The main aim of this study was to estimate the effects of poor health and low income on early retirement. For this purpose systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Web of Science, PUBMED and Scopus databases were searched systematically. Finally 17 surveys were added in meta-analysis. These studies were conducted in 13 countries. At the end a Meta regression was done to show the effects of welfare system type on effect sizes of poor health and low income. The results of this study showed that poor health had effect on the risk of early retirement. (Poor health pooled effect sizes: 1.279 CI: (1.15 1.41), low income pooled effect sizes: 1.042 CI: (0.92 1.17), (poor health pooled marginal effects: 0.046 CI: (-0.03 0.12), low income pooled marginal effects: -0.002 CI: (-0.003 0.000). The results of this study showed that association between poor health and early retirement was stronger in comparison with low income and early retirement.
The prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) is very important in the world. Governments and companies are the most interested. The objective of the present work is to review the literature on the applications of the OWAS method in the diverse sectors or fields of knowledge and countries from its publication to March 2017. The use of OWAS method has been classified by categories of knowledge, by country and by year. The search was made by selecting only the main collection of the Web of Science. This was selected by the option "Advanced search" using the term OWAS (ts=OWAS) for the time period of 1900 to 2017. A total of 166 results were found, consisting of conference papers and articles in scientific journals. In conclusion, the OWAS has been applied mainly in two sectors: "Manufacturing industries" and "Healthcare and Social assistance activities". This method needs to be complemented with other indirect or direct methods. Also, whenever the OWAS has been used, whether individually or together with other methods, musculoskeletal disorders risks have been detected, this perhaps being an indicator to review the evaluation parameters because overestimating the risk.
Musculoskeletal disorders are very common in the dental practice. This cross-sectional study assessed the nature and prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) and their associated risk factors among dentists in three types of clinics in Riyadh. A structured, self-administered questionnaire about demographic characteristics, nature of work, and prevalence and frequency of MS was completed by 274 male and 241 female dentists. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to determine the association of MS with a number of important variables. Pain in the lower back (64%) and neck (60%) were the most prevalent MS. Working in the dental colleges' clinics was associated with increased risk of MS (adjusted OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.27–4.18). A stronger association was observed for dentists working in the private clinics (adjusted OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.28–5.17) compared to government clinics. Female dentists were at more risk of MS than the male dentists (OR 1.63, 95%CI 1.02–2.59). The OR of MS for dentists treating more than 10 patients/d was 1.53 (95%CI 0.83–2.81). The higher risk of reported MS in females and for those working in the dental colleges and private clinics underscores the importance of recognition and prevention of MS even early in the dental profession.
The welding is the major working process in fitness equipment manufacturing industry, and International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified welding fumes as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The present study aimed to evaluate associations between the occupational exposure of metals and oxidative damage and telomere length shortening in workers involved in the manufacture of fitness equipment. The blood metal concentrations were monitored and malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline Comet assay was determined as oxidative damage in 117 workers from two representative fitness equipment manufacturing plants. MDA levels varied according to workers' roles at the manufacturing plants, and showed a trend as cutting>painting>welding>administration workers. Welders had marginally shorter average telomere lengths than the administrative workers (p=0.058). Cr and Mn levels were significantly greater in welders than they were in administrative workers. There were significantly positive correlations between MDA and Cr and Mn levels, the major components of welding fume. However, the association would be eliminated if co-metals exposure were considered simultaneously. In future, telomere length and MDA might be potential biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease in co-metals exposed workers.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention on objective working-hour characteristics. The intervention involved making modifications to the collective agreement that would limit employees' entitlement to time off as compensation. The intervention group consisted of 493 and the control group of 2,303 health and social care shift workers, respectively. We analysed the objective pay roll-based working-hour data for 2012–2013, which we obtained from employers' records, using the repeated measures mixed model. The changes in objective working-hour characteristics were small, but systematic. The intervention had some positive effects: the amount of short recovery periods (<28 h) after the last night shift decreased from 5% to 3%, and the amount of working weeks of over 48 h decreased from 19% to 17%. The realization of employees' shift preferences increased from 18% to 20%. However, in contrast, consecutive work shifts and the number of scheduled absences increased and days off decreased, suggesting less time for recovery and thus a negative trend in shift ergonomics. When planning shifts, nursing management should avoid regulations that promote specific unhealthy shift characteristics, that is, consecutive work shifts and less days off.
In the present study, two investigations were conducted at a communication center, to examine white-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours. In investigation I, hemodynamic responses were measured on a working day; and in investigation II, cardiovascular responses were verified on both working and non-working days. In investigation I, blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were measured in 15 workers during working hours (from 9:00 am to 18:00 pm) on one working day. Another 40 workers from the same workplace participated in investigation II, in which blood pressure and heart rate were measured between the time workers arose in the morning until they went to bed on 5 working days and 2 non-working days. The results showed that blood pressure increased and remained at the same level during working hours. The underlying hemodynamics of maintaining blood pressure, however, changed between the morning and the afternoon on working days. Cardiac responses increased in the afternoon, suggesting that cardiac burdens increase in the afternoon on working days. The present study suggested that taking underlying hemodynamic response into consideration is important for managing the work-related cardiovascular burden of white-collar workers.
This study examined the association between job-related behavioral characteristics and the risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) in Japanese male police officers. Compared to office clerks, police officers exhibited greater age-related increases of the prevalence of CHD risk factors, and a clustering number of CHD risk factors was significantly higher in the group of those over 45 yr of age. Among the police officers, coronary-prone behavior was more frequent than that seen in office clerks. The police officers with coronary-prone behavior tended to engage in shift work and to work overtime more; yet they were less likely to perceive job stress and to express the relevant physical and psychological symptoms than those without coronary-prone behavior. The subjects with such behavioral characteristics had a significantly greater number of CHD risk factors. In a multiple regression analysis, coronary-prone behavior together with age, social support, walking hours per day, and amount of alcohol consumption were selected as significant determinants of a cluster of CHD risk factors. These results suggest that coronary-prone behavior may contribute to the higher prevalence of CHD risk factors in police officers via leading the long working hours and the work-related unfavorable lifestyles, such as alcohol drinking and physical inactivity.
The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of various workplace parameters and oral health behaviors on tooth decay, periodontal disease, and the number of teeth present in industrial workers. The study participants were 1,078 workers (808 males, 270 females, mean age 42.8 ± 11.4 yr) employed at 11 different workplaces. Oral examinations and a self-administered questionnaire were conducted for participants. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors related to their oral health status. Factors significantly associated with decayed teeth were smoking (OR=2.02), not having received tooth brushing instruction (OR=1.73), not having annual dental examinations (OR=1.64) and not brushing before sleeping (OR=0.55). The factors significantly associated with severe periodontal disease were employment with a company with fewer than 50 employees (OR=15.56) and not brushing teeth before bedtime (OR=2.41). The factors significantly associated with having 23 teeth or fewer were subjects in the education and learning support industry compared with manufacturing industry (OR=5.83) and transport industry (OR=12.01). The results of the present study showed that various occupational parameters and health behaviors are associated with oral health status including tooth decay, periodontal disease, and tooth loss.
This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of participatory training for promoting farmer's health and reducing agricultural work-related injuries. Candidates for this study included 595 farmers in 8 rural villages of South Korea. The one-day course participatory training was administered to 217 (36.5%) farmers and included an action-checklist, a good example presentation, and group discussion. The follow-up visit to participants' houses and farms was performed after 1 to 3 months. A direct interview survey was administered pre- and post-trainings. The total number of proposed action plans for the improvement of working condition was 620. It was observed that 61.5% of action plans (72.2% of short term and 41.3% of long term plans) were completely implemented. In regards to health and safety indices, the proportion of current smokers was reduced from 29.8% to 25.3% in the group that underwent training. The pesticide intoxication was reduced from 16.1% to 4.8% in participants that underwent training. However, the agricultural injury rate was unchanged in both groups. This study reports significant beneficial effects of participatory training in the agriculture sector in Korea.