The relationship between colorectal cancer and asbestos exposure has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to determine the associations between asbestos exposure and colorectal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. A fixed effects model was used to summarize the relative risks across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. We analyzed the dose-effect relationship using lung cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and the risk of mesothelioma as a percent (%) as exposure surrogates. A total of 47 cohort studies were included. We identified 28 incidence cohort studies from 17 separate papers and extracted colorectal cancer standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Cancer mortality data were extracted from 19 separate cohorts among 13 papers. The overall colorectal cancer SMR for synthesis cohort was 1.07 (95% CI 1.02–1.12). Statistically significant excesses were observed in exposure to mixed asbestos (SMR/SIR=1.07), exposure to production (SMR/SIR=1.11), among asbestos cement workers (SMR/SIR=1.18) and asbestos textile workers (SMR/SIR=1.11). Additionally, we determined that the SMR for lung cancer increased with increased exposure to asbestos, as did the risk for colorectal cancer. This study confirms that colorectal cancer has a positive weak associations with asbestos exposure.
Musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) are common among professional musicians; however, most of the research has focused on orchestral/classical musicians. In some countries orchestral and classical musicians are in the minority; hence targeting research towards these specific sub-groups of musicians is unlikely to address the overall burden of musicians’ MSSs, unless the research is generalizable to other types of musicians. This multidisciplinary narrative review seeks to answer the question: “why do we need to examine the MSSs of non-classical groups of performing musicians in order to reduce the burden of musicians’ MSSs?”. There are differences in the education, posture, tasks (e.g. military training for military band musicians, dancing for those in musical theatre), venues and management of MSSs for different types of musicians. Future research should compare classical and non-classical musicians in order to determine which specific sub-groups (e.g. military band musicians) have the greatest MSS burden, such that further research into the risk factors of and interventions for MSSs can be targeted towards the sub-groups of musicians with the greatest MSS burden. In doing so, we maximise the likelihood of being able to introduce interventions, policies and practice that reduce the burden of musicians’ MSSs.
We examined intensified job demands (IJDs) and selecting-optimizing-compensating (SOC) strategies as predictors of job performance (task performance, organizational citizenship behavior). We also investigated SOC strategy use as a moderator in the linkages between IJDs and performance. We sampled three disparate occupational groups (N=4,582). We found that certain dimensions of IJDs showed significant associations with the indicators of job performance but there were also scale-based variations in these linkages, depending on the type of performance and on the sub-scale of IJDs. Specifically, some dimensions of IJDs (e.g., work intensification) related to poorer task performance whereas some other dimensions (e.g., intensified job-related learning demands) related to higher organizational citizenship behaviour. However, SOC strategy use benefitted both types of job performance. Relationships also differed between occupational groups as none of the moderator effects were consistent across the sub-samples.
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between dental symptoms experienced by occupational divers during diving and their participation in preventative dental visits. The questionnaire for this study was sent by post to 160 establishments and 215 members of the Japan Diving Association and participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire. Data from 242 occupational divers (male, aged 20–79 yr) were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis and correspondence analysis were performed to determine the relationship between dental symptoms experienced during diving and participation in preventative dental visits. We found that divers who experienced tooth pain while diving had not undergone preventative dental visits within the previous year (odds ratio: 2.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–6.80). This was also confirmed by correspondence analysis These findings suggested that not undergoing preventative dental visits was related to tooth pain during diving.
In occupational settings, smokers may take quitting smoking seriously if they experienced long-term sick leave due to cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no study has elucidated the smoking cessation rate after long-term sick leave. We examined the smoking cessation rate after long-term sick leave due to cancer and CVD in Japan. We followed 23 survivors who experienced long-term sick leave due to cancer and 39 survivors who experienced long-term sick leave due to CVD who reported smoking at the last health exam before the leave. Their smoking habits before and after the leave were self-reported. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted smoking cessation rates. Smoking cessation rate after long-term sick leave due to cancer was approximately 70% and that due to CVD exceeded 80%. The adjusted smoking cessation rate was 67.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 47.0, 88.2) for cancer and 80.7% (95% CI: 67.7, 93.8) for CVD. Smoking cessation rate after a longer duration of sick leave (≥60 d) tended to increase for both CVD and cancer. Although any definite conclusion cannot be drawn, the data suggest that smoking cessation rate after long-term sick leave due to CVD is slightly higher than that for cancer.
Low back pain (LBP) is prevalent among workers both in developed and developing countries. School teachers represent a high proportion of the working population in Malaysia. However, there is a lack of longitudinal study on predictors and course of LBP among teachers. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the predictors and course of LBP among secondary school teachers. Longitudinal data of 701 teachers in Selangor, Malaysia were collected from May 2015 to October 2016. Associations between predictors and LBP were analysed using logistic regression and reported as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). At 12-month of follow-up, 44% (95%CI: 40.6%, 48.0%) of the participants reported having LBP. In the regression model that included all risk factors, only LBP at baseline (OR 10.43, 95%CI: 6.19, 17.58) was associated with LBP at 12-month follow-up. When LBP at baseline was removed from the model, anxiety symptom (OR 2.51, 95%CI: 1.19, 5.30) and lifting heavy weights (OR 4.16, 95%CI: 1.40, 12.30) were found to be significantly associated with LBP at 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, issues on anxiety and lifting heavy weights should be addressed to reduce the occurrence of LBP despite the presence of health condition itself (LBP at baseline).
This study investigated the correlation between objective and subjective working hours (OWH and SWH, respectively) and their relation to the workers’ health. The study included 6,806 workers of a Japanese company (response rate=86.6%). OWH were collected as the monthly data during fiscal year 2017 from the company record. SWH were self-reported as the weekly data during the past month in November 2017. Both OWH and SWH corresponded to the same period of one month (October 2017). Additionally, the data for the annual health checkup in fiscal year 2017 and self-reported mental health in November 2017 were collected. The results indicated that the longer OWH was related to more underestimation of SWH. The analyses of covariance adjusted for the selected variables showed that irrespective of OWH or SWH, significant relationships were found for stress responses but not for body mass index, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride. However, significant relationships with only OWH were noted for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and positive work-related state of mind. The present findings show that SWH should be used carefully when assessing the health effects of long working hours.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of the glycol ethers, 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE) and 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) through disposable, nitrile exam gloves using a modified American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) closed-loop module. The purple unsupported, unlined, powderless nitrile glove from Kimberly-Clark was challenged by the two pure glycol ethers. Their permeation parameters were measured with the aid of a 2.54 cm ASTM F739 closed-loop permeation cell using water collection at 35.0 ± 0.5°C in a moving tray water bath, and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification. Each set of experiments consisted of four standard permeation cells with water as the collection solvent. The steady state permeation rate for 2-EE of 4.83 ± 0.45 µg/cm2/min was about 4 times that of 2-BE (1.27 ± 0.11 µg/cm2/min). Permeation of the more nonpolar 2-BE was less than for 2-EE. Both solvents exceeded the ASTM threshold normalized breakthrough time in the closed-loop testing module. Glove samples failed to pass permeation criteria defined by Kimberly Clark and Ansell. Such gloves are not recommended as personal protective equipment for exposure to 2-butoxyethanol or 2-ethoxyethanol, even for very short period exposures. Glove manufacturers should reconsider existing permeation testing method for low volatile compounds and apply the closed-loop module due to higher sensitivity and accuracy.
This study investigated the correlation between workplace justice and self-reported occupational accidents among employees of construction industry in Taiwan, and data from a national survey of employees in 2013 was analyzed. This study sampled a total of 1,543 employees age 25 to 65 in the construction industry, among whom 1,379 were men and 164 were women. Information regarding the experience of work-related accidents occurring over the previous 12 months prior to the survey was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. Also obtained were participants’ employment conditions, self-reported health, job demands as well as workplace justice. The prevalence rates of occupational accidents in man and women were 22.84% and 13.41%, respectively. Under controlling participants’ employment conditions, self-reported health and job demands there was higher rate of occupational accidents among male construction employees with lower workplace justice. This study provides directions for occupational safety and health interventions.
The Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan recommends that an occupational physician (OP) play an important role in implementing the stress-check program since 2015. This study aimed to compare the activities and encountered difficulties of Japanese part-time OPs in 2008 and 2016, and to investigate the effects of the stress-check program. Questionnaires were sent via mail to 946 part-time OPs in Kyoto prefecture in 2016. Completed questionnaires were returned by 181 OPs who were private practitioners or physicians in hospitals, and served as OPs on a part-time basis. In 2016, OPs utilized long hours for activities related to general health examination and to stress-check. Hours for specific health examination, health and hygiene education, health promotion activity, development of a comfortable workplace, and guidance of workers on sick leave reduced from 2008 to 2016. A total of 62% OPs frequently encountered difficulties in the stress-check-related activities in 2016. Many OPs also reported difficulties in the mental health care and the prevention of health hazard due to overwork both in 2008 and 2016. Enforcement of the stress-check program in 2015 changed the activities of part-time OPs in Japan. OPs should be given opportunities to gain more information in this area.