IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E94.A , Issue 7
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
Regular Section
  • Masafumi KUMAMOTO, Masahiro KIDA, Ryotaro HIRAYAMA, Yoshinobu KAJIKAWA ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Engineering Acoustics
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1479-1486
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    We propose an active noise control (ANC) system for reducing periodic noise generated in a high magnetic field such as noise generated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices (MR noise). The proposed ANC system utilizes optical microphones and piezoelectric loudspeakers, because specific acoustic equipment is required to overcome the high-field problem, and consists of a head-mounted structure to control noise near the user's ears and to compensate for the low output of the piezoelectric loudspeaker. Moreover, internal model control (IMC)-based feedback ANC is employed because the MR noise includes some periodic components and is predictable. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ANC system (head-mounted structure) can significantly reduce MR noise by approximately 30dB in a high field in an actual MRI room even if the imaging mode changes frequently.
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  • Takahiro MURAKAMI, Yoshihisa ISHIDA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1487-1496
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    An algorithm for estimating sinusoidal parameters is presented. In this paper, it is assumed that an observed signal is a single sinusoidal signal contaminated by white Gaussian noise. Based on this assumption, the sinusoidal parameters can be found by minimizing a cost function using the mean squared error (MSE) between the observed signal and a sinusoidal signal with arbitrary sinusoidal parameters. Because the cost function is nonlinear and not convex, it has undesirable local minima. To solve the minimization problem, we propose to use the roots of an algebraic equation. The algebraic equation is derived straightforwardly from the cost function. We show that the global solution is formulated by using the roots of the algebraic equation.
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  • Xiaoyong ZHANG, Masahide ABE, Masayuki KAWAMATA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1497-1504
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    This paper proposes a new method that reduces the computational cost of the phase-only correlation (POC)-based methods for displacement estimation in old film sequences. Conventional POC-based methods calculate all the points of the POC and only use the highest peak of the POC and its neighboring points to estimate the displacement with subpixel accuracy. Our proposed method reduces the computational cost by calculating the POC in a small region, instead of all the points of the POC. The proposed method combines a displacement pre-estimation with a modified inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT). The displacement pre-estimation uses the 1-D POCs of frame projections to pre-estimate the displacement with pixel accuracy and chooses a small region in the POC including the desired points for displacement estimation. The modified IDFT is then used to calculate the points in this small region for displacement estimation. Experimental results show that use of the proposed method can effectively reduce the computational cost of the POC-based methods without compromising the accuracy.
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  • Manjung SEO, Seokhun JEON, Sungbin IM
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1505-1512
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    This paper proposes a windowed-sinc function based peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction scheme for applying the polar transmitter techniques to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), where the high PAPR problem occurs. The proposed algorithm mitigates the effect of excessive suppression due to successive peaks or relatively high peaks of a signal, which is often observed when applying the conventional peak windowing scheme. The bit error rate (BER) and error vector magnitude (EVM) performances are measured for various window types and lengths. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves significant improvement in terms of BER and PAPR reduction performance while maintaining similar spectrum performance compared to the conventional peak windowing scheme.
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  • Daisuke KIMURA, Toshimichi SAITO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Problems
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1513-1518
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    This paper studies a switched dynamical system based on the boost converter with a solar cell input. The solar cell is modeled by a piecewise linear current-controlled voltage source. A variant of peak-current-controlled switching is used in the boost converter. Applying the mapping procedure, the system dynamics can be analyzed precisely. As a main result, we have found an important example of trade-off between the maximum power point and stability: as a parameter (relates to the clock period) varies, the average power of a periodic orbit can have a peak near a period-doubling bifurcation set and an unstable periodic orbit can have the maximum power point.
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  • Yeonbok LEE, Takeshi MATSUMOTO, Masahiro FUJITA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1519-1529
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    Post-silicon debugging is getting even more critical to shorten the time-to-market than ever, as many more bugs escape pre-silicon verification according to the increasing design scale and complexity. Post-silicon debugging is generally harder than pre-silicon debugging due to the limited observability and controllability of internal signal values. Conventionally, simulation of corresponding low-level designs such as RTL or gate-level has been used to get observability and controllability, which is inefficient for contemporary large designs. In this paper, we introduce a post-silicon debugging approach using simulation of high-level designs, instead of low-level designs. To realize such a debugging approach, we propose an I/O sequence mapping method that converts I/O sequences of chip executions to those of the corresponding high-level design. First, we provide a formal definition of I/O sequence mapping and relevant notions. Then, based on the definition, we propose an I/O sequence mapping method by executing FSMs representing the interface specifications of the target design. Also, we propose an implementation of the proposed method to get further efficiency. We demonstrate that the proposed method can be effectively applied to several practical design examples with various interfaces.
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  • Chin-Long WEY, Shin-Yo LIN, Pei-Yun TSAI, Ming-Der SHIEH
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1530-1539
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    Multi-core processors have been attracting a great deal of attention. In the domain of signal processing for communications, the current trends toward rapidly evolving standards and formats, and toward algorithms adaptive to dynamic factors in the environment, require programmable solutions that possess both algorithm flexibility and low implementation complexity. Reconfigurable architectures have demonstrated better tradeoffs between algorithm flexibility, implementation complexity, and energy efficiency. This paper presents a reconfigurable homogeneous memory-based FFT processor (MBFFT) architecture integrated in a single chip to provide hybrid SISO/MIMO OFDM wireless communication systems. For example, a reconfigurable MBFFT processor with eight processing elements (PEs) can be configured for one DVB-T/H with N=8192 and two 802.11n with N=128. The reconfigurable processors can perfectly fit the applications of Software Defined Radio (SDR) which requires more hardware flexibility.
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  • Kang ZHAO, Jinian BIAN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1540-1552
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    To reduce the huge search space when customizing accelerators for the application specific instruction-set processor (ASIP), this paper proposes an automated customization method based on the data flow graph exploration. This method integrates the instruction identification and selection using an iterative improvement strategy, which uses a seed-growth algorithm to select the valid patterns that can bring higher performance enhancement. The search space is reduced by considering the performance factors during the identification stage. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is feasible enough compared to the previous exhaustive algorithms.
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  • Yung-Ling LAI, Da-Chung YU, Lih-Hsing HSU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Graphs and Networks
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1553-1557
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    Let G=(V,E) be a graph of order n. A Hamiltonian cycle of G is a cycle that contains every vertex in G. Two Hamiltonian cycles C1=<u1,u2,…,un,u1> and C2=<v1,v2,…,vn,v1> of G are independent if u1=v1 and uivi for 2≤in. A set of Hamiltonian cycles {C1,C2,…,Ck} of G is mutually independent if its elements are pairwise independent. The mutually independent hamiltonicity IHC(G) of a graph G is the maximum integer k such that for any vertex u of G there are k mutually independent Hamiltonian cycles of G starting at u. For the n-dimensional burnt pancake graph Bn, this paper proved that IHC(B2)=1 and IHC(Bn)=n for n≥3.
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  • Xufeng ZHAO, Syouji NAKAMURA, Toshio NAKAGAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Reliability, Maintainability and Safety Analysis
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1558-1566
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    It is an important problem to determine major collection times to meet the pause time goal for a generational garbage collector. From such a viewpoint, this paper proposes two stochastic models based on working schemes of a generational garbage collector: Garbage collections occur in a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, tenuring collection is made at a threshold level K, and major collection is made at time T or at Nth collection including minor and tenuring collections for the first model and at time T or at Nth collection including tenuring collections for the second model. Using the techniques of cumulative processes and reliability theory, expected cost rates are obtained, and optimal policies of major collection times which minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically.
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  • Dae Hyun YUM, Pil Joong LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1567-1575
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    One-time signature schemes have been used as an important cryptographic tool for various applications. To generate a signature on a message, the state-of-the-art one-time signature requires roughly one hash function evaluation and one modular multiplication. We propose a new one-time signature scheme for short messages that needs only one integer multiplication (i.e., without modular reduction or hash function evaluation). Theoretically, our construction is based on a generic transformation from identification protocols secure against active attacks into secure one-time signature schemes for short messages, where the Fiat-Shamir technique is not used. To obtain efficient instantiation of the transformation, we prove that the GPS identification protocol is secure against active attacks, which may be of independent interest.
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  • Kwang-Hoon KIM, Seong-Eun KIM, Woo-Jin SONG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Circuit Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1576-1580
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    We present a new structure for parallel affine projection (AP) filters with different step-sizes. By observing their error signals, the proposed alternating AP (A-AP) filter selects one of the two AP filters and updates the weights of the selected filter for each iteration. As a result, the total computations required for the proposed structure is almost the same as that for a single AP filter. Experimental results show that the proposed alternating selection scheme extracts the best properties of each component filter, namely fast convergence and small steady-state error.
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  • Hiroomi HIKAWA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1581-1584
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    This paper proposes a new sine wave approximation method for the PAC of DDFS. Sine wave is approximated by removing the harmonic components from trapezoid waveform. Experimental results show that the proposed PAC is advantageous in the SFDR range less than 60dBc due to its small hardware cost.
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  • Christopher PORTMANN, Keisuke TANAKA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1585-1590
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    We analyze the security notion of information-theoretic secrecy against an adversary who can make l adaptive queries to the decryption oracle, and show that it is equivalent to requiring that the encryption scheme can perfectly encrypt l+1 different messages. This immediately yields a lower bound on the key length and an optimal construction, namely (l+1)-wise independent permutations. This also gives an operational interpretation to the notion of decryption oracles in information-theoretic security.
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  • Jie PENG, Haibin KAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1591-1596
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    A Boolean function is said to be correlation immune if its output leaks no information about its input values. Such functions have many applications in computer security practices including the construction of key stream generators from a set of shift registers. Finding methods for easy construction of correlation immune Boolean functions has been an active research area since the introduction of the notion by Siegenthaler. In this paper, we present several constructions of nonpalindromic correlation immune symmetric Boolean functions. Our methods involve finding binomial coefficient identities and obtaining new correlation immune functions from known correlation immune functions. We also consider the construction of higher order correlation immunity symmetric functions and propose a class of third order correlation immune symmetric functions on n variables, where n+1(≥9) is a perfect square.
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  • Takafumi HAYASHI, Takao MAEDA, Satoshi OKAWA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Spread Spectrum Technologies and Applications
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1597-1602
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    The present paper introduces a new approach to the construction of a sequence set with a zero-correlation zone for both periodic and aperiodic correlation functions. The proposed sequences can be constructed from a pair of Hadamard matrices of orders n0 and n1. The constructed sequence set consists of n0n0 ternary sequences, each of length n0(m+2)(n1+Δ), for a non-negative integer m and τ≥2. The zero-correlation zone of the proposed sequences is $|\\ au|\\le \\ablen^{m+1}-1$, where τ is the phase shift. The proposed sequence set consists of n0 subsets, each with a member size n1. The correlation function of the sequences of a pair of different subsets, referred to as the inter-subset correlation function, has a zero-correlation zone with a width that is approximately τ times that of the correlation function of sequences of the same subset (intra-subset correlation function). The inter-subset zero-correlation zone of the proposed sequences is $|\\ au|\\le \\slen\\ablen^{m+1}$, where τ is the phase shift. The wide inter-subset zero-correlation enables performance improvement during application of the proposed sequence set.
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  • Fang LIU, Daiyuan PENG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1603-1607
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    In this letter, we determine the linear complexity and minimum polynomial of the frequency hopping sequences over GF(q) introduced by Chung and Yang, where q is an odd prime. The results of this letter show that these sequences are quite good from the linear complexity viewpoint. By modifying these sequences, another class of frequency hopping sequences are obtained. The modified sequences also have low Hamming autocorrelation and large linear complexity.
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  • Zhaolin LU, Jiansheng QIAN, Leida LI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image
    2011 Volume E94.A Issue 7 Pages 1608-1612
    Published: July 01, 2011
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    In this letter, a novel adaptive total variation (ATV) model is proposed for image inpainting. The classical TV model is a partial differential equation (PDE)-based technique. While the TV model can preserve the image edges well, it has some drawbacks, such as staircase effect in the inpainted image and slow convergence rate. By analyzing the diffusion mechanism of TV model and introducing a new edge detection operator named difference curvature, we propose a novel ATV inpainting model. The proposed ATV model can diffuse the image information smoothly and quickly, namely, this model not only eliminates the staircase effect but also accelerates the convergence rate. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
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