IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E92.A , Issue 9
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Multi-dimensional Mobile Information Networks
  • Hiroshi HARADA
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2157-2158
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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  • Naohiko IWAKIRI, Takehiko KOBAYASHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Ultra Wideband System
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2159-2166
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    This paper proposes an ultra-wideband double-directional spatio-temporal channel sounding technique using transformation between frequency- and time-domain (FD and TD) signals. Virtual antenna arrays, composed of omnidirectional antennas and scanners, are used for transmission and reception in the FD. After Fourier transforming the received FD signals to TD ones, time of arrival (TOA) is estimated using a peak search over the TD signals, and then angle of arrivals (AOA) and angle of departure (AOD) are estimated using a weighted angle histogram with a multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm applied to the FD signals, inverse-Fourier transformed from the TD signals divided into subregions. Indoor channel sounding results validated that an appropriate weighting reduced a spurious level in the angle histogram by a factor of 0.1 to 0.2 in comparison with that of non-weighting. The proposed technique successfully resolved dominant multipath components, including a direct path, a single reflection, and a single diffraction, in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS environments. Joint TOA and AOA/AOD spectra were also derived from the sounding signals. The spectra illustrated the dominant multipath components (agreed with the prediction by ray tracing) as clusters.
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  • Chin-Sean SUM, Mohammad Azizur RAHMAN, Shigenobu SASAKI, Hiroshi HARAD ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Ultra Wideband System
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2167-2176
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    This paper proposes a hybrid multiband (MB) ultra wideband (UWB) system with direct sequence (DS) spreading. The theoretical error analysis for the DS-MB-UWB multiple access system with Rake receiver in the presence of multipath and narrowband interference is developed. The developed theoretical framework models the multiple access interference (MAI), multipath interference (MI) and narrowband interference for the designed UWB system. It is shown that the system error performance corresponding to the combining effects of these interference can be accurately modeled and calculated. Monte Carlo simulation results are provided to validate the accuracy of the model. Additionally, it is found that narrowband interference can be mitigated effectively in the multiband UWB system by suppressing the particular UWB sub-band co-existing with the interfering narrowband signal. A typical improvement of 5dB can be achieved with 75% sub-band power suppression. On the other hand, suppression of UWB sub-band is also found to decrease frequency diversity, thus facilitating the increase of MAI. In this paper, the developed model is utilized to determine the parameters that optimize the UWB system performance by minimizing the effective interference.
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  • Louis-Ray HARRIS, Takashi HIKAGE, Toshio NOJIMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless LAN System
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2177-2183
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique is presented in this paper as an estimation method for radio propagation prediction in large and complex wireless local area network (WLAN) environments. Its validity is shown by comparing measurements and Ray-trace method with FDTD data. The 2GHz (802.11b/g) and 5GHz (802.11a) frequency bands are used in both the calculations and experiments. The electric field (E-field) strength distribution has been illustrated in the form of histograms and cumulative ratio graphs. By using the FDTD method to vary the number of human bodies in the environment, the effects on E-field distribution due to human body absorption are also observed for 5GHz WLAN design.
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  • Takefumi HIRAGURI, Masakatsu OGAWA, Makoto UMEUCHI, Tetsu SAKATA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless LAN System
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2184-2190
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    Wireless LAN access is now being offered by small personal terminals in addition to laptops. Since these terminals have very limited battery capacity, wireless LAN interfaces that offer some form of power saving are essential. IEEE802.11. specifies PSM (Power save management); it reduces power consumption by suspending some communications functions. However, since Multicasting and Broadcasting are invariably received by all terminals regardless of PSM, the terminals unnecessarily consume electric power, even if the terminal is not multicast subscriber. This paper clarifies this problem, and proposes a scheme for reducing power consumption. The results of an experiment confirm its excellent performance.
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  • Nararat RUANGCHAIJATUPON, Yusheng JI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Broadband Wireless Access System
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2191-2199
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    We have developed a novel downlink packet scheduling scheme for a multiuser OFDMA system in which a subchannel can be time-multiplexed among multiple users. This scheme which is called Matrixed-based Proportional Fairness can provide a high system throughput while ensuring fairness. The scheme is based on a Proportional Fairness (PF) utility function and can be applied to any of the PF-based schedulers. Our scheduler explores multichannel multiuser diversity by using a two-dimensional matrix combining user selection, subchannel assignment, and time slot allocation. Furthermore, unlike other PF-based schemes, our scheme considers finitely backlogged queues during the time slot allocation. By doing so, it can exploit multichannel multiuser diversity to utilize bandwidth efficiently and with throughput fairness. Additionally, fairness in the time domain is enhanced by limiting the number of allocated time slots. Intensive simulations considering finitely backlogged queues and user mobility prove the scheme's effectiveness.
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  • Silada INTARASOTHONCHUN, Sakchai THIPCHAKSURAT, Ruttikorn VARAKULSIRIP ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Broadband Wireless Access System
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2200-2208
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    In this paper, we propose a modified scheme of MSODB and PMS, called Predictive User Mobility Behavior (PUMB) to improve performance of resource reservation and call admission control for cellular networks. This algorithm is proposed in which bandwidth is allocated more efficiently to neighboring cells by key mobility parameters in order to provide QoS guarantees for transferring traffic. The probability is used to form a cluster of cells and the shadow cluster, where a mobile unit is likely to visit. When a mobile unit may change the direction and migrate to the cell that does not belong to its shadow cluster, we can support it by making efficient use of predicted nonconforming call. Concomitantly, to ensure continuity of on-going calls with better utilization of resources, bandwidth is borrowed from predicted nonconforming calls and existing adaptive calls without affecting the minimum QoS guarantees. The performance of the PUMB is demonstrated by simulation results in terms of new call blocking probability, handoff call dropping probability, bandwidth utilization, call successful probability, and overhead message transmission when arrival rate and speed of mobile units are varied. Our results show that PUMB provides the better performances comparing with those of MSODB and PMS under different traffic conditions.
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  • Noriaki MIYAZAKI, Yasuyuki HATAKAWA, Toshinori SUZUKI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Broadband Wireless Access System
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2209-2217
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    Aiming at actual evaluation of IMT-Advanced system performance using field tests, this paper develops an IMT-Advanced testbed system with a transmission bandwidth of 100MHz. Taking into account recent advances in research and development of an IMT-Advanced system, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) are also promising technologies in IMT-Advanced. In addition, in order to meet the requirements for IMT-Advanced, the system seems to have a bandwidth of about 100MHz with the aid of MIMO transmission. The developed system is based on the above more reliable prediction compared with previous studies, and the goals of this development are to provide a more realistic transmission performance, judgment criteria for operators introducing new air interfaces, and to explore new applications. This paper also presents the experimental results of rotational OFDM (R-OFDM) and twin turbo (T2) decoder implemented in the testbed and demonstrates that our proposals are better than the conventional schemes in actual radio transmission. Both physical layer technologies have been proposed by the authors, however, the previous works are only predicated on computer simulation. In this paper, the proposals are experimentally evaluated by distorting the transmitted signal on radio waves with a fading simulator and additional noise generator. When the packet error rate performance is measured, the measurement results are verified to be in good agreement with the simulation results. The experimental results also demonstrate that the R-OFDM can reduce the required carrier to the interference power ratio (CIR) of OFDM by about 1.1dB in single-input single output (SISO) multi-path fading channel. In addition, it becomes clear that the T2 decoder is better than the turbo decoder in error correction, and the required CIR reduction achieves about 0.8dB in SISO AWGN channel. The throughput performances are also measured with different modulation and coding conditions, and the measured forward throughput in the SISO AWGN channel achieves up to 373.6Mbps. In addition, by use of 2×2 MIMO transmission, the measurements results substantiate that throughput of 512.7Mbps can be realized even in the multi-path fading condition.
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  • Takeaki KOGA, Shigeaki TAGASHIRA, Teruaki KITASUKA, Tsuneo NAKANISHI, ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Multi-hop Wireless Network
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2218-2226
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    In OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol), the multipoint relay mechanism has been introduced to minimize routing overhead for flooding control traffic. In order to achieve as low a routing overhead as possible, the selection of MPRs (multipoint relays) is designed to limit the overall number of such relays in the network. OLSR provides the shortest paths in terms of hops; however, it does not take into account the QoS (quality of service) requirements. Therefore, QOLSR (Quality OLSR), which adds a QoS extension to the OLSR, has been proposed. Although QOLSR provides the best QoS path, its selection process does not consider the number of MPRs, which causes an increase in the routing overhead. In this paper, we focus on the selection process of MPRs in link state QoS routing protocol. We propose three heuristics for high-efficiency selections: MIMS, MQES, and MCIS. The basic approach of these selections is to determine a smaller set of MPRs that provide better QoS paths between any two nodes. The main objective in doing so is to maximize the QoS effect while limiting the routing overhead. In addition, we evaluate the performance of the routing protocols with the proposed selections by simulation. The results indicate that MIMS and MCIS achieve high-efficiency selection; as compared to QOLSR, MIMS reduces the maintenance cost by 30%, while the throughput of the resultant path is decreased by 13%, and MCIS reduces the cost by 21% without any decrease in the throughput.
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  • Kazuyuki MIYAKITA, Keisuke NAKANO, Masakazu SENGOKU, Shoji SHINODA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Multi-hop Wireless Network
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2227-2235
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    In multi-hop wireless networks, since source and destination nodes usually have some candidate paths between them, communication quality depends on the selection of a path from these candidates. For network design, characterizing the best path is important. To do this, in [1], [2], we used expected transmission count (ETX) as a metric of communication quality and showed that the best path for ETX is modeled by a path that consists of links whose lengths are close to each other in static one-dimensional multi-hop networks with a condition that the ETX function of a link is a convex monotonically increasing function. By using the results of this characterization, a minimum route ETX can be approximately computed in a one-dimensional random network. However, other metrics fail to satisfy the above condition, like medium time metric (MTM). In this paper, we use MTM as a metric of communication quality and show that we cannot directly apply the results of [1], [2] to the characterization of the best path for MTM and the computation of minimum route MTM. In this paper, we characterize the path that minimizes route MTM in a different manner from [1], [2] and propose a new approximate method suitable for the computation of minimum route MTM.
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  • Keisuke NAKANO, Kazuyuki MIYAKITA, Akira OTSUKA, Masakazu SENGOKU, Sho ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Multi-hop Wireless Network
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2236-2247
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    Analysis of waiting time to deliver a message M from a source S to a destination D is deeply related to connectivity analysis, which is an important issue in fundamental studies of mobile multi-hop networks. In [1], we compared the mean waiting times of two methods to deliver M with the mean value of the minimum waiting time. The mean minimum waiting time was obtained by computer simulation because theoretical analysis of this mean is not easy, although another two methods were analyzed theoretically. In this paper, we propose an approximate method to theoretically analyze the mean minimum waiting time in a one-dimensional street network, and show that this method gives a good approximation of the mean minimum waiting time. Also, we consider shadowing and change of directions of mobile nodes at intersections as negative factors arising in two-dimensional street networks. We extend the above method to compute the mean minimum waiting time considering these factors, and discuss how the mean minimum waiting time is affected by these factors.
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  • Kazuo MORI, Katsuhiro NAITO, Hideo KOBAYASHI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Multi-hop Wireless Network
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2248-2252
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    This paper proposes adaptive transmit window control based on both location of mobile stations and traffic load for channel state based packet transmissions in CDMA cellular downlink communications. The proposed scheme constrains downlink packet transmissions by employing a transmit window individually given to each mobile station. The transmit window size is adjusted by using the optimum threshold value, which is selected with regard to both the mobile locations and the traffic load. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme improved the transmission delay and fairness of service compared with the conventional scheme.
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  • Masakatsu OGAWA, Takefumi HIRAGURI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Multi-hop Wireless Network
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2253-2256
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    This paper proposes a power saving control function for battery-powered portable wireless LAN (WLAN) access points (APs) to extend the battery life. The IEEE802.11 standard does not support power saving control for APs. To enable a sleep state for an AP, the AP forces the stations (STAs) to refrain from transmitting frames using the network allocation vector (NAV) while the AP is sleeping. Thus the sleep state for the AP can be employed without causing frame loss at the STAs. Numerical analysis and computer simulation reveal that the newly proposed control technique conserves power compared to the conventional control.
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Regular Section
  • Waiyawut SANAYHA, Yuttapong RANGSANSERI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2257-2265
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    In this paper, we propose a novel image projection technique for face recognition applications based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The projection is performed through a couple subspace analysis for overcoming the “small sample size” problem. Also, weighted pairwise discriminant hyperplanes are used in order to provide a more accurate discriminant decision than that produced by the conventional LDA. The proposed technique has been successfully tested on three face databases. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms.
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  • Jiing-Dong HWANG, Zhi-Ren TSAI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2266-2274
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    This paper proposes a robust adaptive fuzzy PID control scheme augmented with a supervisory controller for unknown systems. In this scheme, a generalized fuzzy model is used to describe a class of unknown systems. The control strategy allows each part of the control law, i.e., a supervisory controller, a compensator, and an adaptive fuzzy PID controller, to be designed incrementally according to different guidelines. The supervisory controller in the outer loop aims at enhancing system robustness in the face of extra disturbances, variation in system parameters, and parameter drift in the adaptation law. Furthermore, an H control design method using the fuzzy Lyapunov function is presented for the design of the initial control gains that guarantees transient performance at the start of closed-loop control, which is generally overlooked in many adaptive control systems. This design of the initial control gains is a compound search strategy called conditional linear matrix inequality (CLMI) approach with IROA (Improved random optimal algorithm), it leads to less complex designs than a standard LMI method by fuzzy Lyapunov function. Numerical studies of the tracking control of an uncertain inverted pendulum system demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy. From results of this simulation, the generalized fuzzy model reduces the rule number of T-S fuzzy model indeed.
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  • Eiji MIYAGAWA, Toshimichi SAITO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2275-2282
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    This paper presents a new particle swarm optimizer characterized by growing tree topology. If a particle is stagnated then a new particle is born and is located away from the trap. Depending on the property of objective problems, particles are born successively and the growing swarm constitutes a tree-topology. Performing numerical experiments for typical benchmarks, the algorithm efficiency is evaluated in several key measures such as success rate, the number of iterations and the number of particles. As compared with other basic PSOs, we can suggest that the proposed algorithm has efficient performance in optimization with low-cost computation.
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  • Kang ZHAO, Jinian BIAN, Sheqin DONG, Yang SONG, Satoshi GOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2283-2294
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    To achieve an automated implementation for the application-specific heterogeneous multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoC), partitioning and mapping the sequential programs onto multiple parallel processors is one of the most difficult challenges. However, the existing traditional parallelizing techniques cannot solve the MPSoC-related problems effectively, so designers are still required to manually extract the concurrency potentials in the program. To solve this bottleneck, an automated application partition technique is needed. However, completely automatic parallelism is ineffective, so it is promising to explore concurrency for certain practical special structures. To settle those issues, this paper proposes a template-based algorithm to automatically partition a special load-compute-store (LCS) loop structure. Since specific-instruction customization for the application specific instruction-set processors (ASIPs) has interactions with task partitioning, the proposed algorithm integrates the dynamic pipelining and ASIP techniques using an iterative improvement strategy: first, an initial pipelining scheme is generated to obtain the maximum parallelism; second, under the primary partition results specific instructions are customized respectively for each subprogram; third, the program is repartitioned via pipelining under the specific instruction configurations. The proposed method has been implemented in the context of a commercial extensible multiprocessor design flow, using the Xtensa-based XTMP platform from Tensilica Inc. Based on a case study of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the experimental results indicate that the partitioned programs by the proposed method demonstrate an average speedup of 10× compared to the original sequential programs which have not been partitioned and run on the uniprocessor system.
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  • Kazuteru NAMBA, Hideo ITO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2295-2303
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    The importance of redundant technologies for improving dependability and delay fault testability are growing. This paper presents properties of a class of redundant technologies, namely two-rail logic, and analyzes testability of path delay faults occurring on two-rail logic circuits. The paper reveals the following characteristics of two-rail logic circuits: While the number of paths in two-rail logic circuits is twice that in ordinary single-rail logic circuits, the number of robust testable path delay faults in two-rail logic circuits is twice or more that in the single-rail logic circuits. This suggests two-rail logic circuits are more testable than ordinary single-rail logic circuits. On two-rail logic circuits, there may be some robust testable path delay faults that are functional un-sensitizable for any input vectors consisting of codewords of two-rail codes, i.e. for any input vectors that can occur during fault-free operation. Even if such faults occur, the circuits are still strongly fault secure for unidirectional stuck-at faults as well as they work correctly.
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  • Kazuyuki TANIMURA, Ryuta NARA, Shunitsu KOHARA, Youhua SHI, Nozomu TOG ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2304-2317
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    Modular multiplication is the most dominant arithmetic operation in elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), that is a type of public-key cryptography. Montgomery multiplier is commonly used to compute the modular multiplications and requires scalability because the bit length of operands varies depending on its security level. In addition, ECC is performed in GF(P) or GF(2n), and unified architecture for multipliers in GF(P) and GF(2n) is required. However, in previous works, changing frequency is necessary to deal with delay-time difference between GF(P) and GF(2n) multipliers because the critical path of the GF(P) multiplier is longer. This paper proposes unified dual-radix architecture for scalable Montgomery multiplications in GF(P) and GF(2n). This proposed architecture unifies four parallel radix-216 multipliers in GF(P) and a radix-264 multiplier in GF(2n) into a single unit. Applying lower radix to GF(P) multiplier shortens its critical path and makes it possible to compute the operands in the two fields using the same multiplier at the same frequency so that clock dividers to deal with the delay-time difference are not required. Moreover, parallel architecture in GF(P) reduces the clock cycles increased by dual-radix approach. Consequently, the proposed architecture achieves to compute a GF(P) 256-bit Montgomery multiplication in 0.28μs. The implementation result shows that the area of the proposal is almost the same as that of previous works: 39kgates.
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  • Ki-Yong AHN, Chong-Min KYUNG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2318-2325
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    This paper proposes an Integer Linear Programming (ILP)-based power minimization method by partitioning into regions, first, with three different VDD's(PM3V), and, secondly, with two different VDD's(PM2V). To reduce the solving time of triple-VDD case (PM3V), we also proposed a partitioned ILP method(p-PM3V). The proposed method provides 29% power saving on the average in the case of triple-VDD compared to the case of single VDD. Power reduction of PM3V compared to Clustered Voltage Scaling (CVS) was about 18%. Compared to the unpartitioned ILP formulation(PM3V), the partitioned ILP method(p-PM3V) reduced the total solution time by 46% at the cost of additional power consumption within 1.3%.
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  • Hung-Min SUN, Mu-En WU, Cheng-Ta YANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2326-2332
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    This investigation proposes two methods for embedding backdoors in the RSA modulus N=pq rather than in the public exponent e. This strategy not only permits manufacturers to embed backdoors in an RSA system, but also allows users to choose any desired public exponent, such as e=216+1, to ensure efficient encryption. This work utilizes lattice attack and exhaustive attack to embed backdoors in two proposed methods, called RSASBLT and RSASBES, respectively. Both approaches involve straightforward steps, making their running time roughly the same as that of normal RSA key-generation time, implying that no one can detect the backdoor by observing time imparity.
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  • Shigeki MIYAKE, Jun MURAMATSU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2333-2344
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    A channel code is constructed using sparse matrices for stationary memoryless channels that do not necessarily have a symmetric property like a binary symmetric channel. It is also shown that the constructed code has the following remarkable properties. 1. Joint source-channel coding: Combining channel code with lossy source code, which is also constructed by sparse matrices, a simpler joint source-channel code can be constructed than that constructed by the ordinary block code. 2. Universal coding: The constructed channel code has a universal property under a specified condition.
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  • Vo Tam VAN, Hajime MATSUI, Seiichi MITA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2345-2359
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    Generalized quasi-cyclic (GQC) codes form a wide and useful class of linear codes that includes thoroughly quasi-cyclic codes, finite geometry (FG) low density parity check (LDPC) codes, and Hermitian codes. Although it is known that the systematic encoding of GQC codes is equivalent to the division algorithm in the theory of Gröbner basis of modules, there has been no algorithm that computes Gröbner basis for all types of GQC codes. In this paper, we propose two algorithms to compute Gröbner basis for GQC codes from their parity check matrices; we call them echelon canonical form algorithm and transpose algorithm. Both algorithms require sufficiently small number of finite-field operations with the order of the third power of code-length. Each algorithm has its own characteristic. The first algorithm is composed of elementary methods and is appropriate for low-rate codes. The second algorithm is based on a novel formula and has smaller computational complexity than the first one for high-rate codes with the number of orbits (cyclic parts) less than half of the code length. Moreover, we show that a serial-in serial-out encoder architecture for FG LDPC codes is composed of linear feedback shift registers with the size of the linear order of code-length; to encode a binary codeword of length n, it takes less than 2n adder and 2n memory elements.
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  • Ju-Ya CHEN, Hsuan-Chang LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2360-2365
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    Scheduling algorithms are crucial in radio resource management especially for multimedia networks. Many scheduling algorithms are based on the assumption of error-free connections, which is not suitable for wireless networks. Therefore, a scheduling algorithm based on the modification of Static Priority (SP) algorithm and Earliest-Due-Date (EDD) algorithm is proposed for wireless multimedia networks with link adaptation in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, various quality of service requirements, such as delay, throughput, and packet loss ratio, are considered. Particularly, the influence of error tolerance of voice communications, which is usually ignored in most scheduling algorithms, is taken into account. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm, compared with SP, EDD, and other scheduling algorithms, succeeds in meeting the delay and packet loss ratio (PLR) requirements at much heavier traffic load.
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  • Ann-Chen CHANG, Yu-Hong LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2366-2368
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    This Letter deals with the problem of non-line-of-sight (NLOS) in cellular systems devoted to location purposes. In conjugation with a variable loading technique, we present an efficient technique to make covariance shaping least squares estimator has robust capabilities against the NLOS effects. Compared with other methods, the proposed improved estimator has high accuracy under white Gaussian measurement noises and NLOS effects.
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  • Kang LI, Juebang YU, Jian LI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2369-2375
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    In modern VLSI physical design, huge integration scale necessitates hierarchical design and IP reuse to cope with design complexity. Besides, interconnect delay becomes dominant to overall circuit performance. These critical factors require some modules to be placed along designated boundaries to effectively facilitate hierarchical design and interconnection optimization related problems. In this paper, boundary constraints of general floorplan are solved smoothly based on the novel representation Single-Sequence (SS). Necessary and sufficient conditions of rooms along specified boundaries of a floorplan are proposed and proved. By assigning constrained modules to proper boundary rooms, our proposed algorithm always guarantees a feasible SS code with appropriate boundary constraints in each perturbation. Time complexity of the proposed algorithm is O(n). Experimental results on MCNC benchmarks show effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
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  • Zheng-Liang HUANG, Fa-Xin YU, Shu-Ting ZHANG, Hao LUO, Ping-Hui WANG, ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Reliability, Maintainability and Safety Analysis
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2376-2379
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    GaAs MMICs (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits) reliability is a critical part of the overall reliability of the thermal solution in semiconductor devices. With MMICs reliability improved, GaAs MMICs failure rates will reach levels which are impractical to measure with conventional methods in the near future. This letter proposes a methodology to predict the GaAs MMICs reliability by combining empirical and statistical methods based on zero-failure GaAs MMICs life testing data. Besides, we investigate the effect of accelerated factors on MMICs degradation and make a comparison between the Weibull and lognormal distributions. The method has been used in the reliability evaluation of GaAs MMICs successfully.
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  • Fanxin ZENG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2380-2384
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
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    Based on trace function over finite field GF(pn), new construction of generalized Hadamard matrices with order pn is presented, where p is prime and n is even. The rows in new generalized Hadamard matrices are cyclically distinct and have large linear span, which greatly improves the security of the system employing them as spreading sequences.
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  • Shang-Chih MA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2009 Volume E92.A Issue 9 Pages 2385-2387
    Published: September 01, 2009
    Released: September 01, 2009
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    In this letter, we propose an improved block-coded modulation scheme for the Rayleigh fading channel. The proposed coding structure is constructed by providing interblock coding between adjacent blocks. The error performance of an example is simulated. The simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve large coding gain with reasonable decoding complexity.
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