IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E98.A , Issue 11
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Smart Multimedia & Communication Systems
• Hirokazu TANAKA, Takao ONOYE
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2209-2210
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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• Keita HIGA, Keiichi FUNAKI
Type: PAPER
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2211-2219
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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The advanced front-end (AFE) for automatic speech recognition (ASR) was standardized by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The AFE provides speech enhancement realized by an iterative Wiener filter (IWF) in which a smoothed FFT spectrum over adjacent frames is used to design the filter. We have previously proposed robust time-varying complex Auto-Regressive (TV-CAR) speech analysis for an analytic signal and evaluated the performance of speech processing such as F0 estimation and speech enhancement. TV-CAR analysis can estimate more accurate spectrum than FFT, especially in low frequencies because of the nature of the analytic signal. In addition, TV-CAR can estimate more accurate speech spectrum against additive noise. In this paper, a time-invariant version of wide-band TV-CAR analysis is introduced to the IWF in the AFE and is evaluated using the CENSREC-2 database and its baseline script.
• Chiaki UEDA, Minami IBATA, Tadahiro AZETSU, Noriaki SUETAKE, Eiji UCHI ...
Type: PAPER
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2220-2228
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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In a food image acquired by a digital camera, its intensity and saturation components are sometimes decreased depending on the illumination environment. In this case, the food image does not look delicious. In general, RGB components are transformed into hue, saturation and intensity components, and then the saturation and intensity components are enhanced so that the food image looks delicious. However, these processes are complex and involve a gamut problem. In this paper, we propose an intensity and saturation enhancement method while preserving the hue in the RGB color space for the food image. In this method, at first, the intensity components are enhanced avoiding the saturation deterioration. Then the saturation components of the regions having the hue components frequently appeared in foods are enhanced. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the enhancement experiments using several food images are done.
• Xiantao JIANG, Tian SONG, Takashi SHIMAMOTO, Wen SHI, Lisheng WANG
Type: PAPER
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2229-2237
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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The next generation high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard achieves high performance by extending the encoding block to 64×64. There are some parallel tools to improve the efficiency for encoder and decoder. However, owing to the dependence of the current prediction block and surrounding block, parallel processing at CU level and Sub-CU level are hard to achieve. In this paper, focusing on the spatial motion vector prediction (SMVP) and temporal motion vector prediction (TMVP), parallel improvement for spatio-temporal prediction algorithms are presented, which can remove the dependency between prediction coding units and neighboring coding units. Using this proposal, it is convenient to process motion estimation in parallel, which is suitable for different parallel platforms such as multi-core platform, compute unified device architecture (CUDA) and so on. The simulation experiment results demonstrate that based on HM12.0 test model for different test sequences, the proposed algorithm can improve the advanced motion vector prediction with only 0.01% BD-rate increase that result is better than previous work, and the BDPSNR is almost the same as the HEVC reference software.
• Kenta KURIHARA, Masanori KIKUCHI, Shoko IMAIZUMI, Sayaka SHIOTA, Hitos ...
Type: PAPER
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2238-2245
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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In many multimedia applications, image encryption has to be conducted prior to image compression. This paper proposes a JPEG-friendly perceptual encryption method, which enables to be conducted prior to JPEG and Motion JPEG compressions. The proposed encryption scheme can provides approximately the same compression performance as that of JPEG compression without any encryption, where both gray scale images and color ones are considered. It is also shown that the proposed scheme consists of four block-based encryption steps, and provide a reasonably high level of security. Most of conventional perceptual encryption schemes have not been designed for international compression standards, but this paper focuses on applying the JPEG and Motion JPEG standards, as one of the most widely used image compression standards. In addition, this paper considers an efficient key management scheme, which enables an encryption with multiple keys to be easy to manage its keys.
• Kosuke TOMITA, Masahide HATANAKA, Takao ONOYE
Type: PAPER
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2246-2253
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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Viterbi decoding is commonly used for several protocols, but computational cost is quite high and thus it is necessary to implement it effectively. This paper describes GPU implementation of Viterbi decoder utilizing three-point Viterbi decoding algorithm (TVDA), in which the received bits are divided into multiple chunks and several chunks are decoded simultaneously. Coalesced access and Warp Shuffle, which is new instruction introduced are also utilized in order to improve decoder performance. In addition, iterative execution of parallel chunks decoding reduces the latency of proposed Viterbi decoder in order to utilize the decoder as a part of GPU-based SDR transceiver. As the result, the throughput of proposed Viterbi decoder is improved by 23.1%.
• Yuta IDA, Chang-Jun AHN, Takahiro MATSUMOTO, Shinya MATSUFUJI
Type: PAPER
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2254-2262
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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Amplify-and-forward (AF) relay multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems can achieve high data rate and high quality communications. On the other hand, it has to estimate all channels between the source-relay and relay-destination nodes in the destination node. In MIMO/OFDM systems, high time resolution carrier interferometry (HTRCI) has been proposed to achieve an accurate channel estimation (CE) with a small number of pilot signals. However, since it has many interferences, an accurate CE is not obtained and the system performance is degraded in AF relay MIMO/OFDM systems. Therefore, in this paper, we propose the complex HTRCI (C-HTRCI) pilot signal and the enhanced minimum mean square error (E-MMSE) equalization to achieve an accurate CE and to improve the system performance for AF relay MIMO/OFDM systems.
• Jun JIANG, Xiaohong WU, Xiaohai HE, Pradeep KARN
Type: LETTER
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2263-2266
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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Crowd collectiveness, i.e., a quantitative metric for collective motion, has received increasing attention in recent years. Most of existing methods build a collective network by assuming each agent in the crowd interacts with neighbors within fixed radius r region or fixed k nearest neighbors. However, they usually use a universal r or k for different crowded scenes, which may yield inaccurate network topology and lead to lack of adaptivity to varying collective motion scenarios, thereby resulting in poor performance. To overcome these limitations, we propose a compressive sensing (CS) based method for measuring crowd collectiveness. The proposed method uncovers the connections among agents from the motion time series by solving a CS problem, which needs not specify an r or k as a priori. A descriptor based on the average velocity correlations of connected agents is then constructed to compute the collectiveness value. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in measuring crowd collectiveness, and performs on par with or better than the state-of-the-art methods.
• Takahiro NATORI, Nari TANABE, Toshihiro FURUKAWA
Type: LETTER
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2267-2269
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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This paper proposes the MIMO MC-CDMA channel estimation method for the various mobile environments. The distinctive feature of the proposed method is possible to robustly estimate with respect to the mobile velocity using the Kalman filter with the colored driving source. Effectiveness of the proposed method are shown by computer simulations.
• Chao ZHANG, Keke PANG, Lu MA
Type: LETTER
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2270-2273
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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The pilot symbols in the broadband Air-to-Ground (A/G) communications system, e.g., L-band Digital Aeronautical Communications System (L-DACS1), are expected to be also utilized for navigation. In order to identify the co-channel signals from different Ground Stations (GSs), the N-Shift Zero Correlation Zone (NS-ZCZ) sequences are employed for pilot sequences. The ideal correlation property of the proposed pilot sequence in ZCZ can maintain the signal with less co-channel interference. The simulation confirms that the more co-channel GSs are employed, the higher navigation accuracy can be achieved.
Regular Section
• Xiao WU, Zhou JIN, Dan NIU, Yasuaki INOUE
Type: PAPER
Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2274-2282
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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An effective time-step control method is proposed for the damped pseudo-transient analysis (DPTA). This method is based on the idea of the switched evolution/relaxation method which can automatically adapt the step size for different circuit states. Considering the number of iterations needed for the convergence of the Newton-Raphson method, the new method adapts the suitable time-step size with the status of previous steps. By numerical examples, it is proved that this method can improve the simulation efficiency and convergence for the DPTA method to solve nonlinear DC circuits.
• Sun-Mi PARK, Ku-Young CHANG, Dowon HONG, Changho SEO
Type: PAPER
Subject area: Algorithms and Data Structures
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2283-2290
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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A field multiplication in the extended binary field is often expressed using Toeplitz matrix-vector products (TMVPs), whose matrices have special properties such as symmetric or triangular. We show that such TMVPs can be efficiently implemented by taking advantage of some properties of matrices. This yields an efficient multiplier when a field multiplication involves such TMVPs. For example, we propose an efficient multiplier based on the Dickson basis which requires the reduced number of XOR gates by an average of 34% compared with previously known results.
• Hiroaki KIKUCHI, Kouichi ITOH, Mebae USHIDA, Hiroshi TSUDA, Yuji YAMAO ...
Type: PAPER
Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2291-2300
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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This paper studies a privacy-preserving decision tree learning protocol (PPDT) for vertically partitioned datasets. In vertically partitioned datasets, a single class (target) attribute is shared by both parities or carefully treated by either party in existing studies. The proposed scheme allows both parties to have independent class attributes in a secure way and to combine multiple class attributes in arbitrary boolean function, which gives parties some flexibility in data-mining. Our proposed PPDT protocol reduces the CPU-intensive computation of logarithms by approximating with a piecewise linear function defined by light-weight fundamental operations of addition and constant multiplication so that information gain for attributes can be evaluated in a secure function evaluation scheme. Using the UCI Machine Learning dataset and a synthesized dataset, the proposed protocol is evaluated in terms of its accuracy and the sizes of trees*.
• Chuan LV, Tongjiang YAN, Guozhen XIAO
Type: PAPER
Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2301-2306
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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Based on a unified representation of generalized cyclotomic classes, every generalized cyclotomic sequence of order d over $Z_{p_{1}^{e_{1}}p_{2}^{e_{2}}\cdots p_{r}^{e_{r}}}$ is shown to be a sum of d-residue sequences over $Z_{p_{s}^{e_{s}}}$ for $s\in \{1,2,\cdots,r \}$. For d=2, by the multi-rate approach, several generalized cyclotomic sequences are explicitly expressed by Legendre sequences, and their linear complexity properties are analyzed.
• Axel BEAUGENDRE, Satoshi GOTO
Type: PAPER
Subject area: Image
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2307-2314
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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This paper presents an Adapting Block-Propagative Background Subtraction (ABPBGS) designed for Ultra High Definition Television (UHDTV) foreground detection. The main idea is to detect block after block along the objects in order to skip all areas of the image in which there is no moving object. This is particularly interesting for UHDTV when the objects of interest could represent not even 0.1% of the total area. From a seed block which is determined in a previous iteration, the detection will spread along an object as long as it detects a part of that object. A block history map guaranties that each block is processed only once. Moreover, only small blocks are loaded and processed, thus saving computational time and memory usage. The process of each block is independent enough to be easily parallelized. Compared to 9 state-of-the-art works, the ABPBGS achieved the best results with an average global quality score of 0.57 (1 being the maximum) on a dataset of 4K and 8K UHDTV sequences developed for this work. None of the state-of-the-art methods could process 4K videos in reasonable time while the ABPBGS has shown an average speed of 5.18fps. In comparison, 5 of the 9 state-of-the-art methods performed slower on 270p down-scale version of the same videos. The experiments have also shown that for the process an 8K UHDTV video the ABPBGS can divide the memory required by about 24 for a total of 450MB.
• Akira TANAKA, Hirofumi TAKEBAYASHI, Ichigaku TAKIGAWA, Hideyuki IMAI, ...
Type: PAPER
Subject area: Neural Networks and Bioengineering
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2315-2324
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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For the last few decades, learning with multiple kernels, represented by the ensemble kernel regressor and the multiple kernel regressor, has attracted much attention in the field of kernel-based machine learning. Although their efficacy was investigated numerically in many works, their theoretical ground is not investigated sufficiently, since we do not have a theoretical framework to evaluate them. In this paper, we introduce a unified framework for evaluating kernel regressors with multiple kernels. On the basis of the framework, we analyze the generalization errors of the ensemble kernel regressor and the multiple kernel regressor, and give a sufficient condition for the ensemble kernel regressor to outperform the multiple kernel regressor in terms of the generalization error in noise-free case. We also show that each kernel regressor can be better than the other without the sufficient condition by giving examples, which supports the importance of the sufficient condition.
• Minook KIM, Tae-Jun LEE, Hyung-Min PARK
Type: LETTER
Subject area: Speech and Hearing
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2325-2329
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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This letter presents a two-stage method to extend the degenerate unmixing estimation technique (DUET) for reverberant speech separation. First, frequency-bin-wise attenuation and delay parameters are introduced and estimated by online update rules, to handle early reflections. Next, a mask reestimation algorithm based on the precedence effect is developed to detect and fix the errors on binary masks caused by late reflections. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method improves separation performance significantly.
• Weiqin YING, Yuehong XIE, Xing XU, Yu WU, An XU, Zhenyu WANG
Type: LETTER
Subject area: Numerical Analysis and Optimization
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2330-2335
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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The conical area evolutionary algorithm (CAEA) has a very high run-time efficiency for bi-objective optimization, but it can not tackle problems with more than two objectives. In this letter, a conical hypervolume evolutionary algorithm (CHEA) is proposed to extend the CAEA to a higher dimensional objective space. CHEA partitions objective spaces into a series of conical subregions and retains only one elitist individual for every subregion within a compact elitist archive. Additionally, each offspring needs to be compared only with the elitist individual in the same subregion in terms of the local hypervolume scalar indicator. Experimental results on 5-objective test problems have revealed that CHEA can obtain the satisfactory overall performance on both run-time efficiency and solution quality.
• Zhifan YE, Pinhui KE, Shengyuan ZHANG, Zuling CHANG
Type: LETTER
Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2336-2340
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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New classes of zero-difference balanced (ZDB) functions derived from Fermat quotients are proposed in this letter. Based on the new ZDB functions, some applications, such as the construction of optimal frequency hopping sequences set and perfect difference systems of sets, are introduced.
• Yan REN, Guilin WANG, Yunhong HU, Qiuyan WANG
Type: LETTER
Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2341-2348
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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In this paper, we first propose a notion of multiple authorities attribute-based designated confirmer signature scheme with unified verification. In a multiple authorities attribute-based designated confirmer signature scheme with unified verification, both the signer and the designated confirmer can run the same protocols to confirm a valid signature or disavow an invalid signature. Then, we construct a multiple authorities attribute-based designated confirmer signature scheme with unified verification. Finally, we prove the correctness and security of the proposed scheme.
• Masato UCHIDA
Type: LETTER
Subject area: Information Theory
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2349-2353
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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When there are multiple component predictors, it is promising to integrate them into one predictor for advanced reasoning. If each component predictor is given as a stochastic model in the form of probability distribution, an exponential mixture of the component probability distributions provides a good way to integrate them. However, weight parameters used in the exponential mixture model are difficult to estimate if there is no training samples for performance evaluation. As a suboptimal way to solve this problem, weight parameters may be estimated so that the exponential mixture model should be a balance point that is defined as an equilibrium point with respect to the distance from/to all component probability distributions. In this paper, we propose a weight parameter estimation method that represents this concept using a symmetric Kullback-Leibler divergence and generalize this method.
• Lin-Zhi SHEN, Fang-Wei FU, Xuan GUANG
Type: LETTER
Subject area: Coding Theory
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2354-2355
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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Linear codes with locality r and availability t have a wide application in distribution storage because they permit local repair and parallel accesses of hot data. In this letter, the locality and availability of some linear codes based on finite geometry are given. According to these results, we give some linear codes that have higher rate than known codes with the same locality and availability.
• Chao ZHANG, Lu MA
Type: LETTER
Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
2015 Volume E98.A Issue 11 Pages 2356-2359
Published: November 01, 2015
Released: November 01, 2015
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The pilot contamination is a serious problem which hinders the capacity increasing in the massive MIMO system. Similar to Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR) in the OFDMA system, Fractional Pilot Reuse (FPR) is proposed for the massive MIMO system. The FPR can be further classified as the strict FPR and soft FPR. Meanwhile, the detailed FPR schemes with pilot assignment and the mathematical models are provided. With FPR, the capacity and the transmission quality can be improved with metrics such as the higher Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) of the pilots, the higher coverage probability, and the higher system capacity.