IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E102.A , Issue 6
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Circuits and Systems
  • Shingo YAMAGUCHI
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 757
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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  • Teruo TANIMOTO, Takatsugu ONO, Koji INOUE
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 758-766
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    Correctly understanding microarchitectural bottlenecks is important to optimize performance and energy of OoO (Out-of-Order) processors. Although CPI (Cycles Per Instruction) stack has been utilized for this purpose, it stacks architectural events heuristically by counting how many times the events occur, and the order of stacking affects the result, which may be misleading. It is because CPI stack does not consider the execution path of dynamic instructions. Critical path analysis (CPA) is a well-known method to identify the critical execution path of dynamic instruction execution on OoO processors. The critical path consists of the sequence of events that determines the execution time of a program on a certain processor. We develop a novel representation of CPCI stack (Cycles Per Critical Instruction stack), which is CPI stack based on CPA. The main challenge in constructing CPCI stack is how to analyze a large number of paths because CPA often results in numerous critical paths. In this paper, we show that there are more than ten to the tenth power critical paths in the execution of only one thousand instructions in 35 benchmarks out of 48 from SPEC CPU2006. Then, we propose a statistical method to analyze all the critical paths and show a case study using the benchmarks.

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  • Kaya DEMİR, Salih ERGÜN
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 767-774
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    This paper presents an analysis of random number generators based on continuous-time chaotic oscillators. Two different methods for random number generation have been studied: 1) Regular sampling of a chaotic waveform, and 2) Chaotic sampling of a regular waveform. Kernel density estimation is used to analytically describe the distribution of chaotic state variables and the probability density function corresponding to the output bit stream. Random bit sequences are generated using analytical equations and results from numerical simulations. Applying the concepts of autocorrelation and approximate entropy, randomness quality of the generated bit sequences are assessed to analyze relationships between the frequencies of the regular and chaotic waveforms used in both random number generation methods. It is demonstrated that in both methods, there exists certain ratios between the frequencies of regular and chaotic signal at which the randomness of the output bit stream changes abruptly. Furthermore, both random number generation methods have been compared against their immunity to interference from external signals. Analysis shows that chaotic sampling of regular waveform method provides more robustness against interference compared to regular sampling of chaotic waveform method.

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  • Dabwitso KASAUKA, Kenta SUGIYAMA, Hiroshi TSUTSUI, Hiroyuki OKUHATA, Y ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 775-782
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    In recent years, much research interest has developed in image enhancement and haze removal techniques. With increasing demand for real time enhancement and haze removal, the need for efficient architecture incorporating both haze removal and enhancement is necessary. In this paper, we propose an architecture supporting both real-time Retinex-based image enhancement and haze removal, using a single module. Efficiently leveraging the similarity between Retinex-based image enhancement and haze removal algorithms, we have successfully proposed an architecture supporting both using a single module. The implementation results reveal that just 1% logic circuits overhead is required to support Retinex-based image enhancement in single mode and haze removal based on Retinex model. This reduction in computation complexity by using a single module reduces the processing and memory implications especially in mobile consumer electronics, as opposed to implementing them individually using different modules. Furthermore, we utilize image enhancement for transmission map estimation instead of soft matting, thereby avoiding further computation complexity which would affect our goal of realizing high frame-rate real time processing. Our FPGA implementation, operating at an optimum frequency of 125MHz with 5.67M total block memory bit size, supports WUXGA (1,920×1,200) 60fps as well as 1080p60 color input. Our proposed design is competitive with existing state-of-the-art designs. Our proposal is tailored to enhance consumer electronic such as on-board cameras, active surveillance intrusion detection systems, autonomous cars, mobile streaming systems and robotics with low processing and memory requirements.

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  • Pil-Ho LEE, Young-Chan JANG
    Type: LETTER
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 783-787
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    A 3Gbps/lane transmission buffer chip including a high-speed mode detector is proposed for a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based frame generator supporting the mobile industry processor interface (MIPI) D-PHY version 1.2. It performs 1-to-3 repeat while buffering low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) or scalable low voltage signaling (SLVS) to SLVS.

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Regular Section
  • Yuanlei QI, Feiran YANG, Ming WU, Jun YANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 788-795
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    The blind multichannel identification is useful in many applications. Although many approaches have been proposed to address this challenging problem, the adaptive filtering-based methods are attractive due to their computational efficiency and good convergence property. The multichannel normalized least mean-square (MCNLMS) algorithm is easy to implement, but it converges very slowly for a correlated input. The multichannel affine projection algorithm (MCAPA) is thus proposed to speed up the convergence. However, the convergence of the MCNLMS and MCAPA is still unsatisfactory in practice. In this paper, we propose a time-domain Kalman filtering approach to the blind multichannel identification problem. Specifically, the proposed adaptive Kalman filter is based on the cross relation method and also uses more past input vectors to explore the decorrelation property. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the MCNLMS and MCAPA significantly in terms of the initial convergence and tracking capability.

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  • Shuaihui WANG, Guyu HU, Zhisong PAN, Jin ZHANG, Dong LI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Graphs and Networks
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 796-807
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    Signed networks are ubiquitous in the real world. It is of great significance to study the problem of community detection in signed networks. In general, the behaviors of nodes in a signed network are rational, which coincide with the players in the theory of game that can be used to model the process of the community formation. Unlike unsigned networks, signed networks include both positive and negative edges, representing the relationship of friends and foes respectively. In the process of community formation, nodes usually choose to be in the same community with friends and between different communities with enemies. Based on this idea, we proposed a game theory model to address the problem of community detection in signed networks. Taking nodes as players, we build a gain function based on the numbers of positive edges and negative edges inside and outside a community, and prove the existence of Nash equilibrium point. In this way, when the game reaches the Nash equilibrium state, the optimal strategy space for all nodes is the result of the final community division. To systematically investigate the performance of our method, elaborated experiments on both synthetic networks and real-world networks are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is not only more accurate than other existing algorithms, but also more robust to noise.

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  • Kouya TOCHIKUBO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 808-817
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    In secret sharing schemes for general access structures, an important issue is the number of shares distributed to each participant. However, in general, the existing schemes are impractical in this respect when the size of the access structure is very large. In 2015, a secret sharing scheme that can reduce the number of shares distributed to specified participants was proposed (the scheme A of T15). In this scheme, we can select a subset of participants and reduce the number of shares distributed to any participant who belongs to the selected subset though this scheme cannot reduce the number of shares distributed to every participant. In other words, this scheme cannot reduce the number of shares distributed to each participant who does not belong to the selected subset. In this paper, we modify the scheme A of T15 and propose a new secret sharing scheme realizing general access structures. The proposed scheme can reduce the number of shares distributed to each participant who does not belong to the selected subset as well. That is, the proposed scheme is more efficient than the scheme A of T15.

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  • Yindong CHEN, Fei GUO, Hongyan XIANG, Weihong CAI, Xianmang HE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 818-824
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    Rotation symmetric Boolean functions which are invariant under the action of cyclic group have been used in many different cryptosystems. This paper presents a new construction of balanced odd-variable rotation symmetric Boolean functions with optimum algebraic immunity. It is checked that, at least for some small variables, such functions have very good behavior against fast algebraic attacks. Compared with some known rotation symmetric Boolean functions with optimum algebraic immunity, the new construction has really better nonlinearity. Further, the algebraic degree of the constructed functions is also high enough.

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  • Dong-Sun JANG, Ui-Seok JEONG, Gi-Hoon RYU, Kyunbyoung KO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 825-833
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    In this paper, we show exact bit error rates (BERs) for orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC) decoded-and-forward (DF) relaying networks over independent and non-identically distributed (INID) Rayleigh fading channels. We consider both non-adaptive DF (non-ADF) and adaptive DF (ADF) schemes for OSTBC relay networks with arbitrary multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay antenna configurations. For each scheme, we derive the probability density functions (PDFs) of indirect link and combined links, respectively. Based on the derived PDFs, we express exact BERs and then, their accuracy is verified by the comparison with simulation results. It is confirmed that the transmit diversity gain of the relay node can be obtained when the relay is close to the source and then, the receive diversity gain of the relay node as well as ADF gain over non-ADF can be obtained when the relay is close to the destination.

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  • Zheng FANG, Tieyong CAO, Jibin YANG, Meng SUN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 834-841
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    Salient region detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision and image processing. Deep learning models perform better than traditional approaches but suffer from their huge parameters and slow speeds. To handle these problems, in this paper we propose the multi-feature fusion network (MFFN) - a efficient salient region detection architecture based on Convolution Neural Network (CNN). A novel feature extraction structure is designed to obtain feature maps from CNN. A fusion dense block is used to fuse all low-level and high-level feature maps to derive salient region results. MFFN is an end-to-end architecture which does not need any post-processing procedures. Experiments on the benchmark datasets demonstrate that MFFN achieves the state-of-the-art performance on salient region detection and requires much less parameters and computation time. Ablation experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of each module in MFFN.

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  • Tatsuya FUJII, Kazuhiro SHOUNO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Analog Signal Processing
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 842-844
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, a reduction of the number of components included in direct simulation type active complex filter is proposed. The proposed method is achieved by sharing NIC's (Negative Impedance Converters) which satisfy some conditions. Compared with the conventional method, the proposed one has wide generality. As an example, a third-order complex elliptic filter is designed. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed through experiment.

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  • Takuya KOJIMA, Mamoru KUNIEDA, Makoto NAKAMURA, Daisuke ITO, Keiji KIS ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Circuit Theory
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 845-848
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    We present a novel burst-mode transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with a gain-mode switching. The proposed TIA utilizes a regulated-cascode (RGC) input stage for broadband characteristics. To expand a dynamic range, the RGC controls a linear operating range depending on transimpedance gains by adjusting bias conditions. This TIA is implemented using the 0.18µm-CMOS technology. The experimental results show that the proposed TIA IC has a good eye-opening and can respond quickly to the burst data.

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  • Haode YAN, Dongchun HAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 849-853
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    In this letter, the differential uniformity of power function f(x)=xe over GF(3m) is studied, where m≥3 is an odd integer and $e=\frac{3^m-3}{4}$. It is shown that Δf≤3 and the power function is not CCZ-equivalent to the known ones. Moreover, we consider a family of ternary cyclic code C(1,e), which is generated by mω(x)mωe(x). Herein, ω is a primitive element of GF(3m), mω(x) and mωe(x) are minimal polynomials of ω and ωe, respectively. The parameters of this family of cyclic codes are determined. It turns out that C(1,e) is optimal with respect to the Sphere Packing bound.

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  • Feng LIU, Shuping WANG, Shengming JIANG, Yanli XU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 854-859
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    For the three-user X channel, its degree of freedom (DoF) 9/5 has been shown achievable theoretically through asymptotic model with infinite resources, which is impractical. In this article, we explore the propagation delay (PD) feature among different links to maximize the achievable DoF with the minimum cost. Since perfect interference alignment (IA) is impossible for 9 messages within 5 time-slots, at least one extra time-slot should be utilized. By the cyclic polynomial approach, we propose a scheme with the maximum achievable DoF of 5/3 for 10 messages within 6 time-slots. Feasibility conditions in the Euclidean space are also deduced, which demonstrates a quite wide range of node arrangements.

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  • Sae IWATA, Kazuaki ISHIKAWA, Toshinori TAKAYAMA, Masao YANAGISAWA, Noz ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Intelligent Transport System
    2019 Volume E102.A Issue 6 Pages 860-865
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
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    Cell phones with GPS function as well as GPS loggers are widely used and we can easily obtain users' geographic information. Now classifying the measured GPS positions into indoor/outdoor positions is one of the major challenges. In this letter, we propose a robust indoor/outdoor detection method based on sparse GPS measured positions utilizing machine learning. Given a set of clusters of measured positions whose center position shows the user's estimated stayed position, we calculate the feature values composed of: positioning accuracy, spatial features, and temporal feature of measured positions included in every cluster. Then a random forest classifier learns these feature values of the known data set. Finally, we classify the unknown clusters of measured positions into indoor/outdoor clusters using the learned random forest classifier. The experiments demonstrate that our proposed method realizes the maximum F1 measure of 1.000, which classifies measured positions into indoor/outdoor ones with almost no errors.

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