TMAO (trimethylamine oxide) and urea are stable end products and cannot be metabolized further to provide skeletons for biosynthesis. These substances are widely utilized in various marine fishes. Particularly, in cartilaginous fishes, a large amount of urea and methylamines including TMAO are accumulated as osmolytes in their tissues. In marine teleostean fishes, a considerable amount of TMAO also maintain in their bodies, although the levels are far less than those of cartilaginous fishes. However, urea levels in teleostean tissues are generally low, and only a few species utilize urea as a device for ammonia detoxification. In this paper multiple functions of TMAO and urea on marine fishes are discussed.
The effects of salt concentration and composition on cooked beans were studied. Salt concentration and composition influence the changes in boiling solution pH, cooked bean hardness, and the proportion of beans to which a seed coat adhered. Boiling solution pH and calcium have effects on cooked bean hardness. The proportion of beans to which a seed coat adhered depends on boiling solution pH. As an explanation for the change in boiling solution pH, it is suggested tha divalent ions combine with soybean protein, and hydrogen ions are emitted from this protein.
The dehydration and penetration behaviors in pickled ume production were discussed using four types of edible salt whose bittern composition, moisture content, particle size and shape differed. Following the pickled ume experiment, which was conducted for 28 days, the quantity dehydration was proportional to the total amount of salts included in additive edible salt. Sodium, magnesium, calcium, sulfate ion and potassium concentrations were maintained in an equilibrium state between pickled ume and pickled solution by means of salt penetration from salt in an ume, or the discharge of these ions from an ume, citric acid and malic acid, which exist only in an ume, were discharged in the pickled solution and their concentrations were constant.
A novel flow injection (FI) system is presented for simple, rapid and sensitive determination of hexacyanoferrate (II)(ferrocyanide) at ppm to sub-ppm levels in salts. The anion exchange column incorporated in-line in a flow injection system was utilized as an integrated field for both the separation/preconcentration of ferrocyanide from a large excess of NaCI matrix and coexisting other elements, and the detection reaction of adsorbed ferrocyanide with Fe (III) complex with 1, 10-phenanthrolin (ferrin). Ferrocyanide adsorbed on the column directly reacts with ferrin, which was introduced into the column by switching its flow, and detected spectrophotometrically by measuring the resultant ferroin at 512 nm. Ferriin is prepared in-line by passing the ferroin solution through an MnO2 solid reactor in the flow system, providing the advantage that unnecessary lowering of sensitivity due to dilution and additional reagent stream line were avoided. The variables relating to such reactions and minifold were studied in detail and the optimal conditions and manifold configurations were established. A linear calibration using a 6 m sample loop injection was obtained for ferrocyanide in the range of 0-0.3 ppm (in the presence of 0.5 mol/L NaCl matrix). The coefficient of variation for 0.05 ppm ferrocyanide was 1.6% (n=3), and the estimated limit of determination was 0.003 ppm. Only 9 min was required for analytical measurement after sample injection and no complicated manual operation was needed. The present FI system was successfully applied to determine ferrocyanide at ppm level in the real salt samples with satisfactory precision of less than 3%.
The positive list system for agricultural chemical residues in foods was enforced in connection with Food Sanitation Law being revised on May 29, 2006. On this system, the residue standard is provided to all the agricultural chemicals, veterinary products and feed additives in food. In this report, the positive list system is explained, and the correspondence of the Salt Industry Center of Japan to this system is introduced.
In this study, an on-line measuring method for determining the crystal size distribution in a crystallizer was proposed. This method involves sucking liquid containing crystals out of the stirred-type crystallizer and instantaneously observing silhouettes of the crystals multiphasically using an imaging processing system. In this paper, the principle of the measuring method is shown. Experimental observations of crystal 3D images were made, and an error analysis using model silhouettes was done. As a result, a variety of information on the crystals, such as the shape, diameter, agglomeration and breakage, could be obtained from the 3D images generated. Furthermore, as examples of applications of this method, the dynamic changes of crystal diameter distribution and local crystal diameter distribution in stirred type and draft tube type crystallizers were measured. It was shown that the details of the crystallizing process could be investigated using this method.
Reactive crystallization of lithium carbonate in a continuous MSMPR crystallizer was conducted to make clear the fundamental mechanism of reactive crystallization of lithium carbonate between a concentrated lithium solution obtained by the adsorption process from seawater and CO2 gas in the flue gas. The effects of operating factors, that is, total gas flow rate, CO2 mole fraction in the gas and impurities contained in the lithium adsorption process from seawater on the crystallization characteristics were investigated. By the redissolution of lithium carbonate, the nucleation rate decreases and the crystal growth rate increases.
Growth rate phenomena of a NaCl single crystal were observed under conditions of continuous micro-crystal feeding. Y type tube mixer was proposed as the micro-crystal generator. The particle size distribution (PSD) of micro-crystals was changed and the effect of PSD on the growth rate enhancement was investigated. As the results of experiments, the growth rate enhancement was not temporary but was maintained during slurry feeding and the degree of growth rate enhancement depended on residence time for micro-crystals.