIYAMA, Akira TAGUCHI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 1 Pages 341-344
    Published: January 01, 2017
    Released: January 01, 2017
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    In color image processing, hue-preserving is necessary for human being. In order to preserve the hue component, the perceptual color spaces such as HSI and HSV were used for the color image processing. The Hue-Saturation-Intensity (HSI) color space is important for color image processing and many color applications are commonly based on this color space. However, the gamut of conventional HSI color space is larger than that of RGB color space. Thus, the gamut problem is often occurred after the processing intensity and saturation in the HSI color space. In this paper, a new HSI color space with completely same gamut of RGB color space is developed. The gamut problem is solved by the proposed HSI color space.

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