Bulletin of the Society of Sea Water Science, Japan
Online ISSN : 2185-9213
Print ISSN : 0369-4550
ISSN-L : 0369-4550
Volume 26 , Issue 3
Showing 1-3 articles out of 3 articles from the selected issue
  • Shoni AZECHI, Satoshi NAGATSUKA, Yoshio ITAMI, Motoko NAKASHIZUKA
    1972 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 122-140
    Published: 1972
    Released: February 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The authors designed an improved unit cell-type apparatus equipped with 300 unit cells of 115 dm2 effective membrane-area. This apparatus was operated for more than 10,000 hours, and the following results were obtained:
    1. During this long-term operation, there occurred no trouble with the improved pack of membrane and the cell structure. The pack of the membrane proved to be easy to handle.
    2. After the unit cell was improved by attaching an out-let hose to the bottom for safer suction of brine, such troubles as resulted from the stagenation of air and brine were not observed during the operation.
    3. Even though the removal ratio of salt of feed sea-water was increased up to 30% under the current density of 3.5 amp/dm2, there was observed no trouble.
    4. Under-the same condition as in the preceding paragraph 3 and by adding a permselective reagent a, the apparatus continued to indicate over 95% of the ratio of NaCl expressed by the equation of {(Cl-Ca-Mg)(N) ×100/Cl(N)}.
    The mean and maximum ratios of NaCl were 95.5% (the amount of the reagent: 0.15ppm, temperature of the feed sea-water: 21-25°C) and 98.8%(the amount of the reagent: 0.2-0.3ppm, the temperature of the feed sea-water: 17°C), respectively.
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  • Shoni AZECHI, Satoshi NAGATSUKA, Yoshio ITAMI, Motoko NAKASHIZUKA
    1972 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 141-149
    Published: 1972
    Released: February 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of various conditions on the low-permselectivity of permselective reagent (α-solution) were studied by using a unit cell-type apparatus equipped with 300 unit cells of 115dm2 effective membrane-area. Results were obtained as follows.
    1. When the concentration of the reagent which was added into feed sea water was larger, the ratio of sodium chloride to the total salt in the obtained brine become greater.
    2. When the pH of the feed sea water was lower, the ratio of NaCl showed a linear increase.
    3. When the removal ratio of salt (recovery of sodium chloride) of the feed sea water was larger, the ratio of NaCl showed a slight decline.
    4. Even if the solution was agitated by blowing air into the diluting chamber of the apparatus, there was observed little difference in the ratio of NaCl.
    5. When those foreign matters attached to the surface of the membrane were washed out, there were seen an increase in the ratio of NaCl and a decrease in the voltage drop of the membrane.
    6. When the ratio of NaCl expressed by the equation of {(Cl-Ca-Mg)(N)×100/Cl(N)} was below 95%, there was a decline in the voltage drop of the membrane with an increase in the ratio of NaCl. On the other hand, the voltage drop of the membrane showed an increase when the ratio of NaC1 was over 95%.
    7. After membrane in the diluting chamber was washed with circulating 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for 4-24 hours, there was observed an increase in the effectiveness of the reagent.
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  • Tadashi OCHI, Tomotoshi OKAICHI
    1972 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 150-155
    Published: 1972
    Released: February 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By employment of coprecipitation technique with ferric hydroxide, soluble organic matters were isolated from the surface sea water collected from the Inland Sea of Japan to examine the chemical nature of these isolated substances.
    44% of the dissolved organic matters coprecipitated with ferric hydroxide. The coprecipitates were fractionated into acidic, neutral, basic and humic substances by the method shown in Fig. 2. Carbon Nitrogen ratio of these fractionated substances amounted to 8. Gel filtration profiles of the organic substances indicated that 50% of the isolated organic substances had molecular weight below 1,500, while 21% had over 10,000 molecular weights, as compared with dextran. These facts suggested that the organic matters isolated by coprecipitation had less molecule, containing more nitrogen than those obtained by dialysis from sea water and by vacuum evaporation from fresh water.
    Infra red spectra were examined on all the fractionated substances, and the absorption patters were shown in Fig. 4. The absorption bands at 3,400, 1,640 and 1,410 cm-1 implied the presence of alcoholic or phenolic hydroxyl group, doubly bound carbon atoms in conjugated phenyl groups and alkan groups. The absorption at 1,700 cm-1 of acidic fraction showed the presence of the carboxyl groups.
    Paper electrophoresis was used for purification of the organic substances. Acidic and neutral fraction was detected with potassium permanganate to be a continuous spot lying across the original line. Fluorescent spot was found to be on the cathod side by use of ultraviolet light. Basic fraction was developed mainly on the anode side (Fig. 5).
    The fractionated substances by ion-exchange resins showed a peculiar band of fluorescence centering between 393 and 460 nm with the wavelength of maximum excitation located in the region of 313-385 nm.
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