IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E97.A , Issue 3
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Analog Circuit Techniques and Related Topics
  • Hideki ASAI
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 725
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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  • Kazuaki SAWADA, Hirokazu NAKAZAWA, Shoko TAKENAGA, Takeshi HIZAWA, Mas ...
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 726-733
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    To visualize the biochemical distribution two-dimensionally, we invented a solid-state-type ion image sensor that indicates the chemical activity of solutions and cells. The device, which consists of a CCD array covered with a functionalized membrane to detect charge accumulation, is highly sensitive to changes in the concentration and two-dimensional distribution of ions and biomaterials.
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  • Norihiro KAMAE, Akira TSUCHIYA, Hidetoshi ONODERA
    Type: PAPER
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 734-740
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    A body bias generator (BBG) for fine-grained body biasing (FGBB) is proposed. The FGBB is effective to reduce variability and power consumption in a system-on-chip (SoC). Since FGBB needs a number of BBGs, the BBG is preferred to be implemented in cell-based design procedure. In the cell-based design, it is inefficient to provide an extra supply voltage for BBGs. We invented a BBG with switched capacitor configuration and it enables BBG to operate with wide range of the supply voltage from 0.6V to 1.2V. We fabricated the BBG in a 65nm CMOS process to control 0.1mm2 of core circuit with the area overhead of 1.4% for the BBG.
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  • Yasushi IGARASHI, Tadashi CHIBA, Shin-ichi O'UCHI, Meishoku MASAHARA, ...
    Type: PAPER
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 741-748
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    Voltage multiplier (VM) circuits for RF (2.45GHz)-to-DC conversion are developed for battery-less sensor nodes. Converted DC power is charged on a storage capacitor before driving a wireless sensor module. A charging time of the storage capacitor of the proposed VM circuits is reduced 1/10 of the conventional VM circuits, because they have constant current characteristics owing to self-control of body bias in diode-connected SOI MOSFETs. The wireless sensor system composed of the fabricated VM chip and a commercially available sensor module is operated using an RF signal of a wireless LAN modem (2.45GHz) as a power source.
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  • Eisuke FUKUDA, Yasuyuki OISHI, Takeshi TAKANO, Daisuke TAKAGO, Yoshima ...
    Type: PAPER
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 749-758
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This paper describes the details of the iteration process used to determine the transfer functions of linear time-invariant (LTI) circuits causing the memory effect of power amplifier (PA). An outline of the method is reported in our work presented at ICCS2012. The accuracy of the method is improved by using cross-correlation spectra at three signal levels, and its validity is confirmed by a computer simulation. The method can be applied to online updating of PAs operating in mobile communication systems. The updating is realized separately from the fast varying nonlinear coefficients. The possibility of updating with a short interval is indirectly shown for the nonlinear coefficients using a procedure similar to that of memoryless PAs. For PAs characterized by the method, this paper also describes the inverses that cancel the nonlinear distortion with minimum complexity. The validity of the inverse is confirmed by a computer simulation on the power spectrum of the PA for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals with 500 subcarriers. The simulated spectra show that the fifth order or higher inverses are effective in keeping adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACLR) lower than -60dB at the practical signal level. Improvements in the error vector magnitude (EVM) due to the inverse were also confirmed by reductions of gain and phase variations under varying envelope conditions.
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  • Yuka ITANO, Shotaro MORIMOTO, Sadayuki YOSHITOMI, Nobuyuki ITOH
    Type: PAPER
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 759-767
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This paper presents the strategy of MOS varactor's high-Q optimization, a novel scalable model for the quasi-millimeter-wave MOS varactors, and confirmation results by discrete MOS varactors and VCO measurements. To realize a high-Q MOS varactor in the quasi-millimeter-wave region, low MOS varactor capacitance and low series resistance of unit cell are essential. Downsizing is a key to realize both low capacitance and low resistance. However, it is induced by Cmax/Cmin reduction, simultaneously. Therefore, scalable MOS varactor model is necessary to use optimum MOS varactor to cover various application requirements using same process. Decreasing the MOS varactor's size of W/L =2µm/2µm to 0.5µm/0.26µm, the Q factor increased sevenfold at f =20GHz but Cmax/Cmin is reduced by 60%, by using conventional PSP model, an error of approximately 20% is shown. Proposed model has been improved its accuracy from 18.9% to 0.2% for N+ MOS varactor and from 22.1% to 0.8% for P+ MOS varactor, for minimum size of MOS varactor even if model covers wide dimension range. Also, it has been confirmed this model is covered in two types of layouts. Oscillation frequency and phase noise also have been confirmed by three types of 22GHz VCOs. The accuracy of oscillation frequency is less than 2.5% and that of phase noise at 1MHz offset from carrier is less than 5dB.
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  • SinNyoung KIM, Akira TSUCHIYA, Hidetoshi ONODERA
    Type: PAPER
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 768-776
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This paper presents an analysis of radiation-induced clock-perturbation in phase-locked loop (PLL). Due to a trade-off between cost, performance, and reliability, radiation hardened PLL design need robust strategy. Thus, evaluation of radiation vulnerability is important to choose the robust strategy. The conventional evaluation-method is however based on brute-force analysis — SPICE simulation and experiment. The presented analysis result eliminates the brute-force analysis in evaluation of the radiation vulnerability. A set of equations enables to predict the radiation-induced clock-perturbation at the every sub-circuits. From a demonstration, the most vulnerable nodes have been found, which are validated using a PLL fabricated with 0.18µm CMOS process.
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  • Satoshi KOMATSU, Takahiro J. YAMAGUCHI, Mohamed ABBAS, Nguyen Ngoc MAI ...
    Type: LETTER
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 777-780
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This paper proposes a new flash time-to-digital converter (TDC) circuit which exploits unbalanced arbiters to integrate intrinsic delay offsets into the decision elements. The unbalanced arbiters are implemented with cross-coupled standard NAND cells and the combination of the NAND cells decides the timing offset between two input signals. Simulations and measurements are conducted to validate the new circuit, which provides variable time difference ranges by controlling the slope of input signals. Since the proposed flash TDC uses only NAND cells in a standard cell library for the arbiters which easily enables the TDC to be used as a soft macro in a typical digital circuit design flow.
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  • Chatchai WANNABOON, Wimol SAN-UM
    Type: LETTER
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 781-783
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This paper presents an implementation of a digital chaotic signal generator based on compound one-dimensional sinusoidal maps. The proposed chaotic map not only offers high chaoticity measured from a positive lyapunov exponent but also provides diverse bifurcation structures with robust chaos over most regions of parameter spaces. Implementation on FPGA realizes small number of components and offers a highly random chaotic sequence with no autocorrelation. The proposed chaotic signal generator offers a potential alternative in random test pattern generation or in secured data communication applications.
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Regular Section
  • Yusuke MIZUNO, Kazunobu KONDO, Takanori NISHINO, Norihide KITAOKA, Kaz ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Engineering Acoustics
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 784-791
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    Blind source separation is a technique that can separate sound sources without such information as source location, the number of sources, and the utterance content. Multi-channel source separation using many microphones separates signals with high accuracy, even if there are many sources. However, these methods have extremely high computational complexity, which must be reduced. In this paper, we propose a computational complexity reduction method for blind source separation based on frequency domain independent component analysis (FDICA) and examine temporal data that are effective for source separation. A frame with many sound sources is effective for FDICA source separation. We assume that a frame with a low kurtosis has many sound sources and preferentially select such frames. In our proposed method, we used the log power spectrum and the kurtosis of the magnitude distribution of the observed data as selection criteria and conducted source separation experiments using speech signals from twelve speakers. We evaluated the separation performances by the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) improvement score. From our results, the SIR improvement score was 24.3dB when all the frames were used, and 23.3dB when the 300 frames selected by our criteria were used. These results clarified that our proposed selection criteria based on kurtosis and magnitude is effective. Furthermore, we significantly reduced the computational complexity because it is proportional to the number of selected frames.
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  • Takashi SUDO, Hirokazu TANAKA, Ryuji KOHNO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 792-799
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    In this paper, we study an objective quality measure that approximates the subjective mean opinion score (MOS) for bandwidth-extended wideband speech with respect to narrowband speech. Bandwidth-extended speech should be widely evaluated by a subjective quality assessment such as MOS. However, such subjective quality assessments are expensive and time-consuming. This paper proposes a new objective quality measure that combines the perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) and spectral-distortion. We evaluated the correlation between our proposed scheme and MOS using AMR and AMR-WB speech codecs. The coefficient of correlation between the proposed scheme and the MOS value was found to be 0.973. We concluded that the proposed scheme is a valid and effective objective quality measure.
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  • Osamu TODA, Masahiro YUKAWA, Shigenobu SASAKI, Hisakazu KIKUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 800-808
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    We propose a novel adaptive filtering scheme named metric-combining normalized least mean square (MC-NLMS). The proposed scheme is based on iterative metric projections with a metric designed by combining multiple metric-matrices convexly in an adaptive manner, thereby taking advantages of the metrics which rely on multiple pieces of information. We compare the improved PNLMS (IPNLMS) algorithm with the natural proportionate NLMS (NPNLMS) algorithm, which is a special case of MC-NLMS, and it is shown that the performance of NPNLMS is controllable with the combination coefficient as opposed to IPNLMS. We also present an application to an acoustic echo cancellation problem and show the efficacy of the proposed scheme.
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  • Xiaoyong ZHANG, Noriyasu HOMMA, Kei ICHIJI, Makoto ABE, Norihiro SUGIT ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 809-819
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This paper presents a faster one-dimensional (1-D) phase-only correlation (POC)-based method for estimations of translations, rotation, and scaling in images. The proposed method is to project two-dimensional (2-D) images horizontally and vertically onto 1-D signals, and uses 1-D POCs of the 1-D signals to estimate the translations in images. Combined with a log-polar transform, the proposed method is extended to scaling and rotation estimations. Compared with conventional 2-D and 1-D POC-based methods, the proposed method performs in a lower computational cost. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of estimating large translations, rotation and scaling in images, and its accuracy is comparable to those of the conventional POC-based methods. The experimental results also show that the computational cost of the proposed method is much lower than those of the conventional POC-based methods.
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  • Xin DANG, Takayoshi NAKAI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 820-829
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    The estimation of the power spectral density (PSD) of noise is crucial for retrieving speech in noisy environments. In this study, we propose a novel method for estimating the non-white noise PSD from noisy speech on the basis of a generalized gamma distribution and the minimum mean square error (MMSE) approach. Because of the highly non-stationary nature of speech, deriving its actual spectral probability density function (PDF) using conventional modeling techniques is difficult. On the other hand, spectral components of noise are more stationary than those of speech and can be represented more accurately by a generalized gamma PDF. The generalized gamma PDF can be adapted to optimally match the actual distribution of the noise spectral amplitudes observed at each frequency bin utilizing two real-time updated parameters, which are calculated in each frame based on the moment matching method. The MMSE noise PSD estimator is derived on the basis of the generalized gamma PDF and Gaussian PDF models for noise and speech spectral amplitudes, respectively. Combined with an improved Weiner filter, the proposed noise PSD estimate method exhibits the best performance compared with the minimum statistics, weighted noise estimation, and MMSE-based noise PSD estimation methods in terms of both subjective and objective measures.
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  • Yosuke TANAKA, Shun-ichi AZUMA, Toshiharu SUGIE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 830-839
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This paper addresses a broadcast control problem of multi-agent systems with quantized measurements, where each agent moves based on the common broadcasted signal and tries to minimize a given quadratic performance index. The problem is solved by introducing dither type random movements to the agents' action which reduce the degradation caused by quantized measurements. A broadcast controller is derived and it is proven that the controller approximately achieves given tasks with probability 1. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by numerical simulation.
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  • Alexandros KORDONIS, Takashi HIKIHARA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 840-847
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    AC conversion has a huge variety of applications and so there are many ongoing research topics as in every type of power electronic conversion. New semiconductors allow the increase of the switching frequency fact that brings a whole new prospective improvement in converter's operation. Many other possible nonlinear operation regimes, including period doubling and chaotic oscillations, appear besides the conventional steady state operation. In this work, a nonlinear discrete-time model of an AC/AC buck type converter is proposed. A discrete time iterative map is derived to highlight the sensitive switching dynamics. The model is able to observe fast scale phenomena and short transient effects. It offers more information compared to other methods such as the averaging ones. According to Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) regulations, low wide-band noise is more acceptable than the high narrow-band, therefore the goal of this work is to spread the harmonic noise into a wide frequency spectrum which has lower amplitudes compared to the conventional comb-like spectrum with distinctive amplitudes at switching frequency multiples. Through the numerical and experimental consideration the converter can operate in a chaotic motion and the advantages of the performance improvement are also discussed.
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  • Taku OKADA, Akira SUZUKI, Takehiro ITO, Xiao ZHOU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Algorithms and Data Structures
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 848-857
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    Suppose that each arc in a digraph D = (V,A) has two costs of non-negative integers, called a spine cost and a leaf cost. A caterpillar is a directed tree consisting of a single directed path (of spine arcs) and leaf vertices each of which is incident to the directed path by exactly one incoming arc (leaf arc). For a given terminal set KV, we study the problem of finding a caterpillar in D such that it contains all terminals in K and its total cost is minimized, where the cost of each arc in the caterpillar depends on whether it is used as a spine arc or a leaf arc. In this paper, we first show that the problem is NP-hard for any fixed constant number of terminals with |K| ≥ 3, while it is solvable in polynomial time for at most two terminals. We also give an inapproximability result for any fixed constant number of terminals with |K| ≥ 3. Finally, we give a linear-time algorithm to solve the problem for digraphs with bounded treewidth, where the treewidth for a digraph D is defined as the one for the underlying graph of D. Our algorithm runs in linear time even if |K| = O(|V|), and the hidden constant factor of the running time is just a single exponential of the treewidth.
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  • Jongwon SEOK, Taehwan KIM, Keunsung BAE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Engineering Acoustics
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 858-861
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This letter deals with angular position classification using the synthesized active sonar returns from targets. For the synthesis of active sonar returns, we synthesized active sonar returns based on ray tracing algorithm for 3D highlight models. Then, a fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) was applied to the sonar returns to extract the angular position information depending on the target aspect by utilizing separation capability of the time-delayed combination of linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals in the FrFT domain. With the FrFT-based features, three different target angular positions were classified using neural networks.
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  • Li ZENG, Xiongwei ZHANG, Liang CHEN, Weiwei YANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 862-864
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    Presented is a new measuring and reconstruction framework of Compressed Sensing (CS), aiming at reducing the measurements required to ensure faithful reconstruction. A sparse vector is segmented into sparser vectors. These new ones are then randomly sensed. For recovery, we reconstruct these vectors individually and assemble them to obtain the original signal. We show that the proposed scheme, referred to as SegOMP, yields higher probability of exact recovery in theory. It is finished with much smaller number of measurements to achieve a same reconstruction quality when compared to the canonical greedy algorithms. Extensive experiments verify the validity of the SegOMP and demonstrate its potentials.
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  • Chungsoo LIM, Soojeong LEE, Jae-Hun CHOI, Joon-Hyuk CHANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 865-868
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    In this letter, we propose a simple but effective technique that improves statistical model-based voice activity detection (VAD) by both reducing computational complexity and increasing detection accuracy. The improvements are made by applying Taylor series approximations to the exponential and logarithmic functions in the VAD algorithm based on an in-depth analysis of the algorithm. Experiments performed on a smartphone as well as on a desktop computer with various background noises confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
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  • Sungryul LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 869-872
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This paper proposes the state observer design for feedforward nonlinear systems with delayed output. It is shown that by using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the proposed design method ensures the asymptotic stability of estimation error for an arbitrarily large output delay. Finally, an illustrative example is given in order to show the effectiveness of our design method.
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  • Chao ZHANG, Jialuo XIAO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 873-876
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    A Networked Control System (NCS) can be considered a form of Cyber-Physical System (CPS) with its network architecture and typical features, such as delay, jitter and package loss. So far, less discussion has been carried out for NCS from the view point of CPS. In this letter, the NCS with short delay is analyzed with cyber-physical integration. The sampling rate is depicted as one of the states in the state equations. The simulation results show that the cyber-physical integration not only adjusts the sampling rate to the states of the controlled physical system, but also adapts to the delay of the network. The averaged sampling rate and the stabilization time are smaller compared with the traditional NCS.
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  • Chang-Seop PARK
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 877-880
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    Security plays an important role in several ZigBee applications such as Smart Energy and medical sensor applications. For a secure communication among ZigBee devices, a secret key should be shared among any two ZigBee devices using the Key Distribution protocol. Recently, Yüksel and Nielson proposed a new Key Distribution protocol for ZigBee addressing the security weaknesses of the original ZigBee Key Distribution protocol. In this letter, it is shown that their protocol is not secure against a key de-synchronization attack, and a security-enhanced Key Distribution protocol is newly proposed and analyzed in terms of security.
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  • Masato TAJIMA, Koji OKINO, Tatsuto MURAYAMA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 881-887
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    In this paper, we clarify the relationship between an initial (final) state in a tail-biting error-trellis and the obtained syndromes. We show that a final state is dependent on the first M syndromes as well, where M is the memory length of the parity-check matrix. Next, we calculate the probability of an initial (final) state conditioned by the syndromes. We also apply this method to concrete examples. It is shown that the initial (final) state in a tail-biting error-trellis is well estimated using these conditional probabilities.
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  • Fanxin ZENG, Xiaoping ZENG, Zhenyu ZHANG, Guixin XUAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 888-893
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This letter presents three methods for producing 8-QAM+ sequences. The first method transforms a ternary complementary sequence set (CSS) with even number of sub-sequences into an 8-QAM+ periodic CSS with both of the period and the number of sub-sequences unaltered. The second method results in an 8-QAM+ aperiodic CSS with confining neither the period nor the number of sub-sequences. The third method produces 8-QAM+ periodic sequences having ideal autocorrelation property on the real part of the autocorrelation function. The proposed sequences can be potentially applied to suppression of multiple access interference or synchronization in a communication system.
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  • Thu L. N. NGUYEN, Yoan SHIN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 894-898
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    Compressive sensing is a promising technique in data acquisition field. A central problem in compressive sensing is that for a given sparse signal, we wish to recover it accurately, efficiently and stably from very few measurements. Inspired by mathematical analysis, we introduce a combining scheme between stability and robustness in reconstruction problems using compressive sensing. By choosing appropriate parameters, we are able to construct a condition for reconstruction map to perform properly.
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  • Qi XI, Chen HE, Lingge JIANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 899-903
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    The exact power distribution of the inter-cell interference is obtained explicitly for cell edge users who are surrounded by circular guard zones. Compared with recent works, the underlying channel model is generalized from Rayleigh fading to a combination of Nakagami fading and Gamma shadowing. In addtion, asymptotic analysis shows that the mean power of intercell interference changes from infinite to finite with a guard zone. Based on this interference distribution, the average capacity at the cell edge is further obtained. Special case approximation indicates that the capacity scales proportionally to the exponential of the guard zone size. Analytical capacities are validated by Monte Carlo simulations.
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  • Ding XU, Qun LI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 904-906
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    The problem of resource allocation to minimize the outage probability for the secondary user (SU) groups in a cognitive radio (CR) multicast network is investigated. We propose a joint power and rate allocation scheme that provides significant improvement over the conventional scheme in terms of outage probability.
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  • Taekook KIM, Chunying LI, Taihyong YIM, Youngjun KIM, Myeongyu KIM, Ji ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 3 Pages 907-910
    Published: March 01, 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    This study proposes an integrated technology based on Proxy Mobile IPv6, which is a network-based protocol with mobility support, and a mobile content delivery network (CDN) that provides efficient content delivery management. The proposed architecture offers several benefits, such as the conservation of network resources because of reduced total traffic between hops and a reduced hop count.
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