IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E96.A , Issue 11
Showing 1-40 articles out of 40 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Smart Multimedia & Communication Systems
  • Yoshio ITOH, Noriaki SUETAKE
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2073
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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  • Yoshikazu MIYANAGA, Wataru TAKAHASHI, Shingo YOSHIZAWA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2074-2080
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    This paper introduces our developed noise robust speech communication techniques and describes its implementation to a smart info-media system, i.e., a small robot. Our designed speech communication system consists of automatic speech detection, recognition, and rejection. By using automatic speech detection and recognition, an observed speech waveform can be recognized without a manual trigger. In addition, using speech rejection, this system only accepts registered speech phrases and rejects any other words. In other words, although an arbitrary input speech waveform can be fed into this system and recognized, the system responds only to the registered speech phrases. The developed noise robust speech processing can reduce various noises in many environments. In addition to the design of noise robust speech recognition, the LSI design of this system has been introduced. By using the design of speech recognition application specific IC (ASIC), we can simultaneously realize low power consumption and real-time processing. This paper describes the LSI architecture of this system and its performances in some field experiments. In terms of current speech recognition accuracy, the system can realize 85-99% under 0-20dB SNR and echo environments.
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  • Prakit JAROENKITTICHAI, Ekachai LEELARASMEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2081-2088
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    Localization in wireless sensor networks is the problem of estimating the geographical locations of wireless sensor nodes. We propose a framework to utilizing multiple data sources for localization scheme based on support vector machines. The framework can be used with both classification and regression formulation of support vector machines. The proposed method uses only connectivity information. Multiple hop count data sources can be generated by adjusting the transmission power of sensor nodes to change the communication ranges. The optimal choice of communication ranges can be determined by evaluating mutual information. We consider two methods for integrating multiple data sources together; unif method and align method. The improved localization accuracy of the proposed framework is verified by simulation study.
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  • Hao ZHOU, Yusheng JI, Baohua ZHAO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2089-2098
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    Relay has been incorporated into standards of wireless access networks to improve the system capacity and coverage. However, the resource allocation problem to support scalable video coding (SVC) multicast for wireless relay networks is challenging due to the existence of relay stations (RSs). In this paper, we study the resource allocation problem for SVC multicast over multi-hop wireless relay networks to maximize the total utility of all users with a general non-negative, non-decreasing utility function. Since the problem is NP-hard, we simplify it with RS specification functions which specialize the relay station to receive data for each user, and convert the resource allocation problem with one RS specification function as finding a maximum spanning sub-tree of a directed graph under budget constraint. A heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the problem with polynomial time complexity. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm outperforms other algorithms under assumptions of two-hop wireless relay networks or separated transmission for relay and access links, and it keeps good approximation to the optimal results.
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  • Zaw HTIKE, Choong Seon HONG, Sungwon LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2099-2105
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    Broadcasting is an essential function in almost all wireless networks. Because of the dynamic nature of environment, broadcasting in cognitive radio ad hoc networks is a great challenge. Cognitive radio network technology has been well studied for more than a decade as a new way to improve the spectral efficiency of wireless networks and numerous precious works have been proposed. However, very few existing works consider how to broadcast messages in cognitive radio networks that operate in multichannel environments and none of these provides a full broadcast mechanism. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a broadcasting mechanism for multichannel cognitive radio ad hoc networks. Then, we analyze the mechanism regarding the speed of message dissemination, number of transmissions, fraction of the users that receive the broadcast message and so forth.
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  • Keisuke SAITO, Yuichi KAKISHIMA, Teruo KAWAMURA, Yoshihisa KISHIYAMA, ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2106-2113
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    LTE-Advanced supports asymmetric carrier aggregation (CA) to achieve flexible bandwidth allocation by applying different numbers of component carriers (CCs) between the downlink and uplink. This paper experimentally clarifies the achievable downlink throughput performance when uplink control information (UCI) feedback mechanism using the physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH), which enables minimization of the UCI overhead while maintaining the required reception quality, is applied in asymmetric CA. The laboratory experimental results show that the stable reception quality control of the channel quality information (CQI) with the target block error rate (BLER) of 10-1 to 10-2 is achieved irrespective of the average received signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) when the control offset parameter of approximately 1.25 is used. We also show that the achievable downlink throughput when the CQI error is considered is almost the same as that in no CQI error case. Furthermore, based on the experimental results in a real field environment, a suburban area of Yokosuka city in Japan, we confirm stable adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) operation including target BLER control of the CQI on the PUSCH in asymmetric CA. The field experimental results also show that when CA with 5 CCs (90-MHz bandwidth) and 2-by-2 rank-2 multiple-output multiple-input (MIMO) multiplexing are employed in the downlink, the peak throughput of approximately 640Mbps is achieved even considering the CQI error.
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  • Kosuke SHIMAZAKI, Shingo YOSHIZAWA, Yasuyuki HATAKAWA, Tomoko MATSUMOT ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2114-2119
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    This paper presents a VLSI design of a Tomlinson-Harashima (TH) precoder for multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) systems. The TH precoder consists of LQ decomposition (LQD), interference cancellation (IC), and weight coefficient multiplication (WCM) units. The LQ decomposition unit is based on an application specific instruction-set processor (ASIP) architecture with floating-point arithmetic for high accuracy operations. In the IC and WCM units with fixed-point arithmetic, the proposed architecture uses an arrayed pipeline structure to shorten a circuit critical path delay. The implementation result shows that the proposed architecture reduces circuit area and power consumption by 11% and 15%, respectively.
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  • Thi Hong TRAN, Leonardo LANANTE, Jr., Yuhei NAGAO, Hiroshi OCHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2120-2127
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    Thanks to the achievements in wireless technology, maximum data rate of wireless LAN systems was rapidly increased recently. As a key part of the WEP and the WPA security for the wireless LAN system, throughput of RC4 must be significantly improved also. This paper proposes two high throughput RC4 architectures. The first one is a RAM-based RC4 using a single of 256-byte tri-port RAM to store the S-box. The core generates 4bits of ciphering key per clock cycle. This paper also proves that 4bits/cycle is the maximum throughput can be achieved by a RAM-based RC4 circuit. The second architecture is a Register-based M-byte RC4 that uses a set of registers to store the S-box. It is able to generate multiple bytes of ciphering key per clock cycle, and is proposed as a novel solution for designing extremely high throughput RC4 core for future WLAN systems. Base on this proposal, a 4-byte RC4 core is developed (M=4). The synthesis results in 90nm ASIC show that: As the same throughput's requirement, the proposed RAM-based and Register-based RC4 can respectively save 60% and 50% of power consumption as compare to that of the most recently works. Moreover, the proposed Register-based design is the best candidate for achieving high throughput at low frequency.
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  • Watid PHAKPHISUT, Patanasak PROMPAKDEE, Pornchai SUPNITHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2128-2133
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we propose the construction of quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes based on the modified progressive edge-growth (PEG) algorithm to achieve the maximum local girth. Although the previously designed QC-LDPC codes based on the PEG algorithm has more flexible code rates than the conventional QC-LDPC code, in the design process, multiple choices of the edges may be chosen. In the proposed algorithm, we aim to maximize the girth property by choosing the suitable edges and thus improve the error correcting performance. Simulation results show that the QC-LDPC codes constructed from the proposed method give higher proportion of high local girths than other methods, particularly, at high code rates. In addition, the proposed codes offer superior bit error rate and block error rate performances to the previous PEG-QC codes over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel.
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  • Shenchuan LIU, Masaaki FUJIYOSHI, Hitoshi KIYA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2134-2141
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    This paper proposes a visual secret sharing (VSS) scheme with efficient pixel expansion which prevents malicious share holders from deceiving an honest share holder. A VSS scheme encrypts a secret image into pieces referred to as shares where each party keeps a share so that stacking a sufficient number of shares recovers the secret image. A cheat prevention VSS scheme gives another piece to each party for verifying whether the share presented by another party is genuine. The proposed scheme improves the contrast of the recovered image and cheat-prevention functionality by introducing randomness in producing pieces for verification. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
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  • Lei SUN, Zhenyu LIU, Takeshi IKENAGA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2142-2153
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    As an extension of H.264/AVC, Scalable Video Coding (SVC) provides the ability to adapt to heterogeneous networks and user-end requirements, which offers great scalability in multi-point applications such as videoconferencing. However, transcoding between SVC and AVC becomes necessary due to the existence of legacy AVC-based systems. The straightforward full re-encoding method requires great computational cost, and the fast SVC-to-AVC spatial transcoding techniques have not been thoroughly investigated yet. This paper proposes a low-complexity hybrid-domain SVC-to-AVC spatial transcoder with drift compensation, which provides even better coding efficiency than the full re-encoding method. The macroblocks (MBs) of input SVC bitstream are divided into two types, and each type is suitable for pixel- or transform-domain processing respectively. In the pixel-domain transcoding, a fast re-encoding method is proposed based on mode mapping and motion vector (MV) refinement. In the transform-domain transcoding, the quantized transform coefficients together with other motion data are reused directly to avoid re-quantization loss. The drift problem caused by proposed transcoder is solved by compensation techniques for I frame and P frame respectively. Simulation results show that proposed transcoder achieves averagely 96.4% time reduction compared with the full re-encoding method, and outperforms the reference methods in coding efficiency.
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  • Jia-Ching WANG, Yu-Huan SUNG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2154-2160
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    Video coding plays an important role in human life especially in communications. H.264/AVC is a prominent video coding standard that has been used in a variety of applications due to its high efficiency comes from several new coding techniques. However, the extremely high encoding complexity hinders itself from real-time applications. This paper presents a new encoding algorithm that makes use of particle swarm optimization (PSO) to train discriminant functions for classification based fast mode decision. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully reduce encoding time at the expense of negligible quality degradation and bitrate increases.
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  • Di WU, Xiaohai HE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2161-2168
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we propose a jointly optimized predictive-adaptive partitioned block transform to exploit the spatial characteristics of intra residuals and improve video coding performance. Under the assumptions of traditional Markov representations, the asymmetric discrete sine transform (ADST) can be combined with a discrete cosine transform (DCT) for video coding. In comparison, the interpolative Markov representation has a lower mean-square error for images or regions that have relatively high contrast, and is insensitive to changes in image statistics. Hence, we derive an even discrete sine transform (EDST) from the interpolative Markov model, and use a coding scheme to switch between EDST and DCT, depending on the prediction direction and boundary information. To obtain an implementation independent of multipliers, we also propose an orthogonal 4-point integer EDST, which consists solely of adds and bit-shifts. We implement our hybrid transform coding scheme within the H.264/AVC intra-mode framework. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms standard DCT and ADST. It also greatly reduces the blocking artifacts typically observed around block edges, because the new transform is more adaptable to the characteristics of intra-prediction residuals.
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  • Pramual CHOORAT, Werapon CHIRACHARIT, Kosin CHAMNONGTHAI, Takao ONOYE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2169-2178
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In tooth contour extraction there is insufficient intensity difference in x-ray images between the tooth and dental bone. This difference must be enhanced in order to improve the accuracy of tooth segmentation. This paper proposes a method to improve the intensity between the tooth and dental bone. This method consists of an estimation of tooth orientation (intensity projection, smoothing filter, and peak detection) and PCA-Stacked Gabor with ellipse Gabor banks. Tooth orientation estimation is performed to determine the angle of a single oriented tooth. PCA-Stacked Gabor with ellipse Gabor banks is then used, in particular to enhance the border between the tooth and dental bone. Finally, active contour extraction is performed in order to determine tooth contour. In the experiment, in comparison with the conventional active contour without edge (ACWE) method, the average mean square error (MSE) values of extracted tooth contour points are reduced from 26.93% and 16.02% to 19.07% and 13.42% for tooth x-ray type I and type H images, respectively.
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  • Mihwa SONG, Sekchin CHANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2179-2181
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In this letter, we present a novel cooperative spectrum sensing scheme for cognitive radio systems. The proposed approach is based on a consensus algorithm. Using the received signals, we set up a formula for the consensus algorithm, which guarantees a convergence to an agreement value. The simulation results exhibit that the performance of the consensus-based cooperative scheme is much better than that of the conventional cooperative technique in the case that the cooperative nodes for spectrum sensing are sparsely distributed in cognitive radio systems.
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  • Masashi OKADA, Masahide HATANAKA, Keiichiro KAGAWA, Shinichi MIYAMOTO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2182-2184
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    This paper proposes a secure wireless network system required for an ambient information society; it forms a privacy zone wherein terminals can securely communicate secret information using an arbitrary general radio channel. For this system, we introduce a scheme using a side-information from a special node. The information is used as an encryption key so that the detectable region of the key defines a privacy zone. We implement the scheme on the basis of IEEE 802.15.4 and realize the world's first ambient network platform with the above functionality. An experiment and demonstration show the effectiveness of the proposed system.
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  • Tadahiro AZETSU, Noriaki SUETAKE, Eiji UCHINO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2185-2186
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    This paper proposes a robust bilateral filter which can handle mixed Gaussian and impulsive noise by hybridizing the conventional bilateral filter and the switching median filter. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified in comparison with other conventional methods by some experiments using the natural digital images.
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  • Keiichi FUNAKI, Takehito HIGA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Engineering Acoustics
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2187-2190
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    This paper proposes novel robust speech F0 estimation using Summation Residual Harmonics (SRH) based on TV-CAR (Time-Varying Complex AR) analysis. The SRH-based F0 estimation was proposed by A. Alwan, in which the criterion is calculated from LP residual signals. The criterion is summation of residual spectrum value for harmonics. In this paper, we propose SRH-based F0 estimation based on the TV-CAR analysis, in which the criterion is calculated from the complex AR residual. Since complex AR residual provides higher resolution of spectrum, it can be considered that the criterion is effective for F0 estimation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than conventional methods; weighted auto-correlation and YIN.
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  • Koji INOUE, Kohei ISECHI, Hironobu SAITO, Yoshimitsu KUROKI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2191-2193
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    This paper proposes an inter-prediction method for the upcoming video coding standard named HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding). The HEVC offers an inter-prediction framework called local intensity compensation which represents a current block by a linear combination of some reference blocks. The proposed method calculates weight coefficients of the linear combination by using sparse representation. Experimental results show that the proposed method increases prediction accuracy in comparison with other methods.
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  • Aya HIYAMA, Mitsuji MUNEYASU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Processing
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2194-2197
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In information retrieval from printed images considering the use of mobile devices, the correction of geometrical deformation and lens distortion is required, posing a heavy computational burden. In this paper, we propose a method of reducing the computational burden for such corrections. This method consists of improved extraction to find a line segment of a frame, the reconsideration of the interpolation method for image correction, and the optimization of image resolution in the correction process. The proposed method can reduce the number of computations significantly. The experimental result shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Regular Section
  • Wemer M. WEE, Isao YAMADA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2198-2208
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    This paper presents a unified treatment of the tracking analysis of adaptive filters with data normalization and error nonlinearities. The approach we develop is based on the celebrated energy-conservation framework, which investigates the energy flow through each iteration of an adaptive filter. Aside from deriving earlier results in a unified manner, we obtain new performance results for more general filters without restricting the regression data to a particular distribution. Simulations show good agreement with the theoretical findings.
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  • Wentao LV, Gaohuan LV, Junfeng WANG, Wenxian YU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2209-2217
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we consider the optimization of measurement matrix in Compressed Sensing (CS) framework. Based on the boundary constraint, we propose a novel algorithm to make the “mutual coherence” approach a lower bound. This algorithm is implemented by using an iterative strategy. In each iteration, a neighborhood interval of the maximal off-diagonal entry in the Gram matrix is scaled down with the same shrinkage factor, and then a lower mutual coherence between the measurement matrix and sparsifying matrix is obtained. After many iterations, the magnitudes of most of off-diagonal entries approach the lower bound. The proposed optimization algorithm demonstrates better performance compared with other typical optimization methods, such as t-averaged mutual coherence. In addition, the effectiveness of CS can be used for the compression of complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is verified, and experimental results using simulated data and real field data corroborate this claim.
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  • Yansheng WANG, Leibo LIU, Shouyi YIN, Min ZHU, Peng CAO, Jun YANG, Sha ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2218-2229
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    RCP (Reconfigurable Computing Processor) is intended to fill the gap between ASIC and GPP (General Purpose processor), which achieves much higher energy efficiency than GPP, while is much more flexible than ASIC. In this paper, one organization of on-chip data memory called LIBODM (LIfetime Based On-chip Data Memory) is proposed to reduce the reference delay for data and on-chip data memory size in RCP. In the LIBODM, the allocation of data is based on the data dependency. The data with low data dependency are stored off-chip to save the storage costs, while the data with high data dependency are stored on-chip to reduce the reference delay. Besides, in the LIBODM, the on-chip data are classified into two types, and the classification is based on the lifetime of data. For short lifetime data, they are preferred to be stored into FIFO to increase the reuse ratio of memory space naturally. For long lifetime data, they are preferred to be stored into RAM for several time references. The LIBODM has been testified in one CGRA (Coarse Grained Reconfigurable Architecture) called RPU (Reconfigurable Processing Unit), and two RPUs has been integrated in a RCP-REMUS_HP (High Performance version of Reconfigurable MUlti-media System) focused on video decoding. Thanks to the LIBODM, although the size of on-chip data memory in REMUS_HP is small, a high performance can still be achieved. Compared with XPP and ADRES, in REMUS_HP, the on-chip data memory size at same performance level is only 23.9% and 14.8%. REMUS_HP is implemented on a 48.9mm2 silicon with TSMC 65nm technology. Simulation shows that 1920*1088 @30fps can be achieved for H.264 high-profile decoding when exploiting a 200MHz working frequency. Compared with the high performance version of XPP, the performance is 150% boosted, while the energy efficiency is 17.59x boosted.
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  • Wakaha OGATA, Toshinori ARAKI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2230-2234
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In secret sharing scheme, Tompa and Woll considered a problem of cheaters who try to make another participant reconstruct an invalid secret. Later, some models of such cheating were formalized and lower bounds of the size of shares were shown in the situation of fixing the minimum successful cheating probability. Under the assumption that cheaters do not know the distributed secret, no efficient scheme is known which can distribute bit strings. In this paper, we propose an efficient scheme for distributing bit strings with an arbitrary access structure. When distributing a random bit string with threshold access structures, the bit length of shares in the proposed scheme is only a few bits longer than the lower bound.
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  • Wen-Chung KUO, Ming-Chih KAO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2235-2243
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    Many EMD-type data hiding schemes have been proposed. However, the data hiding capacity is less than 2bpp when the embedding procedure uses formula operations. In order to improve the data hiding capacity from 1bpp to 4.5bpp, a new data hiding scheme is proposed in this paper based on a formula using the fully exploiting modification directions method (FEMD). By using our proposed theorem, the secret data can be embedded by formula operations directly without using a lookup matrix. The simulation results and performance analysis show the proposed scheme not only maintains good embedding capacity and stegoimage quality but also solves the overflow problem. It does so without using extra memory resources and performs within a reasonable computing time. The resource usage and capabilities of this scheme are well matched to the constraints and requirements of resource-scarce mobile devices.
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  • Hideyuki TORII, Takahiro MATSUMOTO, Makoto NAKAMURA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2244-2252
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    The present paper proposes two new methods for constructing polyphase asymmetric zero-correlation zone (A-ZCZ) sequence sets. In previous studies, the authors proposed methods for constructing quasi-optimal polyphase A-ZCZ sequence sets using perfect sequences and for constructing optimal polyphase A-ZCZ sequence sets using discrete Fourier transform (DFT) matrices. However, in these methods, the total number of sequences in an A-ZCZ sequence set cannot exceed the period of the perfect sequence or the dimension of the DFT matrix used for constructing the A-ZCZ sequence set. We now propose two extended versions of these methods. The proposed methods can generate a quasi-optimal or optimal polyphase A-ZCZ sequence set where the total number of sequences exceeds the period of the perfect sequence or the dimension of the DFT matrix. In other words, the proposed methods can generate new A-ZCZ sequence sets that cannot be obtained from the known methods.
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  • Inseong HWANG, Jinwoo JEONG, Sungjei KIM, Jangwon CHOI, Yoonsik CHOE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2253-2264
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we propose a novel technique for film grain noise removal and synthesis that can be adopted in high fidelity video coding. Film grain noise enhances the natural appearance of high fidelity video, therefore, it should be preserved. However, film grain noise is a burden to typical video compression systems because it has relatively large energy levels in the high frequency region. In order to improve the coding performance while preserving film grain noise, we propose film grain noise removal in the pre-processing step and film grain noise synthesis in the post processing step. In the pre-processing step, the film grain noise is removed by using temporal and inter-color correlations. Specifically, color image denoisng using inter color prediction provides good denoising performance in the noise-concentrated B plane, because film grain noise has inter-color correlation in the RGB domain. In the post-processing step, we present a noise model to generate noise that is close to the actual noise in terms of a couple of observed statistical properties, such as the inter-color correlation and power of the film grain noise. The results show that the coding gain of the denoised video is higher than for previous works, while the visual quality of the final reconstructed video is well preserved.
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  • Hao JIANG, Takeyuki TAMURA, Wai-Ki CHING, Tatsuya AKUTSU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: General Fundamentals and Boundaries
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2265-2274
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we consider the problem of inferring a Boolean network (BN) from a given set of singleton attractors, where it is required that the resulting BN has the same set of singleton attractors as the given one. We show that the problem can be solved in linear time if the number of singleton attractors is at most two and each Boolean function is restricted to be a conjunction or disjunction of literals. We also show that the problem can be solved in polynomial time if more general Boolean functions can be used. In addition to the inference problem, we study two network completion problems from a given set of singleton attractors: adding the minimum number of edges to a given network, and determining Boolean functions to all nodes when only network structure of a BN is given. In particular, we show that the latter problem cannot be solved in polynomial time unless P=NP, by means of a polynomial-time Turing reduction from the complement of the another solution problem for the Boolean satisfiability problem.
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  • Ho-Lim CHOI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2275-2278
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    We consider an output feedback control problem of a chain of integrators under sensor noise. The sensor noise enters the output feedback channel in an additive form. A similar problem has been addressed most recently in [9], but their result has been developed only under AC sensor noise. We generalize the result of [9] by allowing the sensor noise to include both AC and DC components. With our new output feedback controller, we show that the ultimate bounds of all states can be made arbitrarily small. We show the generality of our result over [9] via an example.
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  • Takahiro INOUE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Circuit Theory
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2279-2281
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    A new theoretical formulation based on BIBO (Bounded Input Bounded Output) operators is proposed for a general feedback amplifier circuit. Several fundamental theorems are derived in this letter. The main theorem provides a basis for a realization of an inverse of a feedback-branch linear or nonlinear BIBO operator satisfying the associative law.
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  • Jae Hong SEO, Keita EMURA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2282-2285
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In 2001, Boneh and Franklin realized the first Identity-Based Encryption (IBE), and at the same time they proposed a simple way to revoke users from the system. Later, Boldyreva et al. pointed out that Boneh-Franklin's revocation method is not scalable well and they proposed the first IBE scheme with efficient revocation. Recently, Tseng and Tsai [Computer Journal, Vol.55 No.4, page 475-486, 2012] claimed that Boldyreva et al.'s scheme requires a secure channel between each user and the key generation center in the key update phase, and proposed a new revocable IBE (RIBE) with a public channel by extending the Boneh-Franklin scheme. In this paper, we revisit Tseng and Tsai's result; we first point out that secure channels (except for the initial key setup) are not mandatory in the definition of RIBE scheme formalized by Boldyreva et al. Next, we show that Boldyreva et al.'s scheme does not require any secure channels (except for the initial key setup), which is different from what Tseng and Tsai claimed and so invalidates their contribution of the first RIBE with a public channel. Moreover, we point out that there are simple techniques to remove secure channels from the Boneh-Franklin RIBE. Interestingly, we show that the secure-channel-free Boneh-Franklin RIBE scheme is secure against decryption key exposure, whereas the Tseng-Tsai RIBE scheme is vulnerable to this attack.
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  • Jae Hong SEO, Keita EMURA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2286-2289
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we examine additive homomorphic encryptions in the discrete logarithm setting. Recently, Wang et al. proposed an additive homomorphic encryption scheme by modifying the ElGamal encryption scheme [Information Sciences 181(2011) 3308-3322]. We show that their scheme allows only limited number of additions among encrypted messages, which is different from what they claimed.
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  • Xiuwen MA, Qiaoyan WEN, Jie ZHANG, Huijuan ZUO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2290-2293
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In this letter, by using Whiteman's generalized cyclotomy of order 2 over Zpq, where p, q are twin primes, we construct new perfect Gaussian integer sequences of period pq.
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  • Fanxin ZENG, Xiaoping ZENG, Zhenyu ZHANG, Guixin XUAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2294-2298
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    In an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system, two users use the same frequencies and number of sub-carriers so as to increase spectrum efficiency. When the codewords employed by them form a Golay complementary sequence (CS) mate, this system enjoys the upper bound of peak-to-mean envelope power ratio (PMEPR) as low as 4. This letter presents a construction method for producing S16-QAM and A16-QAM Golay CS mates, which arrives at the upper bound 4 of PMEPR. And when used as a Golay CS pair, they have an upper bound 2 of PMEPR, which is the same ones in both [18] and [17]. However, both cannot produce such mates.
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  • Xubo ZHAO, Hang ZHOU, Xiaoping LI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2299-2301
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    Under random linear coding (RLC) scheme, we present a simple expression of the probability distribution p(D=K) for decoding delay D incurred by the lossy channel, where K is a positive integer. In contrast with the previous contribution, our focus is firstly on deriving the cumulative distribution function of the discrete random variable D over a perfect channel. One benefit of such dispose is that, from the overall viewpoint, computing the cumulative distribution function of delay D can be related with calculating the cardinalities of sets of some special matrices, so that the former can be obtained from the latter. Moreover, our expression of the probability distribution is an explicit form, and is valid for any number of packets M, freewill field size q and arbitrary channel loss rate ε.
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  • Tae-Hwan KIM
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2302-2305
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
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    This letter presents a technique to reduce the complexity of the soft-output multiple-input multiple-output symbol detection based on Dijkstra's algorithm. By observing that the greedy behavior of Dijkstra's algorithm can entail unnecessary tree-visits for the symbol detection, this letter proposes a technique to evict non-promising candidates early from the search space. The early eviction technique utilizes layer information to determine if a candidate is promising, which is simple but effective. When the SNR is 30dB for 6×6 64-QAM systems, the average number of tree-visits in the proposed method is reduced by 72.1% in comparison to that in the conventional Dijkstra's algorithm-based symbol detection without the early eviction.
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  • Mahmoud KESHAVARZI, Amir Mansour PEZESHK, Forouhar FARZANEH, Delaram A ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2306-2310
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    After receiving emitted signals from various radars by electronic support measures (ESM) system, several processes are applied to signals such as: deinterleaving, recognition of pulse repetition interval (PRI) modulation, PRI estimation and etc. Indeed, recognition of PRI modulation is an essential task of ESM system. In this paper a novel and robust method for recognition of complicated PRI Modulations is presented. This method uses specifications such as distribution related to members of sequences obtained from first and second order derivation of TOAs around a constant value and continuity of these sequences to recognize the PRI modulation. Some numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of proposed method. Simulation results show high robustness of proposed method against noise (spurious and missing pulses) and unwanted jitter.
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  • Yaping ZHU, Kai YANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2311-2314
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    In this letter, we investigate the performance of cooperative decode-and-forward multiple-input multiple-output relaying system using orthogonal space-time block codes with piecewise-linear (PL) receiver over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels for integer values of m. We derive the closed-form expression for the exact bit error rates of binary phase shift keying signals. The analytical expression is validated through numerical results. It is shown that the performance of PL receiver outperforms that of conventional maximal ratio combining receiver.
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  • Go TANAKA, Noriaki SUETAKE, Eiji UCHINO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2315-2317
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    In this letter, a novel color removal method considering differences of colors in an input color image and achromatic color preservation is proposed. The achromatic color preservation is assigning lightness values to gray-levels concerning achromatic pixels for natural impression. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified by experiments.
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  • Wei TIAN, Yue WANG, Xiuming SHAN, Jian YANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Measurement Technology
    2013 Volume E96.A Issue 11 Pages 2318-2321
    Published: November 01, 2013
    Released: November 01, 2013
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    In this paper, we propose a robust registration method, named Bounded-Variables Least Median of Squares (BVLMS). It overcomes both the misassociations and the ill-conditioning due to the interactions between Bounded-Variables Least Squares (BVLS) and Least Median of Squares (LMS). Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of this new registration method.
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