Metabolic interaction of bittern water and various trace elements in mice by using multi-tracer technology and Gamma-ray Emission Imaging System (GREI) as a new modality of multiple molecular imaging. Recently, biotrace elements (elements that are essential to our bodies in minute amounts) have caught our attention, as health has become an important issue to many peoples' lives. The metabolism and dispersion of many biotrace elements may be analyzed using multi-tracer technology. Multi-tracer technology allows simultaneous tracing of various radioactive isotopes (RI). By administrating a multi-tracer solution containing various RI into a living organism, the activity of these RI can be detected using a high purity Ge detector or Gamma-ray Emission Imaging (GREI). In this review, we discuss the biological dynamics of bittern water using multitracer technology and multiple molecular imaging by use of semiconductor Compton cameras.
Magnesium (Mg) is essential for a diverse range of physiological functions, as it is involved in a variety of the body's biochemical processes. Mg deficiency, either from inadequate intake or from excess excretion, is often suspected to be associated with the development of many symptoms and diseases. The nutritional and physiological importance of Mg has already been well established. Mg was finally confirmed to be the most effective element for preventing several diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders including obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Recently, many studies and meta-analyses have proved the above findings. Furthermore, a number of studies have reported the effects of Mg deficiency on carbohydrate, lipid, protein, vitamin and mineral metabolism. In this review, we discuss the effects of dietary-Mg deficiency on proteins, lipids, ascorbic acid and mineral metabolism, including kidney calcification and bone loss, in rodents. Furthermore, we performed transcriptome analysis to comprehensively understand the effects of dietary-Mg deficiency in rat livers and femora by using DNA microarray.
A distiller that utilizes waste gas from a small electric generator was proposed and analyzed theoretically to determine its thermal behavior and the productivity of the distillate. Waste gas from small electric generators has not been effectively utilized because of the low thermal capacity. However, the thermal energy can be used as an additional heat source for solar distillers. The distillers consists of a number of vertical parallel partitions in contact with saline soaked wicks, and a heat-pipe is used to transfer the thermal energy of the waste gas to the distiller. In the distiller, the latent heat of condensation is recovered and recycled to increase the productivity of the distillate. We found that the thermal energy of the waste gas can be utilized effectively in the distiller, and the hourly productivity of the proposed still with 10 partitions was predicted to be about 5.5, 3.3 and 1.9 kgm−2 when the flow rate of waste gas at 250°C is 32.8, 16.4 and 8.2 m3hour−1. This indicates that the distillate of the proposed still after a few hours of operation would be almost equivalent to the maximum value of the experimental results of daily distillate produced by solar stills whose solar absorbing area is 1 m2.
Suspended particles were collected at the water surface in the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean. The suspended particles at the water surface were classified into 16 types using individual particle analysis and a scanning electron microprobe equipped with an energy-dispersive X ray analyzer. Si-rich particles were dominant at St.2, 4, 6 and 7. S-rich particles were dominant at St.8. Both biogenic particles and terrigenous particles were observed at all sampling points. The proportion of biogenic particles and terrigenous particles was 15-39%, and 61-85%, respectively. The possibility of direct supplement of terrigenous particles for St. 2, 4, 7 and 8 is smaller than those for St.6. The contribution of the terrigenous material from the Tuvurvur volcano was one possible origin of the suspended particles at St.7 and 8.
The fluoride content in jewelry coral skeletons (Mg-calcite) was analyzed using ion chromatography in order to elucidate the factors that control coprecipitation of fluoride into carbonate skeletons. The ratio of F/Ca in jewelry coral was higher than that in shallow marine carbonates. Assuming that a carbonate ion in coral Mg-calcite is substituted with two fluoride ions, the apparent equilibrium constant of the ion-exchange reaction can be expressed as: KF'=[(Ca, Mg)F2] [CO32−]/[CaCO3] [F−]2. By rearranging this equation, the coral F/Ca ratio can be expressed as : [(Ca, Mg)F2]/[CaCO3]=KF'[F−]2/[CO32−]. This equation suggests that the fluoride content in jewelry coral skeletons is inversely proportional to carbonate concentration in seawater. Accordingly, the fluoride content in jewelry coral skeletons was higher than that in shallow marine carbonates because the carbonate concentration in sea water decreases with an increase in water depth.