IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E94.A , Issue 3
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
Regular Section
  • Motoki OGASAWARA, Takanori NISHINO, Kazuya TAKEDA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Engineering Acoustics
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 897-906
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    The separation and localization of sound source signals are important techniques for many applications, such as highly realistic communication and speech recognition systems. These systems are expected to work without such prior information as the number of sound sources and the environmental conditions. In this paper, we developed a dodecahedral microphone array and proposed a novel separation method with our developed device. This method refers to human sound localization cues and uses acoustical characteristics obtained by the shape of the dodecahedral microphone array. Moreover, this method includes an estimation method of the number of sound sources that can operate without prior information. The sound source separation performances were evaluated under simulated and actual reverberant conditions, and the results were compared with the conventional method. The experimental results showed that our separation performance outperformed the conventional method.
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  • Noriyoshi KAMADO, Haruhide HOKARI, Shoji SHIMADA, Hiroshi SARUWATARI, ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Engineering Acoustics
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 907-920
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    In this paper, we present a comparative study on directly aligned multi point controlled wavefront synthesis (DMCWS) and wave field synthesis (WFS) for the realization of a high-accuracy sound reproduction system, and the amplitude, phase and attenuation characteristics of the wavefronts generated by DMCWS and WFS are assessed. First, in the case of DMCWS, we derived an optimal control-line coordinate based on a numerical analysis. Next, the results of computer simulations revealed that the wavefront in DMCWS has wide applicability in both the spatial and frequency domains with small amplitude and phase errors, particularly above the spatial aliasing frequency in WFS, and we clarified that the amplitude error in DMCWS has similar behavior to the well-known approximate expression for spatial decay in WFS; this implies the ease of taking into account estimating the amplitude error in DMCWS. Finally, we developed wavefront measurement system and measured a DMCWS wavefront using our wavefront measurement system and algorithm. The results of measurements clarified the frequency characteristics of a loudspeaker. Also, DMCWS has wide applicability in frequency domains in actual environments. From these findings, we concluded the advantageousness of DMCWS compared with WFS.
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  • Rachel Mabanag CHONG, Toshihisa TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 921-928
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    The actual blurring function or point spread function (PSF) in an image, in most cases, is similar to a parametric or ideal model. Recently proposed blind deconvolution methods employ this idea for learning during the estimation of PSF. Its dependence on the estimated values may result in ineffective learning when the model is erroneously selected. To overcome this problem, we propose to exploit the image maxima in order to extract a reference point spread function (RPSF). This is only dependent on the degraded image and has a structure that closely resembles a parametric motion blur assuming a known blur support size. Its usage will result in a more stable learning and estimation process since it does not change with respect to iteration or any estimated value. We define a cost function in the vector-matrix form which accounts for the blurring function contour as well as learning towards the RPSF. The effectiveness of using RPSF and the proposed cost function under various motion directions and support sizes will be demonstrated by the experimental results.
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  • Naoki HAYASHI, Toshimitsu USHIO, Takafumi KANAZAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 929-936
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    This paper addresses an application of the potential game theory to a power-aware mobile sensor coverage problem where each sensor tries to maximize a probability of target detection in a convex mission space. The probability of target detection depends on a sensing voltage of each mobile sensor as well as its current position. While a higher sensing voltage improves the target detection probability, this requires more power consumption. In this paper, we assume that mobile sensors have different sensing capabilities of detecting a target and they can adaptively change sensing areas by adjusting their sensing voltages. We consider an objective function to evaluate a trade-off between improving the target detection probability and reducing total power consumption of all sensors. We represent a sensing voltage and a position of each mobile sensor using a barycentric coordinate over an extended strategy space. Then, the sensor coverage problem can be formulated as a potential game where the power-aware objective function and the barycentric coordinates correspond to a potential function and players' mixed strategies, respectively. It is known that all local maximizers of a potential function in a potential game are equilibria of replicator dynamics. Based on this property of potential games, we propose decentralized control for the power-aware sensor coverage problem such that each mobile sensor finds a locally optimal position and sensing voltage by updating its barycentric coordinate using replicator dynamics.
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  • Yong-Kyu KIM, Chang-Seok CHOI, Hanho LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 937-945
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    This paper presents a low complexity partially folded architecture of transposed FIR filter and cubic B-spline interpolator for ATSC terrestrial broadcasting systems. By using the multiplexer, the proposed FIR filter and interpolator can provide high clock frequency and low hardware complexity. A binary representation method was used for designing the high order FIR filter. Also, in order to compensate the truncation error of FIR filter outputs, a fixed-point range detection method was used. The proposed partially folded architecture was designed and implemented with 90-nm CMOS technology that had a supply voltage of 1.1V. The implementation results show that the proposed architectures have 12% and 16% less hardware complexity than the other kinds of architecture. Also, both the filter and the interpolator operate at a clock frequency of 200MHz and 385MHz, respectively.
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  • Miya MOROTA, Ryoichi HATAYAMA, Yukio SHIBATA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Graphs and Networks
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 946-954
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    Hypercube Qn is a well-known graph structure having three different kinds of equivalent definitions that are: 1. binary n bit sequences with the adjacency condition, 2. Q1=K2, $Q_n=Q_{n-1}\\Box K_2$, where $\\Box$ means the Cartesian product, 3. the Cayley graph on $\\mathbb{Z}_2^n$ with the generator set {10···0,010···0,···,0···01}. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a set of binary sequences to be a generator set for the hypercube. Then, we give relations between some generator sets and relational products. These results show the wide variety of representability of hypercubes which would be used for many applications.
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  • Dae Hyun YUM, Jae Woo SEO, Pil Joong LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 955-963
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    A hash chain H for a one-way hash function h(·) is a sequence of hash values <v0,v1,...,vn>, where vn is a secret value, vi is generated by vi=h(vi+1) for i=n-1,n-2,...,0 an0d v0 is a public value. A hash chain traversal algorithm T computes and outputs the hash chain H, returning vi in time period (called round) i for 1≤in. At the outset, T stores carefully chosen κ hash values (including vn) of H in κ memory storages (called pebbles). In round i, T performs two kinds of computations; online computation to output vi with hash values stored in pebbles and then preparatory computation to rearrange pebbles for future rounds. Usually, the online computation consists of either one or zero hash function evaluation, while the preparatory computation occupies most of the computational cost. The design goal of previous hash chain traversal algorithms was to minimize the worst case computational cost per round with minimal pebbles. On the contrary, we study a different optimization problem of minimizing the average case computational cost. Our proposed traversal algorithm reduces the average case computational cost by 20-30% and the online computational cost by 23-33% for parameters of practical interest. For example, if the proposed algorithm is implemented on battery-powered devices, the battery lifetime can be increased by 20-30%.
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  • Jan KIETLINSKI-ZALESKI, Takaya YAMAZATO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Spread Spectrum Technologies and Applications
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 964-971
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    Ultra-Wideband is an attractive technology for short range positioning, especially indoors. However, for normal 3D Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) positioning, at least four receivers with an unblocked direct path to the transmitter are required. A requirement that is not always met. In this work, a novel method for TDOA positioning using only three receivers is presented. TDOA positioning with three receivers is possible by exploiting the knowledge of some of the indoor features, namely positions of big flat reflective surfaces, for example ceiling and walls. The proposed method was verified using data from a measurement campaign.
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  • Takao JINNO, Hironori KAIDA, Xinwei XUE, Nicola ADAMI, Masahiro OKUDA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 972-978
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    In this paper, we propose a coding algorithm for High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI). Our encoder applies a tone mapping model based on scaled µ-Law encoding, followed by a conventional Low Dynamic Range Image (LDRI) encoder. The tone mapping model is designed to minimize the difference between the tone-mapped HDRI and its LDR version. By virtue of the nature of the µ-Law model, not only the quality of the HDRI but also the one of the LDRI is improved, compared with a state of the art in conventional HDRI coding methods. Furthermore the error limit caused by our encoding is theoretically analyzed.
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  • Liang SHA, Guijin WANG, Xinggang LIN, Kongqiao WANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Vision
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 979-989
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    This paper presents a robust framework of human-computer interaction from the hand gesture vision in the presence of realistic and challenging scenarios. To this end, several novel components are proposed. A hybrid approach is first proposed to automatically infer the beginning position of hand gestures of interest via jointly optimizing the regions given by an offline skin model trained from Gaussian mixture models and a specific hand gesture classifier trained from the Adaboost technique. To consistently track the hand in the context of using kernel based tracking, a semi-supervised feature selection strategy is further presented to choose the feature subspaces which appropriately represent the properties of offline hand skin cues and online foreground-background-classification cues. Taking the histogram of oriented gradients as the descriptor to represent hand gestures, a soft-decision approach is finally proposed for recognizing static hand gestures at the locations where severe ambiguity occurs and hidden Markov model based dynamic gestures are employed for interaction. Experiments on various real video sequences show the superior performance of the proposed components. In addition, the whole framework is applicable to real-time applications on general computing platforms.
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  • Jong-Oh PARK, Shi-Hwan OH, Ki-Lyuk YONG, Young-Do IM
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Noise and Vibration
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 990-994
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    Actuator-induced disturbances are among the most crucial factors in correct spacecraft attitude pointing and stability for fine attitude control problems. In order to develop a CMG as an actuator for fine controls, CMG-induced disturbances should be analyzed. Therefore, this paper aims to develop an analytic model that predicts the effect of disturbances to CMGs by assuming static and dynamic imbalances. The proposed analytical model with respect to the disturbances of a CMG is derived using the Lagrange energy method based on the small-signal assumption.
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  • Van-Phuc HOANG, Cong-Kha PHAM
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 995-998
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    The increasing demand of low power Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer (DDFS) leads to the requirement of efficient compression methods to reduce ROM size for storing sine function values. This paper presents a technique to achieve very high compression ratio by using the optimized four-segment linear difference method. The proposed technique results in the ROM compression ratio of about 117.3: 1 and the word size reduction of 6bits for the design of a DDFS with 11-bit sine amplitude output. This high compression ratio result is very promising to meet the requirement of low power consumption and low hardware complexity in digital VLSI technology.
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  • Lubomír BRANCÍK
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 999-1001
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    In the paper, a technique of the numerical inversion of multidimensional Laplace transforms (nD NILT), based on a complex Fourier series approximation is elaborated in light of a possible ralative error achievable. The detailed error analysis shows a relationship between the numerical integration of a multifold Bromwich integral and a complex Fourier series approximation, and leads to a novel formula relating the limiting relative error to the nD NILT technique parameters.
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  • Young Ik SON
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1002-1005
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    A new state estimation algorithm is presented for a class of LTI systems that have an input disturbance in polynomial form and a sinusoidal sensor disturbance in the measurement output. Adaptation rules are developed for identifying the unknown magnitude, phase and frequency of the sensor disturbance from the system output measurement. For the application of the identification result to the state estimation problem, the sinusoidal signal with arbitrary initial phase has been considered in this paper. In order to test the performance of the proposed algorithm, comparative computer simulations have been carried out with a robust state observer. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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  • Kozo HISAMATSU, Toshimichi SAITO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1006-1009
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    This letter studies a pulse-coupled system constructed by delayed cross-switching between two bifurcating neurons. The system can exhibit an interesting bifurcation: the delay-coupling can change chaotic behavior of single neurons into stable periodic behavior. Using the 1D phase map, it is clarified that the phenomenon is caused by the tangent bifurcation for the delay parameter. Presenting a simple test circuit, the phenomenon can be confirmed experimentally.
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  • Takashi HIKIHARA, Yuzo MURAKAMI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1010-1014
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    A regulation of converters connected in parallel is discussed considering their stored energy and passivity characteristics. From the viewpoint of stored energy, a new regulation method to conserve and share the stored energy can be found. The energy stored in inductors and capacitors is transferred to loads so that the load keeps the energy dissipation constant. Though numerical simulation, the method is validated for a parallel converter system.
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  • Shieh-Shing LIN, Shih-Cheng HORNG, Ch'i-Hsin LIN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Numerical Analysis and Optimization
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1015-1018
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    This letter presents an experiment for estimating accurate state in distributed power systems. This letter employs a technique that combines a projected Jacobi method with a parallel dual-type method to solve the distributed state estimation with constraints problems. Via numerous tests, this letter demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed method on the IEEE 118-bus with four subsystems in a PC network.
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  • YeFeng HE, WenPing MA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1019-1022
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    A class of balanced semi-bent functions with an even number of variables is proposed. It is shown that they include one subclass of semi-bent functions with maximum algebraic degrees. Furthermore, an example of semi-bent functions in a small field is given by using the zeros of some Kloosterman sums. Based on the result given by S. Kim et al., an example of infinite families of semi-bent functions is also obtained.
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  • Fanxin ZENG, Zhenyu ZHANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1023-1028
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    Based on the known quadriphase zero correlation zone (ZCZ) sequences ZCZ4(N,M,T), four families of 16-QAM sequences with ZCZ are presented, where the term “QAM sequences” means the sequences over the quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellation. When the quadriphase ZCZ sequences employed by this letter arrive at the theoretical bound on the ZCZ sequences, and are of the even family size M or the odd width T of ZCZ, two of the resulting four 16-QAM sequence sets satisfy the bound referred to above. The proposed sequences can be potentially applied to communication systems using 16-QAM constellation as spreading sequences so that the multiple access interference (MAI) and multi-path interference (MPI) are removed synchronously.
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  • Pinhui KE, Zhihua WANG, Zheng YANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1029-1033
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    In this letter, we give a generalized construction for sets of frequency-hopping sequences (FHSs) based on power-residue sequences. Our construction encompasses a known optimal construction and can generate new optimal sets of FHSs which simultaneously achieve the Peng-Fan bound and the Lempel-Greenberger bound.
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  • Takakazu SAKAI, Koji SHIBATA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1034-1037
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    This study shows a fast simulation method for turbo codes over an additive white class A noise (AWAN) channel. The reduction of the estimation time is achieved by applying importance sampling (IS) which is one of the variance reduction simulation methods. In order to adapt the AWAN channel, we propose a design method of a simulation probability density function (PDF) utilized in IS. The proposed simulation PDF is related to the Bhattacharyya bound to evaluate wider area of the signal space than the conventional method. Since the mean translation method, which is a conventional design method of the simulation PDF used in IS, is optimized for an additive white Gaussian noise channel, the evaluation time of the error performance of turbo codes over the AWAN channel can not be reduced. To evaluate BER of 10-8, the simulation time of the proposed method can be reduced to 1/104 under the condition of the same accuracy of the traditional Monte Carlo simulation method.
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  • Yier YAN, Moon Ho LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1038-1040
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    In this letter, we propose a set of Space-Time Block Codes (STBC) equipped with 4 transmit antennas to transmit one additional information bit achieving rate-9/8. To maintain full rank property of the coding gain matrix, one new orthogonal STBC code with full rate is proposed in this letter. Simulation results show that this method achieves good bit error rate (BER) performance with a small gap compared to that of the rate-1 case and throughput in the high SNR region.
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  • Shigemasa TAKAI, Yuta WATANABE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Concurrent Systems
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1041-1044
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    In this paper, we study opacity-enforcing supervisory control of discrete event systems. We consider the case that the secrete behavior of the system is specified by multiple secret languages, and synthesize a maximally permissive supervisor that enforces opacity for all secret languages. We prove that, under a certain assumption on observable and uncontrollable events, a maximally permissive opacity-enforcing supervisor can be synthesized in a modular fashion.
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  • Yuko OZASA, Masanori HIROTOMO, Masakatu MORII
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: General Fundamentals and Boundaries
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 3 Pages 1045-1048
    Published: March 01, 2011
    Released: March 01, 2011
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    In this paper, we present a specific type of irreducible polynomial which is an irreducible m-term polynomial of degree m. Designing the parallel multiplier over GF(2m) by the quadrinomial obtained from this irreducible polynomial, its critical delay path is smaller than that of conventional multipliers for some degree m.
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