This third part reports the observations of family life from 31 to 34 days after hatching, 5-2 days before flying of chicks, May 19-22, 1969, of a territorial breeding pair of Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos. It was confirmed that one adjacent pair had the nest in gingko tree (in American Embassy) 300m apart from the nest under observation. 1. In this later part of nestling period, the female could have occasional long free recessions of more than 30 minutes off the nest for her own exercise (by chance also food taking), flying to peripheral buildings within the territory far from the nest, whence she advertised herself with 'ka, ka' notes to her mate who stayed on duty while her absence watching around the nest tree on high top of building or a tree, and he called her back if she was late to return. Although the male's long absense from nest site is for food search for the family, the female's long recessions are principally for her own excercise, her chief source of food being those brought and stored by the male at various places around the nest site. The time spent by male and female together increased and became more frequent to be ready for family life with fledged young. 2. During the early morning parents are active eating for themselves and feeding the chicks with stored food around the nest, each of them visiting the nest with more or less 30 minutes intervals, average 15 minutes by both sexes, but the male soon begins his food search for the day widely within his territory and his feeding intervals (to chicks) are prolonged, and those of the female are shortened. Thus, on May 19, 12.35-16.13 p. m., the female's intervals were average 19.30min., as against the male's of 78min. (also on May 20, 10.00-11.30 a. m., the average feeding intervals were 38min, in the female and 72min. in the male). Therefore, the total average of feeding intervals is kept rather constant. 3. Since May 19, 5 days before chicks' flying from the nest the female no more stayed in nest for night brooding. On May 21, she showed still some hesitation in flying off to roost, since after she had once flown to a building in the direction of the roost, returned to a tree near the nest where the male was perched. Then, with usual weak 'ka' note of roosting take-off, she flew off to roost followed by the male. On the next day, May 22, the pair, after resting a while billing each other and preening on the gingko tree near the nest, took off together directly to the roost, 29min. before the sunset at 1900 Lux. 4. Having slept in common flock-roost, the male and female returned together at 4.02 a. m. to their territory 30min. before the sunrise (4.31 a. m.) in the dark of twilight of 0 Lux, flying low through the buildings, 20m. apart each other, and thrusted themselves like an arrow into the dark foliage under the nest tree. Then, they silently waited a while until 4.15 a. m., 15 Lux, when the male first uttered 'ka ka ka ka, ' to which the female replied and each bird began its own morning schedule, keeping communication with 'ka ka' notes until it got light. 5. In this period of later nestling stage, the female was as nervous as to suddenly fly off for defense with food in her bill, if she perceived a trespassing other crow while she was feeding, and the male took much more conservative attitude, sometimes not showing apparent response to the trespasser. 6. The female's (rarely-once-also male) soft nasal 'nga' note toward nestlings became frequent as the chicks grow near to leave the nest. 7. The timing of the female's above attitude toward grown chicks near their flying from the nest and her change of roost from night-brooding to roosting take off from nest site, may be a series of correlated behaviors.
In Japanese Islands, P. montanus restrictus distributes as resident in Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, which are four large islands in Japanese Islands. On the other hand, P. palustris hensoni inhabits as resident in only Hokkaido and its adjacent small island, Rishiri, and therefore the two species are sympatric in Hokkaido. In this paper the morphological differences between the two species in the hand are mentioned on the purpose of clarifying identification criterion for Japanese banders. During autumn banding in Hokkaido, 1975, the differences of (1) the size and shape of beak, (2) the colour of head cap, (3) the colour of outer web of large wing feathers, mainly secondaries, and (4) graduation of tail were compared and measured for 50 birds of P. palustris hensoni and 32 birds of P. montanus restrictus. Wing length and body weight of the two species are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. From these, body size of P. palustris hensoni is a little larger than P. montanus restrictus as a whole. Beak length (exposed culmen), beak height, and beak width of the two species are shown in Table 2, Figure 2, and Photograph 1. From these, apparently beak size and shape of P. palustris hensoni is stout and short, as compared with, beak of P. montanus restrictus is fine and long. Further indeces of the characteristics of beak shape were considered (Figure 5 and 6). One index, I1 is the product of beak height and beak width (Fig. 5), and another index, I2 is the ratio of I1 and beak length (Fig. 6). They separate clearly the differences of the thickness of beak base of the two species. The differences of colour of outer web of secondaries and also head cap are good indicators to identify the two species. The measurements of graduation of tail are shown in Table 4. The birds which graduations of tail are 2-4mm are 96% of P. palustris hensoni out of 48 birds, while in P. montanus restrictus the birds which graduations of tail are 5-8mm are 93% out of 28 birds (Table 4 and Photograph 2). By checking the four morphological differences above mentioned, all birds of the two species were easily identified. Incidentally, on Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu P. palustris hensoni is absent. It is evident that the habitat of P. montanus restrictus is conifer forests through all seasons. We think from our observations that at the least on northern and eastern parts of Hokkaido, P. montanus restrictus occupies, of course, again conifer forests and also the breeding habitat of P. palustris hensoni is rather conifer forest than broad-leaved forest, and that they are ecologically isolated in the way which they live in the same habitat but separate feeding.
In December 1974, wings and legs of Japanese White Stork Ciconia ciconia boyciana shot by hunter, was found in Tatsuno-cho, Matsuzaka City, Mie Prefecture, and a skull of the same bird was obtained in January 1975. It had apparently been observed since early November. This is the first record of Japanese White Stork from Mie Prefecture.
The number of domestic pigeons Columba livia var. captured by reason of exterminating noxious wildlife was investigated by using the Statistical Data of Wildlife between 1947 and 1974, published by the Forestry Agency and Environment Agency. Capturing of the domestic pigeons started from 1962 and until 1967, the number of the captured bird was few, and the area where the extermination was enforced was quite limited. However, after 1968, the number of captured birds increased immensely, and every year, the areas of the enforcement of the extermination widened, and now, the capturing of the domestic pigeon is undertaken throughout the country. Also, the density of the exterminated domestic pigeons (accumulative number of the captured domestic pigeons/areas by Prefectures) was calculated in order to compare the number of the captured domestic pigeons by Prefectures. From this calculation, it was revealed that Aichi (10.23 birds/km2), Tokyo (6.32 birds/km2), Kanagawa (5.78 birds/km2), Saga, Shiga, Osaka, Nagasaki, Mie and Shizuoka Prefecture were all areas of high density where the density of the exterminated domestic pigeons was over 0.10 birds/km2. From this result, it can be presumed that the geographical distribution of these nine prefectures correspond with the industrial areas of our country. The accumulative number of the captured domestic pigeons in these nine prefectures amount to more than of the whole number of the captured birds.