山階鳥類研究所研究報告
Online ISSN : 1883-3659
Print ISSN : 0044-0183
ISSN-L : 0044-0183
8 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
  • 斎藤 隆史
    1976 年 8 巻 2 号 p. 135-156
    発行日: 1976/07/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.1962年から1964年までの間,宮城県仙台市郊外の蒲生海岸に調査地を選定し,オオヨシキリの繁殖期における生態に関して,調査を行った。調査地は周囲を松林に囲まれたアシ原と草地からなる。オオヨシキリはアシ原に営巣し,草地および松林を採食地として利用した。
    2.幾つかの地域における雄の初渡来日についてふれた。蒲生においては,雄は4月中旬から6月初旬までに渡来するが,大半の雄は5月中旬までに渡って来た。雄の渡来数は日によって異なり,渡来数の変化は波状になる。この波は平均気温の変動の波と一致していた。
    3.テリトリーの形成過程について記述した。テリトリーの平均面積は雄の個体数の増加に逆比例し,5月初旬からすべての雄が定住した6月初旬までの間に約2500m2から約900m2に減少した。オオヨシキリはアシ原に比較的高密度で繁殖するが,営巣場所の安全性と食物の多さを考慮すると,単独営巣の種というより,grouped territoriesで繁殖する種と呼んでよいだろう。
    4.本種はpartial bigamyである。蒲生では,全体の71.6%が一夫一妻の雄であり,15.8%が一夫二妻,残りの12.6%が独身雄であった。雄の渡来が早ければ早いほど,番になる割合が高くなる。独身雄のテリトリーの平均面積は番になった雄のものよりも大きい。したがって,テリトリーを形成した場所の性質が番形成に重要な役割をはたしていると考えられる。
    5.産卵期は5月中旬から7月中旬にわたり,6月初旬にピークがある。一腹卵数は2~6卵であり,5卵の巣が最も多い。一巣当りの巣立ち雛数は5卵の巣で最も多い。平均一腹卵数と一巣当りの巣立ち雛数には季節変化がみられ,産卵期の季節変化と一致した。
    6.調査地には,PhragmitesRottboeliaからなる二種類のアシ原がある。それぞれのアシ原に定住した雄の番形成の成功率と番の繁殖成功率には,相違がみられた。Phragmitesにテリトリーをもった雄の大半は番になり,一部の雄は一夫二妻であったのに対して,Rottboeliaの雄の約半数近くは独身雄であり,残りの雄は一夫一妻であった。同様に,一巣当りの巣立ち雛数は,Rottboeliaの番に比べてPhragmitesの番の方が多かった。したがって,オオヨシキリにとっては,RottboeliaよりもPhragmitesの方がより好適な生活場所であるといえるだうら。
  • 斎藤 隆史
    1976 年 8 巻 2 号 p. 157-173
    発行日: 1976/07/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.本論文は好適な生活場所の繁殖密度制限に関するオオヨシキリのテリトリーの機能について考察してある。調査地は宮城県仙台市郊外の蒲生海岸で行った。
    2.調査地のアシ原は,アシの種の違いにより,Phragmites地域とRottboelia地域の二つにわけられる。Phragmites地域においては,Rottboelia地域に比べて,その地域に定住した雄の番形成の成功率と番の繁殖成功率が高く,さらに繁殖密度も一定で高い。それ故,Phragmites地域はオオヨシキリにとってより好適な生活場所と考えられる。
    3.雄は4月下旬から6月上旬にかけて渡来し,次々にアシ原にテリトリーをもつ。雄の定住する過程には三つの相がみられる。まず,早く渡来した雄がPhragmites地域にのみ定住し(第1相),その後に渡来した雄は,PhragmitesRottboeliaのどちらの地域にもテリトリーをもつ(第2相)。最後に,Phragmites地域の密度が最高に達した後で,遅れて渡来した雄がRottboelia地域にのみ定住する(第3相)。
    4.Phragmites地域においては,テリトリーの平均面積は第2相の終りまで密度の増加に逆比例して減少し,第3相ではそれ以上縮小しない。
    5.新たにテリトリーを形成しようとする侵入者は6月中旬まで観察される。これらの侵入者の数は第2相の後半に最高になる。Phragmites地域にも第3相まで侵入を試みる雄がいるが,これらの侵入者はPhragmites地域にテリトリーを形成できない。
    6.雄はchasingによって侵入者を追い払い,そのテリトリーを防衛する。chasingの頻度は侵入者の数に比例して多くなる。しかし,Phragmites地域の雄のchasing行動は他の相よりも第3相で最も激しくなった。
    7.それ故,Phragmites地域のテリトリーの平均面積はそれ以上縮小できない限界にまで達していて,遅れて渡来した雄はPhragmites地域の雄のテリトリー行動によって,Rottboelia地域に定住するのを強いられているものと考えられる。
    8.したがって,オオヨシキリのテリトリー行動は好適な生活場所の繁殖密度を制限していると結論できるだろう。
  • 黒田 長久
    1976 年 8 巻 2 号 p. 174-191_5
    発行日: 1976/07/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    This third part reports the observations of family life from 31 to 34 days after hatching, 5-2 days before flying of chicks, May 19-22, 1969, of a territorial breeding pair of Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos. It was confirmed that one adjacent pair had the nest in gingko tree (in American Embassy) 300m apart from the nest under observation.
    1. In this later part of nestling period, the female could have occasional long free recessions of more than 30 minutes off the nest for her own exercise (by chance also food taking), flying to peripheral buildings within the territory far from the nest, whence she advertised herself with 'ka, ka' notes to her mate who stayed on duty while her absence watching around the nest tree on high top of building or a tree, and he called her back if she was late to return. Although the male's long absense from nest site is for food search for the family, the female's long recessions are principally for her own excercise, her chief source of food being those brought and stored by the male at various places around the nest site. The time spent by male and female together increased and became more frequent to be ready for family life with fledged young.
    2. During the early morning parents are active eating for themselves and feeding the chicks with stored food around the nest, each of them visiting the nest with more or less 30 minutes intervals, average 15 minutes by both sexes, but the male soon begins his food search for the day widely within his territory and his feeding intervals (to chicks) are prolonged, and those of the female are shortened. Thus, on May 19, 12.35-16.13 p. m., the female's intervals were average 19.30min., as against the male's of 78min. (also on May 20, 10.00-11.30 a. m., the average feeding intervals were 38min, in the female and 72min. in the male). Therefore, the total average of feeding intervals is kept rather constant.
    3. Since May 19, 5 days before chicks' flying from the nest the female no more stayed in nest for night brooding. On May 21, she showed still some hesitation in flying off to roost, since after she had once flown to a building in the direction of the roost, returned to a tree near the nest where the male was perched. Then, with usual weak 'ka' note of roosting take-off, she flew off to roost followed by the male. On the next day, May 22, the pair, after resting a while billing each other and preening on the gingko tree near the nest, took off together directly to the roost, 29min. before the sunset at 1900 Lux.
    4. Having slept in common flock-roost, the male and female returned together at 4.02 a. m. to their territory 30min. before the sunrise (4.31 a. m.) in the dark of twilight of 0 Lux, flying low through the buildings, 20m. apart each other, and thrusted themselves like an arrow into the dark foliage under the nest tree. Then, they silently waited a while until 4.15 a. m., 15 Lux, when the male first uttered 'ka ka ka ka, ' to which the female replied and each bird began its own morning schedule, keeping communication with 'ka ka' notes until it got light.
    5. In this period of later nestling stage, the female was as nervous as to suddenly fly off for defense with food in her bill, if she perceived a trespassing other crow while she was feeding, and the male took much more conservative attitude, sometimes not showing apparent response to the trespasser.
    6. The female's (rarely-once-also male) soft nasal 'nga' note toward nestlings became frequent as the chicks grow near to leave the nest.
    7. The timing of the female's above attitude toward grown chicks near their flying from the nest and her change of roost from night-brooding to roosting take off from nest site, may be a series of correlated behaviors.
  • 安部 直哉, 黒澤 収
    1976 年 8 巻 2 号 p. 192-205
    発行日: 1976/07/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In Japanese Islands, P. montanus restrictus distributes as resident in Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, which are four large islands in Japanese Islands. On the other hand, P. palustris hensoni inhabits as resident in only Hokkaido and its adjacent small island, Rishiri, and therefore the two species are sympatric in Hokkaido.
    In this paper the morphological differences between the two species in the hand are mentioned on the purpose of clarifying identification criterion for Japanese banders.
    During autumn banding in Hokkaido, 1975, the differences of (1) the size and shape of beak, (2) the colour of head cap, (3) the colour of outer web of large wing feathers, mainly secondaries, and (4) graduation of tail were compared and measured for 50 birds of P. palustris hensoni and 32 birds of P. montanus restrictus.
    Wing length and body weight of the two species are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. From these, body size of P. palustris hensoni is a little larger than P. montanus restrictus as a whole.
    Beak length (exposed culmen), beak height, and beak width of the two species are shown in Table 2, Figure 2, and Photograph 1. From these, apparently beak size and shape of P. palustris hensoni is stout and short, as compared with, beak of P. montanus restrictus is fine and long.
    Further indeces of the characteristics of beak shape were considered (Figure 5 and 6). One index, I1 is the product of beak height and beak width (Fig. 5), and another index, I2 is the ratio of I1 and beak length (Fig. 6). They separate clearly the differences of the thickness of beak base of the two species.
    The differences of colour of outer web of secondaries and also head cap are good indicators to identify the two species.
    The measurements of graduation of tail are shown in Table 4. The birds which graduations of tail are 2-4mm are 96% of P. palustris hensoni out of 48 birds, while in P. montanus restrictus the birds which graduations of tail are 5-8mm are 93% out of 28 birds (Table 4 and Photograph 2).
    By checking the four morphological differences above mentioned, all birds of the two species were easily identified.
    Incidentally, on Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu P. palustris hensoni is absent. It is evident that the habitat of P. montanus restrictus is conifer forests through all seasons. We think from our observations that at the least on northern and eastern parts of Hokkaido, P. montanus restrictus occupies, of course, again conifer forests and also the breeding habitat of P. palustris hensoni is rather conifer forest than broad-leaved forest, and that they are ecologically isolated in the way which they live in the same habitat but separate feeding.
  • 金子 与止男
    1976 年 8 巻 2 号 p. 206-212
    発行日: 1976/07/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.1974年10月20日から23日にわたって,新潟県豊栄市の福島潟でカシラダカ95羽とオオジュリン72羽を捕獲し,体重,翼長,尾長,〓蹠,嘴峰の測定をおこなった。得られた測定値は,性,年齢別に分けられ,性差,年齢差をt-検定により分析した。
    2.カシラダカの体重で有意差の認められたのは,雄成鳥と雌成鳥,雄成鳥と雄幼鳥の平均の間であった。また,翼長は雄成鳥と雌成鳥,雄幼鳥と雌幼鳥,雄成鳥と雄幼鳥,雌成鳥と雌幼鳥,尾長は雄成鳥と雌成鳥,嘴峰は雌成鳥と雌幼鳥の平均の間に有意差が存在した。
    3.オオジュリンについては,体重は雄と雌,翼長は雄と雌雄成鳥と雄幼鳥,尾長は雄と雌〓蹠は雄成鳥と雄幼鳥,嘴峰は雄幼鳥と雌幼鳥の平均の間で有意差が認められた。
    4.一般に,測定値の平均は雌雄とも幼鳥より成鳥が,成幼とも雌より雄が大きい傾向があった。それらの差の原因について若干の論議をおこなった。
  • 樋口 行雄
    1976 年 8 巻 2 号 p. 213-215
    発行日: 1976/07/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In December 1974, wings and legs of Japanese White Stork Ciconia ciconia boyciana shot by hunter, was found in Tatsuno-cho, Matsuzaka City, Mie Prefecture, and a skull of the same bird was obtained in January 1975. It had apparently been observed since early November. This is the first record of Japanese White Stork from Mie Prefecture.
  • 杉森 文夫
    1976 年 8 巻 2 号 p. 216-221
    発行日: 1976/07/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The number of domestic pigeons Columba livia var. captured by reason of exterminating noxious wildlife was investigated by using the Statistical Data of Wildlife between 1947 and 1974, published by the Forestry Agency and Environment Agency.
    Capturing of the domestic pigeons started from 1962 and until 1967, the number of the captured bird was few, and the area where the extermination was enforced was quite limited. However, after 1968, the number of captured birds increased immensely, and every year, the areas of the enforcement of the extermination widened, and now, the capturing of the domestic pigeon is undertaken throughout the country.
    Also, the density of the exterminated domestic pigeons (accumulative number of the captured domestic pigeons/areas by Prefectures) was calculated in order to compare the number of the captured domestic pigeons by Prefectures. From this calculation, it was revealed that Aichi (10.23 birds/km2), Tokyo (6.32 birds/km2), Kanagawa (5.78 birds/km2), Saga, Shiga, Osaka, Nagasaki, Mie and Shizuoka Prefecture were all areas of high density where the density of the exterminated domestic pigeons was over 0.10 birds/km2. From this result, it can be presumed that the geographical distribution of these nine prefectures correspond with the industrial areas of our country. The accumulative number of the captured domestic pigeons in these nine prefectures amount to more than of the whole number of the captured birds.
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