IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E97.A , Issue 8
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
Regular Section
  • Wemer M. WEE, Isao YAMADA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1659-1673
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    We consider a unified approach to the tracking analysis of adaptive filters with error and matrix data nonlinearities. Using energy-conservation arguments, we not only derive earlier results in a unified manner, but we also obtain new performance results for more general adaptive algorithms without requiring the restriction of the regression data to a particular distribution. Numerical simulations support the theoretical results.
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  • Kee-Hoon KIM, Hosung PARK, Seokbeom HONG, Jong-Seon NO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1674-1679
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    There have been many matching pursuit algorithms (MPAs) which handle the sparse signal recovery problem, called compressed sensing (CS). In the MPAs, the correlation step makes a dominant computational complexity. In this paper, we propose a new fast correlation method for the MPA when we use partial Fourier sensing matrices and partial Hadamard sensing matrices which are widely used as the sensing matrix in CS. The proposed correlation method can be applied to almost all MPAs without causing any degradation of their recovery performance. Also, the proposed correlation method can reduce the computational complexity of the MPAs well even though there are restrictions depending on a used MPA and parameters.
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  • Yozo SUZUKI, Masaki KOBAYASHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1680-1687
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    Complex-valued Hopfield associative memory (CHAM) is one of the most promising neural network models to deal with multilevel information. CHAM has an inherent property of rotational invariance. Rotational invariance is a factor that reduces a network's robustness to noise, which is a critical problem. Here, we proposed complex-valued bipartite auto-associative memory (CBAAM) to solve this reduction in noise robustness. CBAAM consists of two layers, a visible complex-valued layer and an invisible real-valued layer. The invisible real-valued layer prevents rotational invariance and the resulting reduction in noise robustness. In addition, CBAAM has high parallelism, unlike CHAM. By computer simulations, we show that CBAAM is superior to CHAM in noise robustness. The noise robustness of CHAM decreased as the resolution factor increased. On the other hand, CBAAM provided high noise robustness independent of the resolution factor.
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  • Rimon IKENO, Takashi MARUYAMA, Satoshi KOMATSU, Tetsuya IIZUKA, Makoto ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1688-1698
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    To improve throughput of Electron Beam Direct Writing (EBDW) with Character Projection (CP) method, a structured routing architecture (SRA) has been proposed to restrict VIA placement and wire-track transition. It reduces possible layout patterns in the interconnect layers, and increases VIA and metal figure numbers in the EB shots while suppressing the CP character number explosion. In this paper, we discuss details of the SRA design methodology, and demonstrate the CP performance by SRA in comparison with other EBDW techniques. Our experimental results show viable CP performance for practical use, and prove SRA's feasibility in 14nm mass fabrication.
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  • Shih-Hsu HUANG, Hua-Hsin YEH
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1699-1708
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    Because dielectrics between active layers have low thermal conductivities, there is a demand to reduce the temperature increase in three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs). This paper demonstrates that, in the design of 3D ICs, different layer assignments often lead to different temperature increases. Based on this observation, we are motivated to perform temperature-aware layer assignment. Our work includes two parts. Firstly, an integer linear programming (ILP) approach that guarantees a minimum temperature increase is proposed. Secondly, a polynomial-time heuristic algorithm that reduces the temperature increase is proposed. Compared with the previous work, which does not take the temperature increase into account, the experimental results show that both our ILP approach and our heuristic algorithm produce a significant reduction in the temperature increase with a very small area overhead.
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  • Nan WANG, Song CHEN, Wei ZHONG, Nan LIU, Takeshi YOSHIMURA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1709-1719
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    Scheduling is a key problem in high level synthesis, as the scheduling results affect most of the important design metrics. In this paper, we propose a novel scheduling method to simultaneously optimize the leakage power of functional units with dual-Vth techniques and the number of registers under given timing and resource constraints. The mobility overlaps between operations are removed to eliminate data dependencies, and a simulated-annealing-based method is introduced to explore the mobility overlap removal solution space. Given the overlap-free mobilities, the resource usage and register usage in each control step can be accurately estimated. Meanwhile, operations are scheduled so as to optimize the leakage power of functional units with minimal number of registers. Then, a set of operations is iteratively selected, reassigned as low-Vth, and rescheduled until the resource constraints are all satisfied. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
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  • Hatsuhiro KATO, Hatsuyoshi KATO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Numerical Analysis and Optimization
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1720-1727
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    Recently, we proposed a weak-form discretization scheme to derive second-order difference equations from the governing equation of the scattering problem. In this paper, under the scope of the proposed scheme, numerical expressions for the waveguide boundary conditions are derived as perfectly absorbing conditions for input and output ports. The waveguide boundary conditions play an important role in extracting the quasi-localized wave as an eigenstate with a complex eigenvalue. The wave-number dependence of the resonance curve in Fano resonance is reproduced by using a semi-analytic model that is developed on the basis of the phase change relevant to the S-matrix. The reproduction confirms that the eigenstate with a complex eigenvalue does cause the observed Fano resonance.
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  • Hiroyuki EBARA, Yudai HIRANUMA, Koki NAKAYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Algorithms and Data Structures
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1728-1738
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    Metaheuristic methods have been studied for combinational optimization problems for some time. Recently, a Consultant-Guided Search (CGS) has been proposed as a metaheuristic method for the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP). This approach is an algorithm in which a virtual person called a client creates a solution based on consultation with a virtual person called a consultant. In this research, we propose a parallel algorithm which uses the Ant Colony System (ACS) to create a solution with a consultant in a Consultant-Guided Search, and calculate an approximation solution for the TSP. Finally, we execute a computer experiment using the benchmark problems (TSPLIB). Our algorithm provides a solution with less than 2% error rate for problem instances using less than 2000 cities.
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  • Hitoshi MUTA, Yoshinobu SATO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Reliability, Maintainability and Safety Analysis
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1739-1746
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    The second edition of the international standard of IEC 61508, functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related system (SRS), was published in 2010. This international standard adopts a risk-based approach by which safety integrity requirements can be determined. It presents a formula to estimate the hazardous event rate taking account of non-perfect proof-tests. But it is not clear how to derive the formula. In the present paper, firstly, taking account of non-perfect proof-tests, the relationship between the dangerous undetected failure of SRS, the demand on the SRS and hazardous event is modeled by a fault tree and state-transition diagrams. Next, the hazardous event rate is formulated by use of the state-transition diagrams for the determination of the safety integrity requirements. Then, a comparison is made between the formulas obtained by this paper and given in the standard, and it is found that the latter does not always present rational formulation.
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  • Deukjo HONG, Daesung KWON
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1747-1753
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    We give some attacks on the DBL hash modes MDC-4 and MJH. Our preimage attack on the MDC-4 hash function requires the time complexity O(23n/2) for the block length n of the underlying block cipher, which significantly improves the previous results. Our collision attack on the MJH hash function has a time complexity less than 2124 for n=128. Our preimage attack on the the MJH compression function finds a preimage with the time complexity of 2n. It is converted to a preimage attack on the hash function with the time complexity of O(23n/2). As far as we know, any cryptanalytic result for MJH has not been published before. Our results are helpful for understanding the security of the hash modes together with their security proofs.
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  • Ken-ichi IWATA, Mitsuharu ARIMURA, Yuki SHIMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1754-1760
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    Dubé and Beaudoin proposed a lossless data compression called compression via substring enumeration (CSE) in 2010. We evaluate an upper bound of the number of bits used by the CSE technique to encode any binary string from an unknown member of a known class of k-th order Markov processes. We compare the worst case maximum redundancy obtained by the CSE technique for any binary string with the least possible value of the worst case maximum redundancy obtained by the best fixed-to-variable length code that satisfies the Kraft inequality.
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  • Mohamed ELWEKEIL, Masoud ALGHONIEMY, Osamu MUTA, Hiroshi FURUKAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1761-1769
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are widely deployed for internet access. Multiple interfering Access Points (APs) lead to a significant increase in collisions, that reduces throughput and affects media traffic. Thus, interference mitigation among different APs becomes a crucial issue in Multi-Cell WLAN systems. One solution to this issue is to assign a different frequency channel to each AP so as to prevent neighboring cells from operating on the same channel. However, most of the existing WLANs today operate in the unlicensed 2.4GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band, which suffers from lack of the available channels. Therefore, effective channel assignment to minimize the interference in Multi-Cell WLANs is necessary. In this article, we formulate the channel assignment problem as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem that minimizes the worst case total interference power. The main advantage of this algorithm is that it provides a global solution and at the same time guarantees a non-overlapping channel assignment. We also propose a Lagrangian relaxation approach to transform the MILP into a low complexity linear program which can be solved efficiently in real time, even for large sized networks. Simulation results reveal that both the MILP algorithm and the Lagrangian relaxation approach provide a total interference reduction below the default setting of having all APs assigned the same channel. In addition, simulation results on cumulative density function (CDF) of the SINR at the user level prove the validity of the proposed algorithms.
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  • Jie YANG, Xiaofei ZHANG, Kai YANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1770-1779
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    In this paper, we analyze the performance of a dual-hop multiuser amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network with the effect of the feedback delay, where the source and each of the K destinations are equipped with Nt and Nr antennas respectively, and the relay is equipped with a single antenna. In the relay network, multi-antenna and multiuser diversities are guaranteed via beamforming and opportunistic scheduling, respectively. To examine the impact of delayed feedback, the new exact analytical expressions for the outage probability (OP) and symbol error rate (SER) are derived in closed-form over Rayleigh fading channel, which are useful for a large number of modulation schemes. In addition, we present the asymptotic expressions for OP and SER in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, from which we gain an insight into the system performance with deriving the diversity order and array gain. Moreover, based on the asymptotic expressions, we determine power allocation among the network nodes such that the OP is minimized. The analytical expressions are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations.
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  • Ichiro SAKURAI, Shigeru KUBOTA, Michio NIWANO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: General Fundamentals and Boundaries
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1780-1786
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    The maturation of inhibitory transmission through γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is required to induce ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the visual cortex. However, only circuits that are mediated by specific GABAA receptors can selectively elicit OD plasticity, implying a role of local circuits involved in GABA inhibition in this process. In this study, in order to theoretically examine the effects of such local pathways associated with cortical inhibition on the induction of OD plasticity, we compared synaptic modification dynamics regulated by feedforward inhibition and those regulated by feedback inhibition. Feedforward inhibition facilitated competitive interactions between different groups of inputs conveying correlated activities, which were required for the emergence of experience-dependent plasticity. Conversely, feedback inhibition suppressed competitive interactions and prevented synapses from reflecting past sensory experience. Our results suggest that the balance between feedforward and feedback inhibition regulates the timing and level of cortical plasticity by modulating competition among synapses. This result suggests an importance of activity-dependent competition in experience-dependent OD plasticity, which is in line with the results of previous experiments.
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  • Ying JI, Xiaofu WU, Jun YAN, Wei-ping ZHU, Zhen YANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1787-1790
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    We propose a variant of OMP algorithm named BROMP for sparse solution. In our algorithm, the update rule of MP algorithm is employed to reduce the number of least square calculations and the refining strategy is introduced to further improve its performance. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the OMP algorithm with significantly lower complexity.
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  • Ngoc Nam BUI, Jin Young KIM, Tan Dat TRINH
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1791-1794
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    Acoustic Event Classification (AEC) poses difficult technical challenges as a result of the complexity in capturing and processing sound data. Of the various applicable approaches, Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) supervectors has been proven to obtain better solutions for such problems. In this paper, based on the multiple kernel selection model, we introduce two non-linear kernels, which are derived from the linear kernels of GMM Kullback-Leibler divergence (GMM KL) and GMM-UBM mean interval (GUMI). The proposed method improved the AEC model's accuracy from 85.58% to 90.94% within the domain of home AEC.
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  • Hyun-Wook JO, Ho-Lim CHOI, Jong-Tae LIM
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1795-1799
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    Sensor noise prevents the exact measurement of output, which makes it difficult to guarantee the ultimate bound of the actual output and states, which is smaller than the sensor noise amplitude. Even worse, the time-varying delay in the input does not guarantee the boundedness of the actual output and states under sensor noise. In this letter, our considered system is a chain of integrators in which time-varying delay exists in the input and there is an additive form of sensor noise in the output measurement. To guarantee the arbitrarily small ultimate bound of the actual output and states, we newly propose an adaptive output feedback controller whose gain is tuned on-line. The merits of our control method over the existing results are clearly shown in the example.
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  • Mirza Golam KIBRIA, Hidekazu MURATA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Numerical Analysis and Optimization
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1800-1805
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    This letter considers the weighted sum-rate maximization (WSRMax) problem in downlink multicell multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing system. The WSRMax problem under per base station transmit power constraint is known to be NP-hard, and the optimal solution is computationally very expensive. We propose two less-complex suboptimal convex approximated solutions which are based on sequential parametric convex approximation approach. We derive provably faster convergent iterative convex approximation techniques that locally optimize the weighted sum-rate function. Both the iterative solutions are found to converge to the local optimal solution within a few iterations compared to other well-known techniques. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approaches.
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  • Jae Hong SEO, Keita EMURA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1806-1809
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    In the Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) setting, the rejoin functionality seems to be impossible since each user has the unique identity as its public key. Moreover, sometimes these identities are unchangeable, e.g., biological information (finger print iris, and so on) is regarded as the identity. Even if changeable value is indicated as an identity, e.g., e-mail address, it is preferable that the same identity can be used after a secret key is leaked. In this paper, we give a formal security definition of RIBE with the rejoin functionality, and also show that the Seo-Emura RIBE scheme [PKC 2013] (with a slight modification) has the rejoin functionality.
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  • Minjia SHI, Yan LIU, Patrick SOLÉ
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1810-1813
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    The Lee complete ρ weight enumerator and the exact complete ρ weight enumerator over Mn×s(Fl+vFl+v2Fl)(v3=v) are defined, and the MacWilliams identities with respect to RT metric for these two weight enumerators of linear codes over Mn×s(Fl+vFl+v2Fl) are obtained, respectively. Finally, we give two examples to illustrate the obtained results.
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  • Byoung-Kwang KIM, Meiguang JIN, Woo-Jin SONG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1814-1819
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    In this paper, we propose a new matting algorithm using local and nonlocal neighbors. We assume that K nearest neighbors satisfy the color line model that RGB distribution of the neighbors is roughly linear and combine this assumption with the local color line model that RGB distribution of local neighbors is roughly linear. Our assumptions are appropriate for various regions such as those that are smooth, contain holes or have complex color. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms previous propagation-based matting methods. Further, it is competitive with sampling-based matting methods that require complex sampling or learning methods.
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  • Min-Hyuk LEE, Oh-Seol KWON
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image
    2014 Volume E97.A Issue 8 Pages 1820-1822
    Published: 2014
    Released: August 01, 2014
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    This paper presents an image haze removal algorithm for a single image. The conventional Dark Channel Prior (DCP) algorithm estimates the transmission map using the dark information in an image. The haze regions are then detected using a matting algorithm. However, the resulting transmission map invariably includes some block artifacts as the DCP algorithm is based on block-based processing. Therefore, to solve this problem, an algorithm for a modified transmission map is proposed using a Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) algorithm. Experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm is superior to conventional algorithms in image haze removal.
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