IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E91.A , Issue 7
Showing 1-44 articles out of 44 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Multi-dimensional Mobile Information Networks
  • Minoru ETOH, James KEMPF
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1549-1550
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: July 01, 2018
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  • Zul Azri BIN MUHAMAD NOH, Takahiro SUZUKI, Shuji TASAKA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1551-1561
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper studies packet scheduling schemes with QoE (user-level QoS) guarantee for audio-video transmission in a wireless LAN with HCF controlled channel access (HCCA) of the IEEE 802.11e MAC protocol. We first propose the static scheduling (SS) scheme, which grants adjustable transmission opportunity (TXOP) duration for constant bit rate (CBR) traffic. The SS scheme can determine the minimum TXOP duration capable of guaranteeing high QoE; it can maximize the number of admitted flows. As the burstiness of variable bit rate (VBR) traffic cannot be absorbed by the SS scheme, we also propose the multimedia priority dynamic scheduling (MPDS) scheme, which can absorb the burstiness through allocating additional TXOP duration. We then compare the SS scheme, the MPDS scheme, and the reference scheduler (TGe scheme) in terms of application-level QoS and user-level QoS (QoE). Numerical results show that in the SS scheme, the QoE can be kept relatively higher even when the TXOP duration is reduced in the case of video with the I picture pattern; this implies that more flows can be admitted. In the case of video with the IPPPPP picture pattern, which has the VBR characteristic more remarkably, reducing the TXOP duration according to the SS scheme will deteriorate the QoS level. In this case, the MPDS scheme performs better when the number of multimedia stations is small. However, the performance of the MPDS scheme deteriorates with the increase of the number of multimedia stations, though the results are comparable to or even better than those of the SS and TGe schemes.
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  • Shigeaki TAGASHIRA, Masahiro YAMANE, Satoshi FUJITA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1562-1569
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The IEEE 802.11e standard defines several important techniques that guarantee the quality of service (QoS) of multimedia communications in wireless LAN applications. A key technique introduced in the standard is an efficient media access control based on the Hybrid Coordination Function (HCF), which assigns an appropriate transmission opportunity (TXOP) to each flow for satisfying several requirements on the flow, such as delay bound and communication bandwidth. Although the simple scheduler designed in HCF could provide an efficient tool to guarantee the QoS in wireless LAN applications, it has a serious drawback, wherein a useless bandwidth assignment frequently occurs. Such assignments occur primarily due to a limitation of the scheme, wherein all the flows share the same service interval (SI). In this paper, we propose a new scheduling scheme that associates each flow with its own SI according to the hardness of the required SI. The effect of this approach is experimentally evaluated by simulation, the results of which indicate that the number of admitted flows and network resource utilization increase due to the proposed scheme.
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  • Yosuke TANIGAWA, Jong-Ok KIM, Hideki TODE, Koso MURAKAMI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1570-1579
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Recently, wireless LAN is achieving remarkable growth and maturity. On the other hand, by the advance of the Internet, the demand for multimedia communication services which include video and voice will be expected to grow. Therefore, in the future, the mechanism of QoS guarantee must be realized even in wireless LAN environment. So far, IEEE 802.11e EDCF has been proposed, which is a contention based channel access method to achieve the QoS guarantee in wireless LAN. However, this cannot realize the desired throughput ratio or deterministic target throughput in principle. In this paper, we expand the EDCF to solve such QoS issues and enable more flexible QoS control. Moreover, we show the effectiveness of our proposal by computer simulation.
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  • Ryoichi SHINKUMA, Takayuki YAMADA, Tatsuro TAKAHASHI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1580-1588
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this paper, we propose a novel solution to improving wireless channel quality of wireless local area networks (WLANs) in fast-mobile environments, which uses a media-access-control (MAC) layer approach: adaptive frame-length control and block acknowledgement (ACK). In fast-mobile environments, using short frame lengths can suppress channel estimation error and decrease frame errors. However, it increases the MAC overhead, resulting in decreased throughput. To solve this tradeoff, we combined block ACK, which is specified in IEEE802.1 1e as an optional function, with adaptive frame-length control. Although adaptive frame-length control considering this tradeoff has previously been investigated, the targets were different from WLANs using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in fast-mobile environments. The MAC-overhead reduction using block ACK is suitable for our frame-length control because it does not change the frame format in the physical layer. Also, it is a new idea to use block ACK as a solution to improving channel quality in fast-mobile environments. In this paper, we evaluate our method through computer simulations and verify the effectiveness of adaptive frame-length control that can accommodate relative speeds.
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  • Eisuke KUDOH, Haruki ITO, ZhiSen WANG, Fumiyuki ADACHI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1589-1596
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In mobile communication systems, high speed packet data services are demanded. In the high speed data transmission, throughput degrades severely due to severe inter-path interference (IPI). Recently, we proposed a random transmit power control (TPC) to increase the uplink throughput of DS-CDMA packet mobile communications. In this paper, we apply IPI cancellation in addition to the random TPC. We derive the numerical expression of the received signal-to-interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) and introduce IPI cancellation factor. We also derive the numerical expression of system throughput when IPI is cancelled ideally to compare with the Monte Carlo numerically evaluated system throughput. Then we evaluate, by Monte-Carlo numerical computation method, the combined effect of random TPC and IPI cancellation on the uplink throughput of DS-CDMA packet mobile communications.
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  • Shengling WANG, Yong CUI, Rajeev KOODLI, Yibin HOU, Zhangqin HUANG
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1597-1608
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Due to the dynamics of topology and resources, Call Admission Control (CAC) plays a significant role for increasing resource utilization ratio and guaranteeing users' QoS requirements in wireless/mobile networks. In this paper, a dynamic multi-threshold CAC scheme is proposed to serve multi-class service in a wireless/mobile network. The thresholds are renewed at the beginning of each time interval to react to the changing mobility rate and network load. To find suitable thresholds, a reward-penalty model is designed, which provides different priorities between different service classes and call types through different reward/penalty policies according to network load and average call arrival rate. To speed up the running time of CAC, an Optimized Genetic Algorithm (OGA) is presented, whose components such as encoding, population initialization, fitness function and mutation etc., are all optimized in terms of the traits of the CAC problem. The simulation demonstrates that the proposed CAC scheme outperforms the similar schemes, which means the optimization is realized. Finally, the simulation shows the efficiency of OGA.
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  • Stefan AUST, Peter DAVIS, Akira YAMAGUCHI, Sadao OBANA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1609-1615
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The aggregation of Wi-Fi links has been identified as one way of taking advantage of available channels to achieve higher speed data transmission in future cognitive radio networks. However variations in link quality make it difficult to achieve stable performance from aggregated Wi-Fi links. In this paper we present a method for controlling aggregation of Wi-Fi links based on monitoring of link status. We first discuss the requirements for detecting bad-links which degrade the performance of aggregated Wi-Fi links. We then describe the implementation of an enhanced link-status detection algorithm based on monitoring of signal strength and number of retransmissions. In particular, we address the problems of monitoring and recovering links after they have been dropped from use, and adjusting decision thresholds to adapt to changing wireless conditions. Finally, we report the results of tests which demonstrate the effectiveness for attaining efficient aggregation of Wi-Fi links for high throughput under varying wireless conditions.
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  • Yousuke TAJIMA, Yoshihide YAMADA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1616-1624
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In the Intelligent Transportation System, millimeter waves are used and antennas are required beam scanning ability. In the millimeter wave operation, a lens antenna is one of the prominent candidates which achieves wide angle beam scanning. Wide angle scanning can be achieved by introducing Abbe sine condition to lens surface shaping. Authors designed the shaped lens antenna that could achieve beam scanning ±30°. The narrow beam widths were maintained on the scanning plane. However, the beam widths were broadened on the transverse plane and large gain reduction was appeared. It was clarified that the reason of this beam deterioration was due to the phase delay on the antenna aperture. In this paper, an array feed composed of a group of rectangular horns is employed to compensate the phase delay on the antenna aperture. In designing the array feed, because there were no examples of phase radiation pattern synthesis, a new radiation pattern synthesis method is studied. Ability of the weighting matrix contained in the Least Mean Square synthesis method is raid attention. Adequate weighting matrix is found out. Satisfactory phase radiation pattern that can compensate the phase delay and an adequate amplitude radiation pattern are achieved. As a result, the improvement of scanned beam widths and antenna gains through the array feed are ensured. And adequate horn arrangements of the array feed for improving scanned beam are clarified. Moreover, in order to examine the realization of an actual array feed, the exact electromagnetic simulation is conducted. The validity of the radiation pattern synthesis is clarified.
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  • Tsuyoshi MIZUMOTO, Tomoyuki OHTA, Yoshiaki KAKUDA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1625-1633
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    As the performance of each node becomes higher, it is expected that the ad hoc network is used for the community network in which a few thousands of mobile nodes exist. In such a network, the number of hops between a source node and a destination node also becomes longer. However, as the route becomes longer, it is difficult to provide the robust and reliable route for mobile ad hoc networks since the multiple route breaks occur at the same time due to the topology change. Therefore, this paper proposes a Route-Split Routing resilient to simultaneous failure (RSR). RSR sets up multiple Subroute Management Nodes (SMN's) on the route and each SMN manages the subroute between the SMN and the neighboring SMN. When the multiple route breaks occur at the same time, each subroute is repaired by the SMN. Consequently, RSR can reduce the number of control packets used for the route repair and mitigate the network congestion even in case that the number of nodes in the network becomes very larger.
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  • Hiraku OKADA, Akira TAKANO, Kenichi MASE
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1634-1641
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    One of the most promising applications of a mobile ad hoc network is a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). Each vehicle is aware of its position information by GPS or other methods, so position-based routing is a useful approach in VANET. The position-based routing protocol can be classified roughly into a next-hop forwarding method and a directed flooding method. We evaluate performance of both methods by analytic approach and compare them in this paper. From the evaluation results, we conclude that it is effective for the position-based routing to choose either the next-hop forwarding method or the directed flooding method according to the environment. Then we propose the hybrid transmission method which can select one of them according to the environment, and clarify that the proposed method can keep the packet delivery ratio at a high level and reduce the delay time.
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  • Keigo HASEGAWA, Takeo FUJII, Kenta UMEBAYASHI, Yukihiro KAMIYA, Yasuo ...
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1642-1651
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper proposes a MAC protocol for efficient broadcasting in wireless ad hoc networks. Pure flooding leads to serious redundant broadcasts, packet contention and packet collisions, known as the broadcast storm problem. This paper focuses on how to reduce the redundant broadcasts. Several protocols to achieve efficient broadcasting have been proposed. However a trade-off exists between the reachability and the broadcasting ratio, which is the ratio of the number of the broadcasting nodes to the number of received nodes. This paper proposes a new MAC protocol for on-demand broadcasting, which is referred to as dialogue-based protocol in order to resolve the trade-off. The dialogue-based protocol employs additional massages which are called as request packets and reply signals. They are exchanged in an on-demand manner, in order that relay candidate nodes recognize its neighbor nodes status whether they have already received the broadcast packets. Finally, by computer simulations, this paper presents that the dialogue-based scheme combines high reachability with low broadcasting ratio by using the low additional massages.
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  • Hosei MATSUOKA, Yusuke NAKASHIMA, Takeshi YOSHIMURA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1652-1658
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper presents a technology for short-range communications using sound wave, in which the modulated data signal can be transmitted in parallel with regular audio without significantly degrading the quality of the sound. The technology, which we call Acoustic OFDM, replaces the high frequency band of the audio signal with OFDM carriers, each of which is power-controlled according to the spectrum envelope of the original audio signal. It can provide data transmission of several hundreds bps. The implemented Acoustic OFDM system enables the transmission of short text messages from loud speakers to mobile devices at a distance of around 3m.
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  • Erin-Ee-Lin LAU, Wan-Young CHUNG
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1659-1665
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A novel RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) refinement algorithm is proposed to enhance the resolution for indoor and outdoor real-time location tracking system. The proposed refinement algorithm is implemented in two separate phases. During the first phase, called the pre-processing step, RSSI values at different static locations are collected and processed to build a calibrated model for each reference node. Different measurement campaigns pertinent to each parameter in the model are implemented to analyze the sensitivity of RSSI. The propagation models constructed for each reference nodes are needed by the second phase. During the next phase, called the runtime process, real-time tracking is performed. Smoothing algorithm is proposed to minimize the dynamic fluctuation of radio signal received from each reference node when the mobile target is moving. Filtered RSSI values are converted to distances using formula calibrated in the first phase. Finally, an iterative trilateration algorithm is used for position estimation. Experiments relevant to the optimization algorithm are carried out in both indoor and outdoor environments and the results validated the feasibility of proposed algorithm in reducing the dynamic fluctuation for more accurate position estimation.
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  • Yuuki OTA, Toshihiro HORI, Taiki ONISHI, Tomotaka WADA, Kouichi MUTSUU ...
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1666-1675
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tag technology is expected as a tool of localization. By the localization of RFID tags, a mobile robot which installs in RFID readers can recognize surrounding environments. In addition, RFID tags can be applied to a navigation system for walkers. In this paper, we propose an adaptive likelihood distribution scheme for the localization of RFID tags. This method adjusts the likelihood distribution depending on the signal intensity from RFID tags. We carry out the performance evaluation of estimated position error by both computer simulations and implemental experiments. We show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional system.
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  • Takafumi HAYASHI
    Type: LETTER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1676-1681
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The present paper introduces the construction of a class of sequence sets with zero-correlation zones called zero-correlation zone sequence sets. The proposed zero-correlation zone sequence set can be generated from an arbitrary perfect sequence and an arbitrary Golay complementary sequence pair. The proposed construction is a generalization of the zero-correlation zone sequence construction previously reported by the present author. The proposed sequence set can successfully provide CDMA communication without co-channel interference.
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  • Kyong Hoon KIM, Wan Yeon LEE, Jong KIM
    Type: LETTER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1682-1685
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A key issue in QoS-provisioning real-time wireless communications is to provide the QoS requirement with low energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient error correction scheme for real-time communications with QoS requirements in wireless networks. The QoS requirement of a message stream is modeled with (m,k) constraint, implying that at least m messages should be sent to a receiver during any window of k periods. The proposed scheme adaptively selects an error correcting code in an energy-efficient manner so that it maximizes the number of QoS provisionings per unit energy consumption.
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  • Dongwook KIM, Hanjin LEE, Namgi KIM, Hyunsoo YOON
    Type: LETTER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1686-1688
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this paper, we propose a new handover algorithm to guarantee handover quality in 4G mobile systems. The proposed algorithm limits the handover interruption time by improving the HARQ retransmission latency of the first packet transmitted from new serving cell. Through the simulations, we proved that our algorithm meets the requirement of handover interruption time for TCP services with high rate.
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Regular Section
  • Chua-Yun HSU, Hsin-Chieh CHAO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1689-1696
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is an attractive transmission technique for high-bit-rate communication systems. One major drawback of OFDM is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. This study introduces a low-complexity selected mapping (SLM) OFDM scheme based on discrete Fourier transform (DFT) constellation-shaping. The DFT-based constellation-shaping algorithm applied with conventional SLM scheme usually requires a bank of DFT-shaping matrices to generate low-correlation constellation sequences and a bank of inverse fast Fourier transforms (IFFTs) to generate a set of candidate transmission signals, and this process usually results in high computational complexity. Therefore, a sparse matrix algorithm with low-complexity is proposed to replace the IFFT blocks and the DFT-shaping blocks in the proposed DFT constellation-shaping SLM scheme. By using the proposed sparse matrix, the candidate transmission signal with the lowest PAPR can be achieved with lower complexity than that of the conventional SLM scheme. The complexity analysis of the proposed algorithm shows great an improvement in the reduction of the number of multiplications. Moreover, this new low-complexity technique offers a PAPR that is significantly lower than that of the conventional SLM without any loss in terms of energy and spectral efficiency.
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  • Shunsuke YAMAKI, Masahide ABE, Masayuki KAWAMATA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1697-1705
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper proposes a closed form solution to L2-sensitivity minimization of second-order state-space digital filters subject to L2-scaling constraints. The proposed approach reduces the constrained optimization problem to an unconstrained optimization problem by appropriate variable transformation. Furthermore, restricting ourselves to the case of second-order state-space digital filters, we can express the L2-sensitivity by a simple linear combination of exponential functions and formulate the L2-sensitivity minimization problem by a simple polynomial equation. As a result, L2-sensitivity is expressed in closed, form, and its minimization subject to L2-scaling constraints is achieved without iterative calculations.
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  • Seiichi NAKAMORI, Raquel CABALLERO-ÁGUILA, Aurora HERMOSO-CARAZ ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1706-1712
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The least-squares linear filtering and fixed-point smoothing problems of uncertainly observed signals are considered when the signal and the observation additive noise are correlated at any sampling time. Recursive algorithms, based on an innovation approach, are proposed without requiring the knowledge of the state-space model generating the signal, but only the autocovariance and crosscovariance functions of the signal and the observation white noise, as well as the probability that the signal exists in the observations.
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  • Takuya KITAMOTO, Tetsu YAMAGUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Systems and Control
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1713-1724
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    H optimal control is one of the most successful achievements in the post modem control theory. In the H optimal control, we design a controller that minimizes the H norm of a given system. Although the algorithms to solve the problem have already been reported, they focus on numerical systems (systems without any unknown parameters) and, can not be applied for parametric systems (systems with unknown parameters). Given a parametric system, this paper presents an algorithm to compute the optimal H norm of the system achieved by an output feedback controller. The optimal H norm is expressed as 1/√φ(k), where φ(k), denotes a root of a bivariate polynomial. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the algorithm.
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  • Yusuke MATSUOKA, Toshimichi SAITO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1725-1732
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper studies the rotation map with a controlling segment. As a parameter varies, the map exhibits superstable periodic orbits, chaos and rich bifurcation phenomena. The map is applicable to an A/D converter having efficient resolution characteristics. The converter can be realized as a circuit model based on a spiking neuron and the rate-coding. Presenting a test circuit, basic operation is confirmed experimentally.
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  • Hideki SATOH
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1733-1740
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A robust routing algorithm was developed based on reinforcement learning that uses (1) reward-weighted principal component analysis, which compresses the state space of a network with a large number of nodes and eliminates the adverse effects of various types of attacks or disturbance noises, (2) activity-oriented index allocation, which adaptively constructs a basis that is used for approximating routing probabilities, and (3) newly developed control space compression based on a potential model that reduces the control space for routing probabilities. This algorithm takes all the network states into account and reduces the adverse effects of disturbance noises. The algorithm thus works well, and the frequencies of causing routing loops and falling to a local optimum are reduced even if the routing information is disturbed.
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  • Minghua LI, Takashi HIKIHARA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1741-1747
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The redox (Reduction-Oxidation) flow battery is one of the most promising rechargeable batteries due to its ability to average loads and output of power sources. The transient characteristics are well known as the remarkable feature of the battery. Then it can also compensate for a sudden voltage drop. The dynamics are governed by the chemical reactions, fluid flow, and electrical circuit of its structure. This causes the difficulty of the analysis at transient state. This paper discusses the transient behavior of the redox flow battery based on chemical reactions. The concentration change of vanadium ions depends on the chemical reactions and the flow of electrolysis solution. The chemical reaction rate is restricted by the attached external electric circuit. In this paper, a model of the transient behavior is introduced. The validity of the derived model is examined based on experiments for a tested micro-redox flow battery system.
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  • Mohammad ZALFANY URFIANTO, Tsuyoshi ISSHIKI, Arif ULLAH KHAN, Dongju L ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1748-1756
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A simple extension used to assist the decomposition of task-level concurrency within C programs is presented in this paper. The concurrency decomposition is meant to be used as the point of entry for Multiprocessor System-on-Chips (MPSoC) architectures' design-flow. Our methodology allows the (re) use of readily available reference C programs and enables easy and rapid exploration for various alternatives of task partitioning strategies; a crucial task that greatly influences the overall quality of the designed MPSoC. A test case using a JPEG encoder application has been performed and the results are presented in this paper.
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  • Shingo YOSHIZAWA, Yasushi YAMAUCHI, Yoshikazu MIYANAGA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1757-1762
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper presents a VLSI architecture of MMSE detection in a 4×4 MIMO-OFDM receiver. Packet-based MIMO-OFDM imposes a considerable throughput requirement on the matrix inversion because of strict timing in frame structure and subcarrier-by-subcarrier basis processing. Pipeline processing oriented algorithms are preferable to tackle this issue. We propose a pipelined MMSE detector using Strassen's algorithms of matrix inversion and multiplication. This circuit achieves realtime operation which does not depend on numbers of subcarriers. The designed circuit has been implemented to a 90-nm CMOS process and shows a potential for providing a 2.6-Gbps transmission speed in a 160-MHz signal bandwidth.
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  • Chin-Chin CHEN, Chiou-Yng LEE, Erl-Huei LU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1763-1771
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This work presents a novel scalable and systolic Montgomery's algorithm in GF (2m). The proposed algorithm is based on the Toeplitz matrix-vector representation, which obtains the scalable and systolic Montgomery multiplier in a flexible manner, and can adapt to the required precision. Analytical results indicate that the proposed multiplier over the generic field of GF (2m) has a latency of d+n(2n+1), where n=[m/d], and d denotes the selected digital size. The latency is reduced to d+n(n+1) clock cycles when the field is constructed from generalized equally-spaced polynomials. Since the selected digital size is d≥5 bits, the proposed architectures have lower time-space complexity than traditional digit-serial multipliers. Moreover, the proposed architectures have regularity, modularity and local interconnect ability, making them very suitable for VLSI implementation.
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  • Soong Hyun SHIN, Sung Woo CHUNG, Eui-Young CHUNG, Chu Shik JHON
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1772-1779
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    As technology scales down, leakage energy accounts for a greater proportion of total energy. Applying the drowsy technique to a cache, is regarded as one of the most efficient techniques for reducing leakage energy. However, it increases the Soft Error Rate (SER), thus, many researchers doubt the reliability of the drowsy technique. In this paper, we show several reasons why the instruction cache can adopt the drowsy technique without reliability problems. First, an instruction cache always stores read-only data, leading to soft error recovery by re-fetching the instructions from lower level memory. Second, the effect of the re-fetching caused by soft errors on performance is negligible. Additionally, a considerable percentage of soft errors can occur without harming the performance. Lastly, unrecoverable soft errors can be controlled by the scrubbing method. The simulation results show that the drowsy instruction cache rarely increases the rate of unrecoverable errors and negligibly degrades the performance.
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  • Minoru KURIBAYASHI, Masakatu MORII, Hatsukazu TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1780-1790
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A reversible watermark algorithm with large capacity has been developed by applying the difference expansion of a generalized integer transform. In this algorithm, a watermark signal is inserted in the LSB of the difference values among pixels. In this paper, we apply the prediction errors calculated by a predictor in JPEG-LS for embedding watermark, which contributes to increase the amount of embedded information with less degradation. As one of the drawbacks discovered in the above conventional method is the large size of the embedded location map introduced to make it reversible, we decrease the large size of the location map by vectorization, and then modify the composition of the map using the local characteristics. We also exclude the positions such that the modification in the embedding operation cannot increase the capacity but merely degrade the image quality, which can be applicable to the conventional methods.
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  • Jonathan LETESSIER, Baptiste VRIGNEAU, Philippe ROSTAING, Gilles BUREL
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1791-1796
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) maximum-SNR (max-SNR) system employs the maximum ratio combiner (MRC) at the receiver side and the maximum ratio transmitter (MRT) at the transmitter side. Its performances highly depend on MIMO channel characteristics, which vary according to both the number of antennas and their distribution between the transmitter and receiver sides. By using the decomposition of the ordered Wishart distribution in the uncorrelated Rayleigh case, we derived a closed-form expression of the largest eigenvalue probability density function (PDF). The final result yields to an expression form of the PDF where polynomials are multiplied by exponentials; it is worth underlining that, though this form had been previously observed for given couples of antennas, to date no formally-written closed-form was available in the literature for an arbitrary couple. Then, this new expression permits one to quickly and easily get the well known largest eigenvalue PDF and use it to determine the binary error probability (BEP) of the max-SNR.
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  • Bing-Fei WU, Li-Shan MA, Jau-Woei PERNG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Language, Thought, Knowledge and Intelligence
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1797-1805
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This investigation applies the adaptive fuzzy-neural observer (AFNO) to synchronize a class of unknown chaotic systems via scalar transmitting signal only. The proposed method can be used in synchronization if nonlinear chaotic systems can be transformed into the canonical form of Lur'e system type by the differential geometric method. In this approach, the adaptive fuzzy-neural network (FNN) in AFNO is adopted on line to model the nonlinear term in the transmitter. Additionally, the master's unknown states can be reconstructed from one transmitted state using observer design in the slave end. Synchronization is achieved when all states are observed. The utilized scheme can adaptively estimate the transmitter states on line, even if the transmitter is changed into another chaos system. On the other hand, the robustness of AFNO can be guaranteed with respect to the modeling error, and external bounded disturbance. Simulation results confirm that the AFNO design is valid for the application of chaos synchronization.
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  • Peng WANG, Jia WANG, Songyu YU, Yuye PANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Multimedia Environment Technology
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1806-1811
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Wyner and Ziv characterized the rate distortion function for lossy source coding with side information at the decoder. It is well known that for the quadratic Gaussian case, the Wyner-Ziv rate-distortion function coincides with the conditional rate-distortion function. In this paper, we extend the problem to the coding of multivariate Gaussian source with multiple Gaussian side information at the decoder. The achievable region is obtained, and it is easily extended to the case that the difference between the source and the side information is multivariate Gaussian, no matter what distributions the source and the side information are. We apply this theoretical model to Distributed Video Coding (DVC) by considering the difference of the Distributed frame (D frame) and the Side-information frame (S frame) to be multivariate Gaussian distributed. This introduces rate allocation problem into DVC, which can be solved by a reverse water-filling method. Simulation results show that around 1.5-2dB coding gain benefits from the multivariate Gaussian Wyner-Ziv coding model.
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  • Jin-Fa LIN, Yin-Tsung HWANG, Ming-Hwa SHEU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Circuit Theory
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1812-1815
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Two novel low complexity dual-mode pulse generator designs suitable for FFs with triggering mode control are presented. The proposed designs successfully integrate XOR/OR (AND/XNOR) functions into a unified pass transistor logic (PTL) module to provide control on single- or double-edge operations. The designs use as few as 8 transistors each and ingeniously avoid the signal degradation problem inherent in most PTL circuits. As the only dual-mode designs so far, the proposed designs also outperform rival single-mode designs in both aspects of circuit complexity and power consumption.
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  • Masahiro KAMINAGA, Takashi WATANABE, Takashi ENDO, Toshio OKOCHI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1816-1819
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This article analyzes the internal mechanism of fault attacks on microcontrollers and proposes a cost-effective hardware and software countermeasure design policy. Reliable branch operations are essential to DFA-resistant hardware. Our method is based on a logical fault attack simulation to find the minimum set of signals that contribute to faults in the branch operations and is also based on applying partially redundant logic.
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  • Fagen LI, Shijie ZHOU, Rong SUN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1820-1823
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In a proxy multi-signature scheme, a designated proxy signer can generate the signature on behalf of a group of original signers. Recently, Wang and Cao proposed an identity based proxy multi-signature scheme along with a security model. Although they proved that their scheme is secure under this model, we disprove their claim and show that their scheme is not secure.
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  • Dong Hoon LEE, Je Hong PARK, Jae Woo HAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1824-1827
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A variant of the self-shrinking generator (SSG) proposed at ICISC 2006, which we call SSG-XOR, was claimed to have better cryptographic properties than SSG in a practical setting. It was also claimed that SSG-XOR will be more secure than SSG. But we show that SSG-XOR has no advantage over SSG from the viewpoint of practical cryptanalysis, especially the guess-and-determine attack.
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  • Kyu Young CHOI, Jung Yeon HWANG, Dong Hoon LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1828-1830
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In 2004, Choi et al. proposed an ID-based authenticated group key agreement. Unfortunately, their protocol was found to be vulnerable to the insider attacks by Zhang, Chen and Shim. To prevent insider attacks, Shim presented a modification of Choi et al.'s protocol. In this letter, we first show that Shim's modification is still insecure against insider attacks. We then present a modification of Choi et al.'s protocol that resists insider attacks. The counter-measure uses an ID-based signature on transcripts in order to bind them in a session. This prevents any replay of transcripts. Especially, by applying ID-based batch verification, the proposed one still consists of two rounds and is computationally efficient.
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  • Jingliang ZHANG, Lizhen MA, Rong SUN, Yumin WANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1831-1835
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this letter, we improve NF'07 (Nakanishi and Funabiki) VLR group signature scheme such that it satisfies exculpability and has lower computation costs. In the proposed scheme, a group member generates his own private key together with the group manager in order to realize exculpability while the signature size is not made longer. Also, a new revocation check method is proposed at the step of verifying, and the computation costs of verifying are independent of the number of the revoked members, while they are linear with the number of the revoked members in the original scheme. Thus, the proposed scheme is more efficient than the original scheme and can be applicable to mobile environments such as IEEE 802.1x.
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  • Chik-How TAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1836-1838
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Recently, Duan and Cao proposed an multi-receiver identity-based signcryption scheme. They showed that their scheme is secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks in the random oracle model. In this paper, we show that their scheme is in fact not secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks under their defined security model.
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  • Shunji KOZAKI, Kazuto MATSUO, Yasutomo SHIMBARA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1839-1843
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Scalar multiplication methods using the Frobenius maps are known for efficient methods to speed up (hyper) elliptic curve cryptosystems. However, those methods are not efficient for the cryptosystems constructed on fields of small extension degrees due to costs of the field operations. Iijima et al. showed that one can use certain automorphisms on the quadratic twists of elliptic curves for fast scalar multiplications without the drawback of the Frobenius maps. This paper shows an extension of the automorphisms on the Jacobians of hyperelliptic curves of arbitrary genus.
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  • Qinghai YANG, Kyung Sup KWAK
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1844-1846
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Bit error performance is investigated in this letter for orthogonal space-time block coded (STBC) multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. As the channel model considers the log-normal fading, the resultant signal to noise ratio (SNR) follows a chi-squared log-normal distribution. Based on this, the bit error probability is derived. Furthermore, simulation verifies this theoretical result.
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  • Young-Hwan YOU, Byoung-Heon LEE, Jae-Hoon YI, Hyoung-Kyu SONG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1847-1849
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this letter, we address a carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimator with a large estimation range for ultra-wideband multi-band or-thogonal frequency division multiplexing (UWB MB-OFDM) systems. We find by simulations that the proposed CFO estimator yields an improved estimation range, maintaining the same estimation performance and complexity in comparison with the conventional estimator.
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  • Erlin ZENG, Shihua ZHU, Xuewen LIAO, Zhimeng ZHONG, Zhenjie FENG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 7 Pages 1850-1853
    Published: July 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Prior studies on limited feedback (LFB) beamforming in multiple-antenna orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) have resorted to Monte-Carlo simulations to evaluate the system performance. This letter proposes a novel analytical framework, based on which the averaged signal-to-noise ratio and the ergodic capacity performance of clustering-based LFB beamforming in multiple-antenna OFDM systems are studied. Simulations are also provided to verify the analysis.
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