The effect of 8-hour sleep in daytime on catecholamine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-mandelic acid (VMA) excretion was investigated in 7 human males. Subjects were awaked every 2 hours for urine collection. Adrenaline excretion decreased in the first 2-hour period of sleep and this low level of excretion was maintained almost throughout the sleep. And this level of adrenaline excretion was approximately equal to the night level in normal day life in some of subjects, but in others it was considerably higher than the night level. Nor-adrenaline excretion showed a decreasing tendency. VMA excretion showed the slight increase during the first 2-hour period of sleep and then gradual decrease. The results are discussed in comparison with a previous study on the night-shift workers.
Adrenaline, noradrenaline and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA) in urine were measured on human male subjects sitting on chair and lying on bed awake for several hours, in order to investigate the effects of these postures on catecholamine excretion in men. Adrenaline excretion decreased at first but significantly increased 3 to 4 hours after. Noradrenaline excretion decreased at the period of adrenaline peak. VMA level showed a gradual decrease. These changes were observed in both postures but not in their usual lives. Most of subjects complained of strains caused by sitting on chair or resting on bed keeping awake for hours. As many authors have reported the elevated level of urinary catecholamines in mental or emotional stresses, it was supposed that our subjects could not maintain themselves without stress in one posture for many hours.
In acute carbon monoxide poisoning the action of carbon monoxide on living organism has not been recognized to be explained satisfactory on the basis of oxygen lack alone, and thus some factors which might explain the essential properties of carbon monoxide poisoning have been assumed and investigated. We have found a factor by examining animals exposed to carbon monoxide biochemically and pharma-cologically. The factor in acute carbon monoxide poisoning was the velocity of carboxy-hemoglobin formation, but not carboxyhemoglobin formation in itself. This factor may be named as the inner circumstance factor corresponding to the outer circum-stance factor. This factor may also be considered to have some important roles not only in carbon monoxide poisoning but also in other many poisonings.
In a previous short communication, it was reported that mice injected with small amounts of metals tolerated the lethal dosage of the same metals given 24 hs later. The present study was designed to obtain the precise information on the tolerance to the acute toxicity of various kinds of metals. This tolerance was determined by the difference of mortality between the mice given the lethal doses of metals with and without pretreatment. From the results of this experiment, it was found that metals were divided into 3 groups as follows : Group I: Metals with which the mortality caused by challenge are reduced with pretreatment. These metals which can develop a tolerance against their own toxic action are Ag, As, Cd, Hg, In, Pb, Mn, and Sn. Group II : Metals with which their pretreatment had no effect on mortality caused by challenging are Cu, Ni, Se, and Tl. Group III: Metals with which pretreatment increased their mortality and these metals became more toxic by pretreatment : Ba, Cr, Fe, and Zn. From these results, it can be concluded that pretreated mice show a tolerance to the toxic action of most of contaminant metals and do not to that of essential metals. Moreover, it was found that metals belonging to Group I have the ability to develop a cross-tolerance while those of Group II and III do not.
Two female workers suffered depigmentation of skin after they were exposed to two alkaline detergents containing polyoxyethylene alkylphenylether. Analysis of the detergents revealed the contamination with free alkylphenol, possibly octylphenol or nonylphenol.
Metals were determined in very diluted acid solution in atomic absorption spectro-photometry, and the effect of acidity of final solution of metals were investigated. The absorbance of most metals showed the decrease of 10-20% to 30-40% as compared with 10-3 normal solution.