IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E91.A , Issue 9
Showing 1-50 articles out of 57 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
  • Ryuhei UEHARA
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2283
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: July 01, 2018
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  • Katsuhisa YAMANAKA, Shin-ichi NAKANO
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2284-2291
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A rectangular drawing is a plane drawing in which every face is a rectangle. In this paper we give a simple encoding scheme for rectangular drawings. Given a rectangular drawing R with maximum degree 3, our scheme encodes R with 5/3m+o(n) bits where n is the number of vertices of R and m is the number of edges of R. Also we give an algorithm to supports a rich set of queries, including adjacency and degree queries on the faces, in constant time.
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  • Miki MIYAUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2292-2295
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A (k,2)-track layout of a graph G consists of a 2-track assignment of G and an edge k-coloring of G with no monochromatic X-crossing. This paper studies the problem of (k,2)-track layout of bipartite graph subdivisions. Recently V. Dujmovi and D. R. Wood showed that for every integer d≥2, every graph G with n vertices has a (d+1,2)-track layout of a subdivision of G with 4[logdqn(G)]+3 division vertices per edge, where qn(G) is the queue number of G. This paper improves their result for the case of bipartite graphs, and shows that for every integer d≥2, every bipartite graph Gm,n has a (d+1,2)-track layout of a subdivision of Gm,n with 2[logdn]-1 division vertices per edge, where m and n are numbers of vertices of the partite sets of Gm,n with mn.
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  • Hirotoshi HONMA, Shigeru MASUYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2296-2300
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Given a simple graph G with n vertices, m edges and k connected components. The spanning forest problem is to find a spanning tree for each connected component of G. This problem has applications to the electrical power demand problem, computer network design, circuit analysis, etc. An optimal parallel algorithm for finding a spanning tree on the trapezoid graph is given by Bera et al., it takes O(logn) time with O(n/logn) processors on the EREW (Exclusive-Read Exclusive-Write) PRAM. Bera et al.'s algorithm is very simple and elegant. Moreover, it can correctly construct a spanning tree when the graph is connected. However, their algorithm can not accept a disconnected graph as an input. Applying their algorithm to a disconnected graph, Concurrent-Write occurs once for each connected component, thus this can not be achieved on EREW PRAM. In this paper we present an O(logn) time parallel algorithm with O(n/logn) processors for constructing a spanning forest on trapezoid graph G on EREW PRAM even if G is a disconnected graph.
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  • Yoichi HANATANI, Takashi HORIYAMA, Kazuo IWAMA, Suguru TAMAKI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2301-2307
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The Hajós calculus is a nondeterministic procedure which generates the class of non-3-colorable graphs. If all non-3-colorable graphs can be constructed in polynomial steps by the calculus, then NP=co-NP holds. Up to date, however, it remains open whether there exists a family of graphs that cannot be generated in polynomial steps. To attack this problem, we propose two graph calculi PHC and PHC* that generate non-3-colorable planar graphs, where intermediate graphs in the calculi are also restricted to be planar. Then we prove that PHC and PHC* are sound and complete. We also show that PHC* can polynomially simulate PHC.
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  • Takashi IMAMICHI, Hiroshi NAGAMOCHI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2308-2313
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this paper, we consider a collision detection problem of spheres which asks to detect all pairs of colliding spheres in a set of n spheres located in d-dimensional space. We propose a collision detection algorithm for spheres based on slab partitioning technique and a plane sweep method. We derive a theoretical upper bound on the time complexity of the algorithm. Our bound tells that if both the dimension and the maximum ratio of radii of two spheres are bounded, then our algorithm runs in O(nlogn+K) time with O(n+K) space, where K denotes the number of pairs of colliding spheres.
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  • Peng CHENG, Shigeru MASUYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2314-2321
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Let Ni be the number of connected spanning subgraphs with i(n-1≤im) edges in an n-vertex m-edge undirected graph G=(V,E). Although Nn-1 is computed in polynomial time by the Matrixtree theorem, whether Nn is efficiently computed for a graph G is an open problem (see e. g., [2]). On the other hand, whether N2nNn-1Nn+1 for a graph G is also open as a part of log concave conjecture (see e. g., [6], [12]). In this paper, for a complete graph Kn, we give the formulas for Nn, Nn+1, by which Nn, Nn+1 are respectively computed in polvnomial time on n, and, in particular, prove N2n>(n-1)(n-2)/n(n-3)Nn-1Nn+1 as well.
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  • Yuko HASHIZUME, Yasuhiro TAKASHIMA, Yuichi NAKAMURA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2322-2327
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In deep-submicron technologies, process variations can significantly affect the performance and yield of VLSI chips. As a countermeasure to the variations, post-silicon tuning has been proposed. Deskew, where the clock timing of flip-flops (FFs) is tuned by inserted programmable delay elements (PDEs) into the clock tree, is classified into this method. We propose a novel deskew method that decides the delay values of the elements by measuring a small amount of FFs' clock timing and presuming the rest of FFs' clock timings based on a statistical model. In addition, our proposed method can determine the discrete PDE delay value because the rewriting constraint satisfies the condition of total unimodularity.
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  • Yoshitaka NAKAO, Hiroshi NAGAMOCHI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2328-2334
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The pickup and delivery problem (PDP) asks to find a set of vehicles that serve a given set of requests with the minimum travel cost, where each request consists of a pickup point, a delivery point and a load (the quantity to be delivered from the pickup point to the delivery point). In the pickup and delivery problem with transfer (PDPT), for each request, its load picked up at the pickup point is allowed to be dropped at a transshipment point before it is picked up again and delivered to the delivery point by another vehicle. This paper analyzes the maximum travel cost that can be saved by introducing a transshipment point to the pickup and delivery problem (PDP). We show that the bounds are in proportion to square root of the number of cycles in an optimal PDPT solution and also square root of the number of requests. We furthermore present an instance that the bound is the tight for a special case.
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  • Chuzo IWAMOTO, Harumasa YONEDA, Kenichi MORITA, Katsunobu IMAI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2335-2340
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    We present a tight time-hierarchy theorem for nondeterministic cellular automata by using a recursive padding argument. It is shown that, if t2(n) is a time-constructible function and t2(n) grows faster than t1(n+1), then there exists a language which can be accepted by a t2(n)-time nondeterministic cellular automaton but not by any t1(n)-time nondeterministic cellular automaton.
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  • Tetsuo ASANO, Shinnya BITOU, Mitsuo MOTOKI, Nobuaki USUI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2341-2348
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper presents an algorithm for rotating a subimage in place without using any extra working array. Due to this constraint, we have to overwrite pixel values by interpolated values. Key ideas are local reliability test which determines whether interpolation at a pixel is carried out correctly without using interpolated values, and lazy interpolation which stores interpolated values in a region which is never used for output images and then fills in interpolated values after safety is guaranteed. It is shown that linear interpolation is always safely implemented. An extension to cubic interpolation is also discussed.
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  • Gembu MOROHASHI, Koji CHIDA, Keiichi HIROTA, Hiroaki KIKUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2349-2355
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    We propose a multiparty protocol for comparator networks which are used to compute various functions in statistical analysis, such as the maximum, minimum, median, and quartiles, for example, through sorting and searching. In the protocol, all values which are inputted to a comparator network and all intermediate outputs are kept secret assuming the presence of an honest majority. We also introduce an application of the protocol for a secure (M+1)-st price auction.
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  • Noboru KUNIHIRO, Kaoru KUROSAWA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2356-2364
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    For RSA, May showed a deterministic polynomial time equivalence of computing d to factoring N(=pq). On the other hand, Takagi showed a variant of RSA such that the decryption algorithm is faster than the standard RSA, where N=prq while ed=1 mod (p-1)(q-1). In this paper, we show that a deterministic polynomial time equivalence also holds in this variant. The coefficient matrix T to which LLL algorithm is applied is no longer lower triangular, and hence we develop a new technique to overcome this problem.
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  • Jun KURIHARA, Shinsaku KIYOMOTO, Kazuhide FUKUSHIMA, Toshiaki TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2365-2378
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In Shamir's (k,n)-threshold secret sharing scheme (threshold scheme) [1], a heavy computational cost is required to make n shares and recover the secret from k shares. As a solution to this problem, several fast threshold schemes have been proposed. However, there is no fast ideal (k,n)-threshold scheme, where k and n are arbitrary. This paper proposes a new fast (k,n)-threshold scheme which uses just EXCLUSIVE-OR (XOR) operations to make n shares and recover the secret from k shares. We prove that every combination of k or more participants can recover the secret, but every group of less than k participants cannot obtain any information about the secret in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the proposed scheme is an ideal secret sharing scheme similar to Shamir's scheme, in which every bitsize of shares equals that of the secret. We also evaluate the efficiency of the scheme, and show that our scheme realizes operations that are much faster than Shamir's.
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  • Toshiya NAKAJIMA, Tetsuya IZU, Tsuyoshi TAKAGI
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2379-2386
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The ηT pairing for supersingular elliptic curves over GF(3m) has been paid attention because of its computational efficiency. Since most computation parts of the ηT pairing are GF(3m) multiplications, it is important to improve the speed of the multiplication when implementing the ηT pairing. In this paper we investigate software implementation of GF(3m) multiplication and propose using irreducible trinomials xm+axk+b over GF(3) such that k is a multiple of w, where w is the bit length of the word of targeted CPU. We call the trinomials “reduction optimal trinomials (ROTs).” ROTs actually exist for several m's and for typical values of w=16 and 32. We list them for extension degrees m=97, 167, 193, 239, 317, and 487. These m's are derived from security considerations. Using ROTs, we are able to implement efficient modulo operations (reductions) for GF(3m) multiplication compared with cases in which other types of irreducible trinomials are used (e. g., trinomials with a minimum k for each m). The reason for this is that for cases using ROTsa, the number of shift operations on multiple precision data is reduced to less than half compared with cases using other trinomials. Our implementation results show that programs of reduction specialized for ROTs are 20-30% faster on 32-bit CPU and approximately 40% faster on 16-bit CPU compared with programs using irreducible trinomials with general k.
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  • Xibin LIN, Chang-An ZHAO, Fangguo ZHANG, Yanming WANG
    Type: PAPER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2387-2393
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    For AES 128 security level there are several natural choices for pairing-friendly elliptic curves. In particular, as we will explain, one might choose curves with k=9 or curves with k=12. The case k=9 has not been studied in the literature, and so it is not clear how efficiently pairings can be computed in that case. In this paper, we present efficient methods for the k=9 case, including generation of elliptic curves with the shorter Miller loop, the denominator elimination and speed up of the final exponentiation. Then we compare the performance of these choices. From the analysis, we conclude that for pairing-based cryptography at the AES 128 security level, the Barreto-Naehrig curves are the most efficient choice, and the performance of the case k=9 is comparable to the Barreto-Naehrig curves.
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Special Section on Nonlinear Theory and its Applications
  • Hisato FUJISAKA
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2394-2395
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: July 01, 2018
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  • Kazuo HORIUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear System Theory
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2396-2402
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this paper, we shall describe about a fuzzy estimation theory based on the concept of set-valued operators, suitable for available operation of extremely complicated large-scale network systems. Fundamental conditions for availability of system behaviors of such network systems are clarified in a form of β-level fixed point theorem for system of fuzzy-set-valued operators. Here, the proof of this theorem is accomplished in a weak topology introduced into the Banach space.
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  • Naoki HAYASHI, Toshimitsu USHIO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear System Theory
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2403-2410
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A consensus problem has been studied in many fundamental and application fields to analyze coordinated behavior in multiagent systems. In a consensus problem, it is usually assumed that a state of each agent is scalar and all agents have an identical linear consensus protocol. We present a consensus problem of multi-agent systems where each agent has multiple state variables and a performance value evaluated by a nonlinear performance function according to its current state. We derive sufficient conditions for agents to achieve consensus on the performance value using an algebraic graph theory and the mean value theorem. We also consider an application of a performance consensus problem to resource allocation in soft real-time systems so as to achieve a fair QoS (Quality of Service) level.
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  • Takafumi KANAZAWA, Hayato GOTO, Toshimitsu USHIO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear System Theory
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2411-2418
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In a population which consists of a large number of players interacting with each other, the payoff of each player often conflicts with the total payoff of the population which he/she belongs to. In such a situation, a “government” which has the comprehensive perspective is needed to govern the population. Recently, to discuss the population with the government, the authors have proposed replicator dynamics with reallocation of payoffs to analyze an effect of the government. In this model, the government is willing to lead the population to a desirable target state by collecting a part of players' payoffs and reallocating them depending on the target state. The government's action is the rate of collecting payoffs from players and the rate is assumed to be constant and independent of the population state. Thus, in this paper, we suppose that the government change their intervention strategy depending on the current population state. We consider the government as a game player and define the government's payoff as a sum of a benefit and a cost of intervention. We propose a model which describes the evolution of the government's reallocation strategy and investigate stability of its equilibrium points.
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  • Yuichi TANJI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Analysis, Modelng and Simulation
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2419-2425
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The passive and sparse reduced-order modeling of a RLC network is presented, where eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the original network are used, and thus the obtained macromodel is more accurate than that provided by the Krylov subspace methods or TBR procedures for a class of circuits. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to low pass filtering of a reduced-order model produced by these methods without breaking the passivity condition. Therefore, the proposed eigenspace method is not only a reduced-order macromodeling method, but also is embedded in other methods enhancing their performances.
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  • Masayoshi ODA, Yoshihiro YAMAGAMI, Junji KAWATA, Yoshifumi NISHIO, Aki ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Analysis, Modelng and Simulation
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2426-2434
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    We propose here a fully Spice-oriented design algorithm of op-amps for attaining the maximum gains under low power consumptions and assigned slew-rates. Our optimization algorithm is based on a well-known steepest descent method combining with nonlinear programming. The algorithm is realized by equivalent RC circuits with ABMs (analog behavior models) of Spice. The gradient direction is decided by the analysis of sensitivity circuits. The optimum parameters can be found at the equilibrium point in the transient response of the RC circuit. Although the optimization time is much faster than the other design tools, the results might be rough because of the simple transistor models. If much better parameter values are required, they can be improved with Spice simulator and/or other tools.
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  • Hyunchul KU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Analysis, Modelng and Simulation
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2435-2441
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper presents analysis and identification method of Wiener-Hammerstein system to characterize a nonlinear RF transmitter in fundamental frequency zone. A two-tone signal is used to analyze and identify a Wiener-Hammerstein model. A RF signal is converted to basebandequivalent complex signal, and Wiener-Hammerstein model is considered to have a baseband equivalent complex polynomial and linear filters. For a two-tone input signal, closed form descriptions of the output signal in the time domain and frequency domain are developed using a newly suggested nonlinearly modulated two-tone phasors (NMTP). The relationship between frequency terms of input and output signals in RF transmitters are represented with linear matrix-vector equation based on NMTP analysis. An advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity using closed form analysis and linear approximation. In addition, we can model a wideband system with relatively narrowband measurements by sweeping two-tone signal. The prediction of spectral regrowth and the predistortion performance for WiBro 1FA signal demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach in identifying the nonlinear RF transmitters.
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  • Masakazu YAGI, Takashi HISAKADO, Kohshi OKUMURA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Analysis, Modelng and Simulation
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2442-2449
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Harmonic balance (HB) method is well known principle for analyzing periodic oscillations on nonlinear networks and systems. Because the HB method has a truncation error, approximated solutions have been guaranteed by error bounds. However, its numerical computation is very time-consuming compared with solving the HB equation. This paper proposes an algebraic representation of the error bound using Gröbner base. The algebraic representation enables to decrease the computational cost of the error bound considerably. Moreover, using singular points of the algebraic representation, we can obtain accurate break points of the error bound by collisions.
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  • Tadatoshi SEKINE, Yuichi TANJI, Hideki ASAI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Analysis, Modelng and Simulation
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2450-2455
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper describes the matrix order reduction method by the nodal analysis formulation and the application of relaxation-based simulation technique to interconnect and plane networks. First, the characteristics of the power/ground plane networks are considered. Next, the formulation of the plane network by nodal analysis (NA) method is suggested. Furthermore, application and estimation results of the relaxation-based numerical analyses are shown. Finally, it is confirmed that the relaxationbased methods improved by the suggested formulation are much more efficient than the conventional direct-based methods.
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  • Kang ZHAO, Jinian BIAN, Sheqin DONG, Yang SONG, Satoshi GOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Electronic Circuits and Systems
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2456-2464
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Programming the multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) requires partitioning the sequential reference programs onto multiple processors running in parallel. However, designers still need to partition the code manually due to the lack of automated partition techniques. To settle this issue, this paper proposes a partition exploration algorithm based on the search space smoothing techniques, and implements the proposed method using a commercial extensible processor (Xtensa LX2 processor from Tensilica Inc.). We have verified the feasibility of the algorithm by implementing the MPEG2 benchmark on the Xtensa-based two-processor system. The final experimental results indicate a performance improvement of at least 1.6×compared to the single-processor system.
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  • Shuaiqi WANG, Fule LI, Yasuaki INOUE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Electronic Circuits and Systems
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2465-2474
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper proposes a 12-bit 3.7-MS/s pipelined A/D Converter based on the novel capacitor mismatch calibration technique. The conventional stage is improved to an algorithmic circuit involving charge summing, capacitors' exchange and charge redistribution, simply through introducing some extra switches into the analog circuit. This proposed ADC obtains the linearity beyond the accuracy of the capacitor match and verifies the validity of reducing the nonlinear error from the capacitor mismatch to the second order without additional power dissipation through the novel capacitor mismatch calibration technique. It is processed in 0.5μm CMOS technology. The transistor-level simulation results show that 72.6dB SNDR, 78.5dB SFDR are obtained for a 2V Vpp 159.144kHz sine input sampled at 3.7MS/s. The whole power dissipation of this ADC is 33.4mW at the power supply of 5V.
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  • Akira UTAGAWA, Tetsuya ASAI, Tetsuya HIROSE, Yoshihito AMEMIYA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Electronic Circuits and Systems
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2475-2481
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    We present on-chip oscillator arrays synchronized by random noises, aiming at skew-free clock distribution on synchronous digital systems. Nakao et al. recently reported that independent neural oscillators can be synchronized by applying temporal random impulses to the oscillators [1], [2]. We regard neural oscillators as independent clock sources on LSIs; i. e., clock sources are distributed on LSIs, and they are forced to synchronize through the use of random noises. We designed neuron-based clock generators operating at sub-RF region (<1GHz) by modifying the original neuron model to a new model that is suitable for CMOS implementation with 0.25-μm CMOS parameters. Through circuit simulations, we demonstrate that i) the clock generators are certainly synchronized by pseudo-random noises and ii) clock generators exhibited phase-locked oscillations even if they had small device mismatches.
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  • Hiroshi FUJISAKI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communications and Sequences
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2482-2488
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    We point out that the interval algorithm can be expressed in the form of a shift on the sequence space. Then we clarify that, by using a Bernoulli process, the interval algorithm can generate only a block of Markov chains or a sequence of independent blocks of Markov chains but not a stationary Markov process. By virtue of the finitary coding constructed by Hamachi and Keane, we obtain the procedure, called the finitary interval algorithm, to generate a Markov process by using the interval algorithm. The finitary interval algorithm also gives maps, defined almost everywhere, which transform a Markov measure to a Bernoulli measure.
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  • Yun-rui GONG, Di HE, Chen HE, Ling-ge JIANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communications and Sequences
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2489-2496
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The performances of a PCTH-based communication UWB system with diversiform modulation schemes are compared on the classic AWGN channel propagation and the realistic IEEE-UWB channel model. By employing different versions of modulation at the transmitters, the performances of an optimal receiver and a Rake receiver with various combining schemes are studied in this paper. The numerical results for several compared cases illustrate the tradeoff between transmitter diversity and receiver complexity. It is shown that the actual performance of the PAM-PCTH scheme can be better in both kinds of channel propagation. We also find that the PCTH-based UWB system with the Rake receiver has better performance than the conventional proposal for overcoming the multipath propagation effects in the UWB indoor environment.
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  • Chia-Chi CHU, Hung-Chi TSAI, Wei-Neng CHANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Control and Optimization
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2497-2506
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A Lyapunov-based recurrent neural networks unified power flow controller (UPFC) is developed for improving transient stability of power systems. First, a simple UPFC dynamical model, composed of a controllable shunt susceptance on the shunt side and an ideal complex transformer on the series side, is utilized to analyze UPFC dynamical characteristics. Secondly, we study the control configuration of the UPFC with two major blocks: the primary control, and the supplementary control. The primary control is implemented by standard PI techniques when the power system is operated in a normal condition. The supplementary control will be effective only when the power system is subjected by large disturbances. We propose a new Lyapunov-based UPFC controller of the classical single-machine-infinite-bus system for damping enhancement. In order to consider more complicated detailed generator models, we also propose a Lyapunov-based adaptive recurrent neural network controller to deal with such model uncertainties. This controller can be treated as neural network approximations of Lyapunov control actions. In addition, this controller also provides online learning ability to adjust the corresponding weights with the back propagation algorithm built in the hidden layer. The proposed control scheme has been tested on two simple power systems. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy is very effective for suppressing power swing even under severe system conditions.
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  • Hamid R. KOOFIGAR, Saeed HOSSEINNIA, Farid SHEIKHOLESLAM
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Control and Optimization
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2507-2513
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    The problem of designing a robust adaptive control for nonlinear systems with uncertain time-varying parameters is addressed. The upper bound of uncertain parameters, considered even in control coefficients, are not required to be known. An adaptive tracking controller is presented and, using the Lyapunov theory, the closed-loop stability and tracking error convergence is shown. In order to improve the performance of the method, a robust mechanism is incorporated into the adaptive controller yielding a robust adaptive algorithm. The proposed controller guarantees the boundedness of all closed-loop signals and robust convergence of tracking error in spite of time-varying parameter uncertainties with unknown bounds. The parametric uncertain systems under consideration describes a wide class of nonlinear circuits and systems. As an application, a novel parametric model is derived for nonlinear Chua's circuit and then, the proposed method is used for its control. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by some simulation results.
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  • Takaya MIYANO, Takako TSUTSUI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Soft Computing
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2514-2519
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    We developed a method for extracting feature patterns from multivariate data using a network of coupled phase oscillators subject to an analogue of the Kuramoto model for collective synchronization. Our method may be called data synchronization. We applied data synchronization to the care-needs-certification data, provided by Otsu City as a historical old city near Kyoto City, in the Japanese public long-term care insurance program to find the trend of the major patterns of the aging process for elderly people needing nursing care.
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  • Yuchi KANZAWA, Yasunori ENDO, Sadaaki MIYAMOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Soft Computing
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2520-2534
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this paper, two new clustering algorithms based on fuzzy c-means for data with tolerance using kernel functions are proposed. Kernel functions which map the data from the original space into higher dimensional feature space are introduced into the proposed algorithms. Non-linear boundary of clusters can be easily found by using the kernel functions. First, two clustering algorithms for data with tolerance are introduced. One is based on standard method and the other is on entropy-based one. Second, the tolerance in feature space is discussed taking account into soft margin algorithm in Support Vector Machine. Third, two objective functions in feature space are shown corresponding to two methods, respectively. Fourth, Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions of two objective functions are considered, respectively, and these conditions are re-expressed with kernel functions as the representation of an inner product for mapping from the original pattern space into a higher dimensional feature space. Fifth, two iterative algorithms are proposed for the objective functions, respectively. Through some numerical experiments, the proposed algorithms are discussed.
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  • Shin-itiro GOTO, Kazuyuki YOSHIMURA, Peter DAVIS
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Nonlinear Phenomena
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2535-2539
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    We study the synchronization of dynamical systems induced by common additional external colored noise. In particular, we consider the special case that the external input noise is generated by a linear second-order differential equation forced by Gaussian white noise. So the frequency spectrum of this noise is not constant. In the case that noise-free dynamics is chaotic, we find examples where the synchronization is enhanced when the peak of the input noise is close to the peak of the noise-free dynamics in frequency space. In the case that noise-free dynamics is non-chaotic, we do not observe this phenomenon.
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  • Kuniyasu SHIMIZU, Tetsuro ENDO, Daishin UEYAMA
    Type: LETTER
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2540-2545
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    A simple model of inductor-coupled bistable oscillators is shown to exhibit pulse wave propagation. We demonstrate numerically that there exists a pulse wave which propagates with a constant speed in comparatively wide parameter region. In particular, the propagating pulse wave can be observed in non-uniform lattice with noise. The propagating pulse wave can be observed for comparatively strong coupling case, and for weak coupling case no propagating pulse wave can be observed (propagation failure). We also demonstrate various interaction phenomena between two pulses.
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Regular Section
  • Koichi TAKAGI, Shigeyuki SAKAZAWA, Yasuhiro TAKISHIMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Engineering Acoustics
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2546-2554
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper proposes a novel MP3 watermarking method which is applicable to a mobile terminal with limited computational resources. Considering that in most cases the embedded information is copyright information or metadata, which should be extracted before playing back audio contents, the watermark detection process should be executed at high speed. However, when conventional methods are used with a mobile terminal, it takes a considerable amount of time to detect a digital watermark. This paper focuses on scalefactor manipulation to enable high speed watermark embedding/detection for MP3 audio and also proposes the manipulation method which minimizes audio quality degradation adaptively. Evaluation tests showed that the proposed method is capable of embedding 3 bits/frame information without degrading audio quality and detecting it at very high speed. Finally, this paper describes application examples for authentication with a digital signature.
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  • Sheau-Fang LEI, Ying-Kai TUNG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2555-2563
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Spectral subtraction is commonly used for speech enhancement in a single channel system because of the simplicity of its implementation. However, this algorithm introduces perceptually musical noise while suppressing the background noise. We propose a wavelet-based approach in this paper for suppressing the background noise for speech enhancement in a single channel system. The wavelet packet transform, which emulates the human auditory system, is used to decompose the noisy signal into critical bands. Wavelet thresholding is then temporally adjusted with the noise power by time-adapted noise estimation. The proposed algorithm can efficiently suppress the noise while reducing speech distortion. Experimental results, including several objective measurements, show that the proposed wavelet-based algorithm outperforms spectral subtraction and other wavelet-based denoising approaches for speech enhancement for nonstationary noise environments.
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  • Jimson MATHEW, R. MAHESH, A. P. VINOD, Edmund M-K. LAI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2564-2570
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Finite impulse response (FIR) filtering is the most computationally intensive operation in the channelizer of a wireless communication receiver. Higher order FIR channel filters are needed in the channelizer to meet the stringent adjacent channel attenuation specifications of wireless communications standards. The computational cost of FIR filters is dominated by the complexity of the coefficient multipliers. Even though many methods for reducing the complexity of filter multipliers have been proposed in literature, these works focused on lower order filters. This paper presents a coefficient-partitioning-based binary subexpression elimination method for realizing low power FIR filters. We show that the FIR filters implemented using proposed method consume less power and achieve speed improvement compared to existing filter implementations. Design examples of the channel filters employed in the Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (D-AMPS) and Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) receivers show that the proposed method achieved 23% average reductions of full adder and power consumption and 23.3% reduction of delay over the best existing method. Synthesis results show that the proposed method offers average area reduction of 8% and power reduction of 22% over the best known method in literature.
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  • Hamzé Haidar ALAEDDINE, El Houssaïn BAGHIOUS, Guillaume MA ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2571-2577
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper is about an efficient implementation of adaptive filtering for echo cancelers. The first objective of this paper is to propose a simplified method of the flexible block Multi-Delay Filter (MDF) algorithm in the time-domain. Then, we will derive a new method for the step-size adaptation coefficient. The second objective is about the realization of a Block Proportionate Normalized Least Mean Squares (BPNLMS++) with the simplified MDF (SMDF) implementation. Using the new step-size method and the smaller block dimension proposed by SMDF, we achieve a faster convergence of the adaptive process with a limited computational cost. Then, an efficient implementation of the new procedure (SMDF-BPNLMS++) block filtering is proposed using Fermat Number Transform, which can significantly reduce the computation complexity of filter implantation on Digital Signal Processor.
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  • Sangback MA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Numerical Analysis and Optimization
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2578-2587
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this paper we compare various parallel preconditioners such as Point-SSOR (Symmetric Successive OverRelaxation), ILU(0) (Incomplete LU) in the Wavefront ordering, ILU(0) in the Multi-color ordering, Multi-Color Block SOR (Successive OverRelaxation), SPAI (SParse Approximate Inverse) and pARMS (Parallel Algebraic Recursive Multilevel Solver) for solving large sparse linear systems arising from two-dimensional PDE (Partial Differential Equation)s on structured grids. Point-SSOR is well-known, and ILU(0) is one of the most popular preconditioner, but it is inherently serial. ILU(0) in the Wavefront ordering maximizes the parallelism in the natural order, but the lengths of the wave-fronts are often nonuniform. ILU(0) in the Multi-color ordering is a simple way of achieving a parallelism of the order N, where N is the order of the matrix, but its convergence rate often deteriorates as compared to that of natural ordering. We have chosen the Multi-Color Block SOR preconditioner combined with direct sparse matrix solver, since for the Laplacian matrix the SOR method is known to have a nondeteriorating rate of convergence when used with the Multi-Color ordering. By using block version we expect to minimize the interprocessor communications. SPAI computes the sparse approximate inverse directly by least squares method. Finally, ARMS is a preconditioner recursively exploiting the concept of independent sets and pARMS is the parallel version of ARMS. Experiments were conducted for the Finite Difference and Finite Element discretizations of five two-dimensional PDEs with large meshsizes up to a million on an IBM p595 machine with distributed memory. Our matrices are real positive, i. e., their real parts of the eigenvalues are positive. We have used GMRES(m) as our outer iterative method, so that the convergence of GMRES(m) for our test matrices are mathematically guaranteed. Interprocessor communications were done using MPI (Message Passing Interface) primitives. The results show that in general ILU(0) in the Multi-Color ordering ahd ILU(0) in the Wavefront ordering outperform the other methods but for symmetric and nearly symmetric 5-point matrices Multi-Color Block SOR gives the best performance, except for a few cases with a small number of processors.
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  • Jiqiang LU, Jongsung KIM
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2588-2596
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    SHACAL-2 is a 64-round block cipher with a 256-bit block size and a variable length key of up to 512 bits. It is a NESSIE selected block cipher algorithm. In this paper, we observe that, when checking whether a candidate quartet is useful in a (related-key) rectangle attack, we can check the two pairs from the quartet one after the other, instead of checking them simultaneously; if the first pair does not meet the expected conditions, we can discard the quartet immediately. We next exploit a 35-round related-key rectangle distinguisher with probability 2-460 for the first 35 rounds of SHACAL-2, which is built on an existing 24-round related-key differential and a new 10-round differential. Finally, taking advantage of the above observation, we use the distinguisher to mount a related-key rectangle attack on the first 44 rounds of SHACAL-2. The attack requires 2233 related-key chosen plaintexts, and has a time complexity of 2497.2 computations. This is better than any previously published cryptanalytic results on SHACAL-2 in terms of the numbers of attacked rounds.
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  • Yoshinobu KAWABE, Ken MANO, Hideki SAKURADA, Yasuyuki TSUKADA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2597-2606
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.
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  • Donghoon CHANG, Mridul NANDI, Jesang LEE, Jaechul SUNG, Seokhie HONG, ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2607-2614
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this paper, we introduce new compression function design principles supporting variable output lengths (multiples of size n). They are based on a function or block cipher with an n-bit output size. In the case of the compression function with a (t+1)n-bit output size, in the random oracle and ideal cipher models, their maximum advantages from the perspective of collision resistance are O(t2q/2tn+q2/2(t+1)n). In the case of t=1, the advantage is near-optimal. In the case of t>1, the advantage is optimal.
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  • Fanxin ZENG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2615-2625
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication systems and direct-sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) radios, sequences with low correlation and large family size are important for reducing multiple access interference (MAI) and accepting more active users, respectively. In this paper, a new collection of families of sequences of length pn-1, which includes three constructions, is proposed. The maximum number of cyclically distinct families without GMW sequences in each construction is φ(pn-1)/n·φ(pm-1)/m, where p is a prime number, n is an even number, and n=2m, and these sequences can be binary or polyphase depending upon choice of the parameter p. In Construction I, there are pn distinct sequences within each family and the new sequences have at most d+2 nontrivial periodic correlation {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,dpm-1}. In Construction II, the new sequences have large family size p2n and possibly take the nontrivial correlation values in {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(3d-4)pm-1}. In Construction III, the new sequences possess the largest family size p(d-1)n and have at most 2d correlation levels {-pm-1, -1,pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(2d-2)pm-1}. Three constructions are near-optimal with respect to the Welch bound because the values of their Welch-Ratios are moderate, WR_??_d, WR_??_3d-4 and WR_??_2d-2, respectively. Each family in Constructions I, II and III contains a GMW sequence. In addition, Helleseth sequences and Niho sequences are special cases in Constructions I and III, and their restriction conditions to the integers m and n, pm≠2 (mod 3) and n≅0 (mod 4), respectively, are removed in our sequences. Our sequences in Construction III include the sequences with Niho type decimation 3·2m-2, too. Finally, some open questions are pointed out and an example that illustrates the performance of these sequences is given.
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  • Hao LI, Changqing XU, Pingzhi FAN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2626-2636
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this paper we investigate designing optimal linear transmit/receive processing filters for multiuser MIMO downlinks with imperfect channel state information (CSI) and spatial fading correlation between antenna array at BS. A robust scheme is proposed to obtain the optimal linear transmit/receive filters in the sense of minimizing the average sum mean square error (SMSE) conditional on noisy channel estimates under a per-user transmit power constraint. Using an iterative procedure, the proposed scheme extends the existing optimization algorithm for uncorrelated single-user MIMO systems with perfect CSI to solve the problem of minimizing SMSE in spatially correlated MIMO downlinks with imperfect CSI. Comparing with non-robust scheme, we show that robust scheme efficiently mitigates the BER loss induced by imperfect CSI. In addition, the impact of fading correlation at BS on the performance of the proposed robust scheme is analyzed.
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  • Keat Beng TOH, Shin'ichi TACHIKAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Spread Spectrum Technologies and Applications
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2637-2645
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper proposes a combination of novel Received Response (RR) sequence at the transmitter and Matched Filter-Equalizer-RAKE (MF-EQZ-RAKE) combining scheme receiver system for Direct Sequence-Ultra Wideband (DS-UWB) multipath channel model. When binary code sequence such as M sequence is used, there is a possibility of generating extra Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) in the UWB system. Therefore, it is quite a challenging task to collect the energy efficiently although RAKE reception method is applied at the receiver. The main purpose of the proposed system is to overcome the performance degradation for UWB transmission due to the occurrence of Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) during high speed transmission of ultra short pulses in a multipath channel. The proposed system improves the system performance by improving the RAKE reception performance using RR sequence and suppressing the ISI effect with the equalizer. Simulation results verify that significant improvement can be obtained by the proposed system especially in UWB multipath channel models such as channel CM4 that suffered severe ISI effect.
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  • Keat Beng TOH, Shin'ichi TACHIKAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Spread Spectrum Technologies and Applications
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2646-2654
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    This paper proposes a combination of novel Received Response (RR) sequence at the transmitter and a Matched Filter-RAKE (MF-RAKE) combining scheme receiver system for the Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access Ultra Wideband (DS-CDMA UWB) multipath channel model. This paper also demonstrates the effectiveness of the RR sequence in Multiple Access Interference (MAI) reduction for the DS-CDMA UWB system. It suggests that by using conventional binary code sequence such as the M sequence or the Gold sequence, there is a possibility of generating extra MAI in the UWB system. Therefore, it is quite difficult to collect the energy efficiently although the RAKE reception method is applied at the receiver. The main purpose of the proposed system is to overcome the performance degradation for UWB transmission due to the occurrence of MAI during multiple accessing in the DS-CDMA UWB system. The proposed system improves the system performance by improving the RAKE reception performance using the RR sequence which can reduce the MAI effect significantly. Simulation results verify that significant improvement can be obtained by the proposed system in the UWB multipath channel models.
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  • Hsi-Chin HSIN, Tze-Yun SUNG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2655-2662
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    Embedded zero-tree image coding in wavelet domain has drawn a lot of attention. Among noteworthy algorithms is the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT). Typically, most of images' energy is concentrated in low frequency subbands. For an image with textures, however many middle-high frequency wavelet coefficients are likely to become significant in the early passes of SPIHT; thus the coding results are often insufficient. Middle and high frequency subbands of images may demand further decompositions using adaptive basis functions. As wavelet packet transform offers a great diversity of basis functions, we propose a quadtree based adaptive wavelet packet transform to construct adaptive wavelet packet trees for zero-tree image coding. Experimental results show that coding performances can be significantly improved especially for fingerprints images.
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  • Chihiro SEKI, Shingo SAKURAI, Masafumi MATSUNO, Seiji MIYOSHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Neural Networks and Bioengineering
    2008 Volume E91.A Issue 9 Pages 2663-2670
    Published: September 01, 2008
    Released: March 01, 2010
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    In this paper we analytically investigate the generalization performance of learning using correlated inputs in the framework of online learning with a statistical mechanical method. We consider a model composed of linear perceptrons with Gaussian noise. First, we analyze the case of the gradient method. We analytically clarify that the larger the correlation among inputs is or the larger the number of inputs is, the stricter the condition the learning rate should satisfy is, and the slower the learning speed is. Second, we treat the block orthogonal projection learning as an alternative learning rule and derive the theory. In a noiseless case, the learning speed does not depend on the correlation and is proportional to the number of inputs used in an update. The learning speed is identical to that of the gradient method with uncorrelated inputs. On the other hand, when there is noise, the larger the correlation among inputs is, the slower the learning speed is and the larger the residual generalization error is.
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