Analysis of chlorophylls and pheophytins is indispensable for the estimation of phygiological biomass and/or of environmental pollution.In practice, the spectrophotometric analysis is the most widely employed method for the determination of chlorophylls in natural water, but a number of errors are inherent in spectrophotometric analysis to determine the individual pigments.The present paper describes a fluorometry combined with paper chromatography.Chlorophyll a, b and pheophytin a, b can be separated with ease by paper chromatography and quantitatively measured without the influence of other pigments by this method.The procedure for the determination of chlorophyll a, b and pheophytin a, b was established as follows; The phytoplankton was harvested by glass fiber filter (TOYO GA200, pore size; 0.8μm, φ;4.5cm).The amount of natural water (0.5-3l) to be filtrated was controlled by observing the color of plankton on filter.The filter was ground in mortar with a pestle for five minutes at room temperature with 5-7ml of 90% acetone. The suspension was transferred to a centrifuge tube, and then was centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for ten minutes.The total volume of acetone extract was made up to 10.0ml with 90% acetone.A 5 μl of the resulting solution was spotted on filter paper with microsyringe.Care was taken to maintain the spot size (2mm diameter).Development of the chromatogram was carried out with lightpetroleum: acetone 20:4 (v/v). After development, four spots of chlorophyll a, b and pheophytin a, b(Rf;pheo.a=0.97, pheo.b=0.82, chl.a=0.46, chl.b=0.26) were detected by U. V. lamp. Immediately, these spots on filter paper were scissored and transferred to sample tubes, and the pigment adsorbed on filter paper was eluted with 3.0ml of acetone.Fluorescence of the acetone solution was detected with HITACHI 650-10 (S) fluorescence spectrophotometer.The sensitivity of the fluorescence spectrophotometer was regulated by the emission of a YVO4/Eu film. The coefficient of variation of measurement was found to be less than 4% (8 determinations).Therefore, this fluorometry is very simple, rapid and effective method for the analysis of chlorophyll a, b and pheophytin a, b in natural water. Chlorophyll a, b and pheophytin a, b in natural water were detected by this method with satisfactory results.
A new glycine-N, N-bis (methylene phosphonic acid) type chelating resin and an anion exchange resin were used to separate uranium from the acidic eluate that had been obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using cross-linked poly (acryl amidoxime) resin. The uranium contained in the eluate was concentrated as much as 20-100 times at the first concentration step with the chelating resin, and then 20-30 times at the second one with the anion exchange resin. Through these concentration steps, about 4g yellow cake (ADU) was obtained from natural sea water.
A micro amount of nickel contained in sea water and common salt was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in conjunction with extraction technique. Nickel was reacted with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldoxime (HNA) to form a 1:2 (Ni: HNA) stable complex, which was extracted into chloroform.The optimum conditions on the extraction of nickel were examined.The effect of coexisting diverse substances in the aqueous phase were also examined. The extracted complex was decomposed with nitric acid-perchloric acid mixture, and then dissolved with 0.1N hydrochloric acid.The resulting solution was sprayed into an acetylene-air flame.Less than 10 μg of nickel was quantitatively extracted into 10ml of 0.02 M HNA chloroform solution from aqueous solution at pH 5.8, by shaking for 10 min.When a known amount of nickel was added to the sea water samples, the nickel was recovered satisfactory. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of micro amount of nickel in sea water and common salt.
An ultrafiltration method was applied to the concentration of uranium and the recovery of the eluting agent from the carbonate type eluate that had been obtained in the extraction process of uranium from sea water with titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. In the case of the eluate obtaine from 0.5N NaHCO3 solution, the water flux was 4×10-3cm/min at 4kg/cm2 with the membrane of fractional molecular weight 500, and the retentions were 98%, 14%, and 85% for uranium, NaHCO3, and total organic carbon, respectively. When the eluate was concentrated as much as 14 times, uranium was concentrated 10 times, and 85% of NaHCO3 was permeated into the filtrate. The permeative properties of the membrane were scarcely influenced by the repetition of the concentration for 4 times. The retention of uranium was about 25% lowered although the water flux was raised when the membrane of higher fractional molecular weight (1,000) was used. The retention of uranium was the same in the case of the eluate obtained from 1N (NH4)2 CO3 solution as that from the NaHCO3 solution, but the recovery of (NH4)2 CO3 was low probably due to the vaporization of NH3 and CO2 during the filtration.