Urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline, 17-OHCS, 5-hydroxytryptamine and certain electrolytes was measured in 15 male guards engaged in 24-hour shift work containing a 4-hour night nap. In the night nap, it was found that the urinary output of adrenaline had a significant negative correlation to a self-rated value of feeling about depth of sleep. Based on this finding, it is considered that adrenaline output may be useful as a sleep index. The urinary level of adrenaline during the night nap was as low as the level during usual normal night sleep. However, the level of adrenaline during a daytime nap after the night work was considerably high compared to those in the night nap and in the normal night sleep. This suggests that the daytime nap was possibly not so deep as night sleep.
Urine of rats given daily subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg Cd/kg for 14 weeks was chromatographed on a Sephadex G-75 column. The eluted fractions were analyzed for cadmium, copper and zinc. A cadmium-and copper-containing protein in the metallothionein fraction was further subjected to DEAE Sephadex A-25 chromatography. In the Sephadex G-75 chromatogram, most parts (about 90%) of the urinary cadmium and copper were distributed in the metallothionein fraction, but no zinc was detected in this fraction. About 90% of the urinary zinc was recovered from nonprotein fractions near the bed volume. The other minor parts of these urinary metals were distributed broadly in protein fractions corresponding to higher molecular weights. In the control animals without cadmium injection, large parts of the urinary zinc and copper were recovered from the non-protein fractions near the bed volume and very small amounts of these metals were distributed in the high molecular-weight protein fractions. A trace amount of copper, but no zinc was detected in the metallothionein fraction. The DEAE Sephadex A-25 chromatogram showed that cadmium and copper in the metallothionein fraction could be separated into four distinct peaks ac-companied by corresponding peaks in the UV-absorbance at 250 nm. The first two minor peaks were separated at the initial buffer concentration of 0.05 M Tris-HCl; the other two main peaks were separated at buffer concentrations of 0.19 and 0.26 M, respectively. The separation profile of the latter two peaks was similar to that of hepatic metallothionein. These results indicated that most of the urinary cadmium and copper in the cadmium-poisoned rats was associated with metallothionein.
Morphological alterations in lungs have been noticed in squirrels with repeated intratracheal injections of cadmium at a dose of 1.0 mg Cd/Kg of body weight. Haemorrhages in alveoli and bronchioles, congestion in blood vessels, emphysema and peribronchiolar infiltration by mononuclear cells alongwith thickening of interalveolar septa were observed after different exposure intervals. Control and Cd-treated groups increased in body weight by 1.13 and 1.03 folds after 7 weeks, respectively (P<0.05). Maximum rise was also found in lung weight after 7 weeks. Both alkaline and acid phosphatases revealed inhibition in their activities after 4 weeks. But, during 5-7 weeks. enzymatic activities were slightly elevated.
Histopathological alterations in kidneys have been studied in squirrels with repeated intraperitoneal injections of cadmium acetate at a dose of 1.0 mg Cd/Kg of body weight. Cloudy swelling, necrosis, denudation and destruction of tubular epithelium, focal aggregates of inflammatory cells, perivascular inflammation by chronic inflammatory cells and perinephric haemorrhage with infiltration by phagocytes containing haemosidirin were noticed after different exposure intervals. Squirrels revealed significant increase in body weight and kidney weight (P<0.05).
Carbon felt dosimeters were applied for both personal sampling and stationary sampling to evaluate the contamination of work environment in a rubber container-bag manufacturing plant where toluene was the sole organic vapor in air. Toluene determination by one-shot air sampling was also carried out with a portable gas chromatograph, while urinary hippuric acid of the workers was measured both by colorimetric method and by gas chromatography. The time-weighted average (TWA) of toluene concentrations measured with stationary samplers agreed well with those obtained by repeated one-shot air analysis. The TWA values obtained by personal sampling did not agree with those by stationary sampling and the ratios between the paired results, i.e., the ones from personal samplers over their counterparts from stationary samplers, varied in a wide range from 1.84 to 5.33. The TWA of toluene concentrations measured by personal sampling agreed with the results from the biological monitoring. Reversely, no obvious correlation was observed between the results from the biological monitoring and those from stationary sampling. Carbon felt dosimeter is evaluated in comparison with one-shot air sampling and also with biological monitoring.
β2-Microglobulin was prepared from the urine of Na-chromate injected rabbits by a simple method using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The amino acid composition and isoelectric point of the rabbit β2-microglobulin were determined.