In order to gain more knowledge on how the positive leadership concept of authentic leadership impacts follower strain, this study tries to uncover procedural justice as an underlying mechanism. In contrast to previous work, we exclusively base our theoretical model on justice theories. Specifically, we hypothesize that authentic leadership negatively predicts emotional exhaustion through perceptions of procedural justice. We assume that this indirect effect is conditional on followers' amount of emotional demands, and that the procedural justice-emotional exhaustion relationship is stronger when emotional demands are high. This finally results in a stronger exhaustion-reducing effect of authentic leadership. The proposed moderated mediation model was tested in a sample of N=628 employees nested in 168 teams using lagged data from three waves. Results provide support for all hypotheses. Authentic leadership is critical to employees' well-being as it contributes to an elevated perception of positive work conditions (procedural justice), especially in contexts with high emotional demands. Limitations and practical implications on leadership development are discussed.
2,5-hexanedione (HD) is the ultimate neurotoxic metabolite of hexane, causing the progression of nerve diseases in human. It was reported that HD induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Taurine has been shown to be a potent antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the protection of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. Our results showed the decreased viability and increased apoptosis in HD-exposed PC12 cells. HD also induced the disturbance of Bax and Bcl-2 expression, the loss of MMP, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation in PC12 cells. Moreover, HD resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and a decline in the activities of superoxidedismutase and catalase in PC12 cells. However, taurine pretreatment ameliorated the increased apoptosis and the alterations in key regulators of mitochondria-dependent pathway in PC12 exposed to HD. The increased ROS level and the decreased activities of the antioxidant enzymes in HD group were attenuated by taurine. These results indicate that pretreatment of taurine may, at least partly, prevent HD-induced apoptosis via inhibiting mitochondria-dependent pathway. It is also suggested that the potential of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis may benefit from its anti-oxidative property.
Objective: The aim was to assess subjective oral health symptoms and job stress, as measured by self-assessment of how demanding the job is, in male financial workers. Methods: The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. For the stress check, 7 items about how demanding the job is were selected from The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Participants comprised a total of 950 financial male workers, ages 25 to 64. Results: Participants who answered "I can't complete my work in the required time" had more decayed teeth (p=0.010). Participants who felt that their job is highly demanding (answered affirmatively to 6 or all 7 items) were more likely to report "often get food stuck between teeth" (p=0.030), "there are some foods I can't eat" (p=0.005), "bad breath" (p=0.032), and "jaw makes clicking sound" (p=0.032). The independent variable of total stress score of 24–28 was found to be correlated to at least three oral health symptoms (OR: 3.25; 95%CI: 1.66–6.35). Conclusion: These results indicate that certain job stress factors are associated with certain oral health symptoms, and that oral health symptoms are likely predictors of job stress.
Foul-smelling environmental pollution was a major concern following a chemical workplace explosion. Malodorous pollution has previously been associated with aggravated physical and psychological health, and in persons affected by a trauma, an incidence-related odour can act as a traumatic reminder. Olfaction may even be of significance in the development and persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). The present longitudinal study assessed whether perceived smell related to malodorous environmental pollution in the aftermath of the explosion was a determinant of subjective health complaints (SHC) and PTSS among gainfully employed adults, when the malodorous pollution was present, and after pollution clean-up. Questionnaire data from validated instruments were analysed using mixed effects models. Individual odour scores were computed, and the participants (n=486) were divided into high and low odour score groups, respectively. Participants in the high odour score group (n=233) reported more SHC and PTSS than those in the low odour score group (n=253), before and even after the pollution was eliminated. These associations lasted for at least three years after the pollution was removed, and might indicate that prompt clean-up is important to avoid persistent health effects after malodorous chemical spills.
The evaluation of safety performance in occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001-certified companies provides useful information about the quality of the management system. A certified organization should employ an adequate level of safety management and a positive safety culture to achieve a satisfactory safety performance. The present study conducted in six manufacturing companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified to assess occupational health and safety (OHS) as well as OHSAS 18001 practices. The certified companies had a better OHS practices compared with the non-certified companies. The certified companies slightly differed in OHS and OHSAS 18001 practices and one of the certified companies had the highest activity rates for both practices. The results indicated that the implemented management systems have not developed and been maintained appropriately in the certified companies. The in-depth analysis of the collected evidence revealed shortcomings in safety culture improvement in the certified companies. This study highlights the importance of safety culture to continuously improve the quality of OHSAS 18001 and to properly perform OHS/OHSAS 18001 practices in the certified companies.
Long-haul truck drivers in the United States experience elevated cardiovascular health risks, possibly due to hypercholesterolemia. The current study has two objectives: 1) to generate a cholesterol profile for U.S. long-haul truck drivers; and 2) to determine the influence of work organization characteristics and sleep quality and duration on cholesterol levels of long-haul truck drivers. Survey and biometric data were collected from 262 long-haul truck drivers. Descriptive analyses were performed for demographic, work organization, sleep, and cholesterol measures. Linear regression and ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine for possible predictive relationships between demographic, work organization, and sleep variables, and cholesterol outcomes. The majority (66.4%) of drivers had a low HDL (<40 mg/dL), and nearly 42% of drivers had a high-risk total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. Sleep quality was associated with HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and daily work hours were associated with LDL cholesterol. Workday sleep duration was associated with non-HDL cholesterol, and driving experience and sleep quality were associated with cholesterol ratio. Long-haul truck drivers have a high risk cholesterol profile, and sleep quality and work organization factors may induce these cholesterol outcomes. Targeted worksite health promotion programs are needed to curb these atherosclerotic risks.
The aim of this study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle and the arm acceleration during the course of a workday in office employees. It was examined if there are significant changes in trapezius muscle activity in the afternoon compared to the morning work period and relationships to the level of arm acceleration during lunchtime. Nineteen female office employees were recruited. A one hour period of the work in the morning, afternoon, and lunchtime were compared. The measures of the trapezius muscle activity and muscle rest time (TR) did not significantly differ between working in the morning (TR: median 10%; range 1%–49) or working in the afternoon (TR: median 18%; range 2%–34%). The 90th percentile of arm acceleration during lunch time significantly correlated with less trapezius muscle activity in the afternoon compared to the morning values (RT: Spearman R=0.80; p<0.01). Differences in the duration and level of trapezius muscle activity were bigger between the subjects than between different work periods or between lunchtime and work. Furthermore it seems that higher arm accelerations during lunch may be beneficial in reducing trapezius activity in the afternoon compared to the morning values.
A daily rest period (DRP; rest taken from daily work during a 24 h period), is essential to work recovery. This study examined DRPs' distribution and association with health outcomes among information technology workers recruited from an internet panel (N=1,811). Participants completed a web questionnaire examining psychological distress as a primary outcome, along with non-restorative sleep, fatigue (stress reaction), and work performance. Logistic regression analysis showed elevated psychological distress when DRP was <12 h (OR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.47–4.42) and <11 h (OR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.17–5.26), although the 95% CI included 1 after adjusting for age, sex, and working and commuting hours. After the above adjustment, similar associations were found with non-restorative sleep and fatigue, but not work performance, when DRP was <12 h. These findings constitute the first analysis of a dose-response relationship between DRP and subjective health outcomes among white-collar workers.
A good cooperation between occupational physicians and other healthcare professionals is essential in order to achieve an overall improvement of workers/patients' well-being. Unfortunately, collaboration between occupational physicians and other physicians is often lacking or very poor. In this context, using a self-administered questionnaire, we investigated the cooperation of Italian occupational physicians with the National Health System (NHS) facilities and with the general practitioners in order to identify any potential critical issues that may hinder an effective and collaborative relationships between these professionals. The survey was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014. Nearly all of the interviewed occupational physicians have had contacts with colleagues of the Departments for Prevention and Occupational Health and Safety of the NHS. Regarding the relationship between occupational physicians and general practitioners findings showed that their cooperation is quite difficult and it would not seem a two-way collaboration. Cooperation between occupational physicians and NHS would benefit from the development of communication strategies and tools enhancing the support and assistance functions of the NHS facilities. The elaboration and subsequent application of operational guidelines and standardized procedures of communication would also improve collaboration between occupational physicians and general practitioners that is currently considered rather insufficient and incomplete.
Workplace air concentrations of formaldehyde (FA) in medical facilities where FA and FA-treated organs were stored and handled were measured before and during working hours and assessed by the official method specified by Work Environment Measurement Law. Sixty-percent of the total facilities examined were judged as inappropriately controlled work environment. The concentrations of FA before working hours by spot sampling were found to exceed 0.1 ppm in some facilities, and tended to increase with increasing volume of containers storing FA and FA-treated materials. Regression analysis revealed that logarithmic concentrations of FA during working hours by the Law-specified analytical method were highly correlated with those before working hours by spot sampling, suggesting the importance for appropriate storing methods of FA and FA-treated materials. The concentrations of FA during working hours are considered to be lowered by effective ventilation of FA-contaminated workplace air and appropriate storage of FA and FA-treated materials in plastic containers in the medical facilities. In particular, such improvement by a local exhaust ventilation system and tightly-sealed containment of FA-treated material were urgently needed for the dissecting room where FA-treated cadavers were prepared and handled for a gross anatomy course in a medical school.