IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E97.A , Issue 5
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
Regular Section
  • Rongchun LI, Yong DOU, Jiaqing XU, Xin NIU, Shice NI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1027-1036
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    In this paper, we propose a fully parallel Turbo decoder for Software-Defined Radio (SDR) on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) platform. Soft Output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) is chosen for its low complexity and high throughput. The parallelism of SOVA is fully analyzed and the whole codeword is divided into multiple sub-codewords, where the turbo-pass decoding procedures are performed in parallel by independent sub-decoders. In each sub-decoder, an efficient initialization method is exploited to assure the bit error ratio (BER) performance. The sub-decoders are mapped to numerous blocks on the GPU. Several optimization methods are employed to enhance the throughput, such as the memory optimization, codeword packing scheme, and asynchronous data transfer. The experiment shows that our decoder has BER performance close to Max-Log-MAP and the peak throughput is 127.84Mbps, which is about two orders of magnitude faster than that of central processing unit (CPU) implementation, which is comparable to application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) solutions. The presented decoder can achieve higher throughput than that of the existing fastest GPU-based implementation.
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  • Kiyotaka YAMAMURA, Hideki TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1037-1041
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    A new algorithm is proposed for finding all solutions of piecewise-linear resistive circuits using separable programming. In this algorithm, the problem of finding all solutions is formulated as a separable programming problem, and it is solved by the modified simplex method using the restricted-basis entry rule. Since the modified simplex method finds one solution per application, the proposed algorithm can find all solutions efficiently. Numerical examples are given to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
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  • Kiyotaka YAMAMURA, Takuya MIYAMOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1042-1050
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    Homotopy methods are known to be effective methods for finding DC operating points of nonlinear circuits with the theoretical guarantee of global convergence. There are several types of homotopy methods; as one of the most efficient methods for solving bipolar transistor circuits, the variable-gain homotopy (VGH) method is well-known. In this paper, we propose an efficient VGH method for solving bipolar and MOS transistor circuits. We also show that the proposed method converges to a stable operating point with high possibility from any initial point. The proposed method is not only globally convergent but also more efficient than the conventional VGH methods. Moreover, it can easily be implemented in SPICE.
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  • Manabu KOBAYASHI, Hiroshi NINOMIYA, Yasuyuki MIURA, Shigeyoshi WATANAB ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Circuit Theory
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1051-1058
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    Hassoune and O'Connor proposed a dynamically reconfigurable dynamic logic circuit (DRDLC) that generates Boolean functions by using double-gate (DG) carbon nanotube (CNT) FETs, which have an ambipolar property. O'Connor et al. proposed a DRDLC that generates 14 Boolean functions asing two Boolean inputs with seven transistors. Furthermore, DRDLCs that generates all 16 Boolean functions have been proposed. In this paper, we focus on the design of a dynamic logic circuit with n Boolean inputs. First, we show a DRDLC that generates the monomial Boolean functions. Next, we propose a DRDLC that generates the whole set of Boolean functions consisting of t terms or less. Finally, we report the number of Boolean functions generated by the proposed DRDLC.
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  • Li DING, Zhangcai HUANG, Atsushi KUROKAWA, Jing WANG, Yasuaki INOUE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1059-1074
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    With the scaling of CMOS technology into the nanometer regime, the overshooting effect is more and more obvious and has a significant influence to gate delay and power consumption. Recently, researchers have already proposed the overshooting effect models for an inverter. However, the accurate overshooting effect model for multiple-input gates is seldom presented and the existing technology to reduce a multiple-input gate to an inverter is not useful when modeling the overshooting effect for multiple-input gates. Therefore, modeling the overshooting effect for multiple-input gates is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a formula-based model is presented for the overshooting time of 2-input NOR gate. Then, more complicated methods are given to calculate the overshooting time of 3-input NOR gate and other multiple-input gates. The proposed model is verified to have a good agreement, within 3.4% error margin, compared with SPICE simulation results using CMOS 32nm PTM model.
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  • Hatsuhiro KATO, Hatsuyoshi KATO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Numerical Analysis and Optimization
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1075-1085
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    Flexural waves on a thin elastic plate are governed by the fourth-order differential equation, which is attractive not only from a harmonic analysis viewpoint but also useful for an efficient numerical method in the elastdynamics. In this paper, we proposed two novel ideas: (1) use of the tensor bases to describe flexural waves on inhomogeneous elastic plates, (2) weak form discretization to derive the second-order difference equation from the fourth-order differential equation. The discretization method proposed in this study is of preliminary consideration about the recursive transfer method (RTM) to analyse the scattering problem of flexural waves. More importantly, the proposed discretization method can be applied to any system which can be formulated by the weak form theory. The accuracy of the difference equation derived by the proposed discretization method is confirmed by comparing the analytical and numerical solutions of waveguide modes. As a typical problem to confirm the validity of the resultant governing equation, the influence of the spatially modulated elastic constant in waveguide modes is discussed.
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  • Hiroaki ANADA, Seiko ARITA, Sari HANDA, Yosuke IWABUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1086-1102
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    We propose a notion of attribute-based identification (ABID) in two flavors: prover-policy ABID (PP-ABID) and verifier-policy ABID (VP-ABID). In a PP-ABID scheme, a prover has an authorized access policy written as a boolean formula over attributes, while each verifier maintains a set of attributes. The prover is accepted when his access policy fits the verifier's set of attributes. In a VP-ABID scheme, a verifier maintains an access policy written as a boolean formula over attributes, while each prover has a set of authorized attributes. The prover is accepted when his set of attributes satisfies the verifier's access policy. Our design principle is first to construct key-policy and ciphertext-policy attribute-based key encapsulation mechanisms (KP-ABKEM and CP-ABKEM). Second, we convert KP-ABKEM and CP-ABKEM into challenge-and-response PP-ABID and VP-ABID, respectively, by encapsulation-and-decapsulation. There, we show that KP-ABKEM and CP-ABKEM only have to be secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks on one-wayness (OW-CCA secure) for the obtained PP-ABID and VP-ABID to be secure against concurrent man-in-the-middle attacks (cMiM secure). According to the design principle, we construct concrete KP-ABKEM and CP-ABKEM with the OW-CCA security by enhancing the KP-ABKEM of Ostrovsky, Sahai and Waters and CP-ABKEM of Waters, respectively. Finally, we obtain concrete PP-ABID and VP-ABID schemes that are proved to be selectively secure in the standard model against cMiM attacks.
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  • Yongbo XIA, Shaoping CHEN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1103-1112
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    Let p be an odd prime and m be any positive integer. Assume that n=2m and e is a positive divisor of m with m/e being odd. For the decimation factor $d=\frac{(p^{m}+1)^2}{2(p^e+1)}$, the cross-correlation between the p-ary m-sequence $\{tr_1^n(\alpha^i)\}$ and its decimated sequence $\{tr_1^n(\alpha^{di})\}$ is investigated. The value distribution of the correlation function is completely determined. The results in this paper generalize the previous results given by Choi, Luo and Sun et al., where they considered some special cases of the decimation factor d with a restriction that m is odd. Note that the integer m in this paper can be even or odd. Thus, the decimation factor d here is more flexible than the previous ones. Moreover, our method for determining the value distribution of the correlation function is different from those adopted by Luo and Sun et al. in that we do not need to calculate the third power sum of the correlation function, which is usually difficult to handle.
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  • Daichi KITAMURA, Hiroshi SARUWATARI, Kosuke YAGI, Kiyohiro SHIKANO, Yu ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Engineering Acoustics
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1113-1118
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    In this letter, we address monaural source separation based on supervised nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF) and propose a new penalized SNMF. Conventional SNMF often degrades the separation performance owing to the basis-sharing problem. Our penalized SNMF forces nontarget bases to become different from the target bases, which increases the separated sound quality.
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  • Pedro PEREZ MUÑOZ, Renan QUIJANO CETINA, Manuel FLOTA BAÑ ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1119-1120
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    A novel real-time solar photovoltaic (SPV) emulator system, based on a systolic array network (SAN), is presented. This architecture follows the piecewise polynomial approximation and parallel computing techniques, and shows its capability to generate high-accuracy I-V, P-V curves, instead of traditional DSP and lookup table-based SPV systems.
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  • Ann-Chen CHANG, Chih-Chang SHEN, Kai-Shiang CHANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1121-1124
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    In this letter, the orthogonal projection (OP) estimation of the direction of arrival (DOA) and direction of departure (DOD) of multiple targets for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output radars is addressed. First, a two-dimensional direction finding estimator based on OP technique with automatic pairing is developed. Second, this letter also presents a modified reduced-dimension estimator by utilizing the characteristic of Kronecker product, which only performs two one-dimensional angle estimates. Furthermore, the DOA and DOD pairing is given automatically. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the efficiency of the proposed estimators.
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  • Qianjian XING, Feng YU, Xiaobo YIN, Bei ZHAO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1125-1129
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    In this letter, we present a radix-R regular interconnection pattern family of factorizations for the WHT-FFT with identical stage-to-stage interconnection pattern in a unified form, where R is any power of 2. This family of algorithms has identical sparse matrix factorization in each stage and can be implemented in a merged butterfly structure, which conduce to regular and efficient memory managing scalable to high radices. And in each stage, the butterflies with same twiddle factor set are aggregated together, which can reduce the twiddle factor evaluations or accesses to the lookup table. The kinds of factorization can also be extended to FFT, WHT and SCHT with identical stage-to-stage interconnection pattern.
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  • Kwanggoo YEO, Hyuk-soo SHIN, Hoon-gee YANG, Young-seek CHUNG, Myung-de ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1130-1135
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    This letter presents a novel phase synchronization algorithm for a MIMO radar system in order to overcome the limitation of the existing algorithms relying on channel reciprocity, or line-of-sight, assumption between radar elements. The proposed algorithm is capable of synchronizing local oscillator phases among radar elements even if line-of-sight communication links are not available. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm exhibits robust MSE performance in the presence of frequency estimation error. The performance of the proposed algorithm was analyzed theoretically and verified by simulations.
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  • Mahmoud KESHAVARZI, Delaram AMIRI, Amir Mansour PEZESHK, Forouhar FARZ ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1136-1139
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    This letter presents a novel method based on sparsity, to solve the problem of deinterleaving pulse trains. The proposed method models the problem of deinterleaving pulse trains as an underdetermined system of linear equations. After determining the mixing matrix, we find sparsest solution of an underdetermined system of linear equations using basis pursuit denoising. This method is superior to previous ones in a number of aspects. First, spurious and missing pulses would not cause any performance reduction in the algorithm. Second, the algorithm works well despite the type of pulse repetition interval modulation that is used. Third, the proposed method is able to separate similar sources.
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  • Miloš RADMANOVIC, Radomir S. STANKOVIC, Claudio MORAGA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1140-1143
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    This paper describes a method for the efficient computation of the total autocorrelation for large multiple-output Boolean functions over a Shared Binary Decision Diagram (SBDD). The existing methods for computing the total autocorrelation over decision diagrams are restricted to single output functions and in the case of multiple-output functions require repeating the procedure k times where k is the number of outputs. The proposed method permits to perform the computation in a single traversal of SBDD. In that order, compared to standard BDD packages, we modified the way of traversing sub-diagrams in SBDD and introduced an additional memory function kept in the hash table for storing results of the computation of the autocorrelation between two subdiagrams in the SBDD. Due to that, the total amount of computations is reduced which makes the method feasible in practical applications. Experimental results over standard benchmarks confirm the efficiency of the method.
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  • Huan HE, Feng YU, Bei ZHAO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Algorithms and Data Structures
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1144-1148
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    In this paper we apply angle recoding to the CORDIC-based processing elements in a scalable architecture for complex matrix inversion. We extend the processing elements from the scalable real matrix inversion architecture to the complex domain and obtain the novel scalable complex matrix inversion architecture, which can significantly reduce computational complexity. We rearrange the CORDIC elements to make one half of the processing elements simple and compact. For the other half of the processing elements, the efficient use of angler recoding reduces the number of microrotation steps of the CORDIC elements to 3/4. Consequently, only 3 CORDIC elements are required for the processing elements with full utilization.
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  • Xiaosheng YU, Chengdong WU, Long CHENG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Graphs and Networks
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1149-1152
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    The complicated indoor environment such as obstacles causes the non-line of sight (NLOS) environment. In this paper, we propose a voting matrix based residual weighting (VM-Rwgh) algorithm to mitigate NLOS errors in indoor localization system. The voting matrix is employed to provide initial localization results. The residual weighting is used to improve the localization accuracy. The VM-Rwgh algorithm can overcome the effects of NLOS errors, even when more than half of the measurements contain NLOS errors. Simulation results show that the VM-Rwgh algorithm provides higher location accuracy with relatively lower computational complexity in comparison with other methods.
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  • Dan-dan LI, Qiao-yan WEN, Jie ZHANG, Zu-ling CHANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1153-1158
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    Pseudo-random sequences with high linear complexity play important roles in many domains. We give linear complexity of generalized cyclotomic quaternary sequences with period pq over Z4 via the weights of its Fourier spectral sequence. The results show that such sequences have high linear complexity.
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  • Hak Gu KIM, Jin-ku KANG, Byung Cheol SONG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 5 Pages 1159-1161
    Published: May 01, 2014
    Released: May 01, 2014
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    This letter presents an automatic 2D-to-3D conversion method using a structure from motion (SfM) process for multi-object scenes. The foreground and background regions may have different depth values in an image. First, we detect the foreground objects and the background by using a depth histogram. Then, the proposed method creates the virtual image by projecting each region with its computed projective matrix. Experimental results compared to previous research show that the proposed method provides realistic stereoscopic images.
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