We explain the experiments and analysis results for a dialyzer-type forward osmosis（FO）module composed of hollow fiber membranes. In an FO system, low concentration solutions（FS: Feed Solution）flow in a lumen of hollow fiber membrane, while high concentration solutions（DS: Draw Solution）are supplied outside of it in with a counter current mode. FO test conditions, a 3.5 wt％ NaCl soln. in the FS and 5, 7 and 10 wt％ NaCl solns.in the DS were selected, and quasi-PRO test conditions, pure water in the FS and a 3.5 wt％ NaCl soln.in the DS, were adopted. Effects on the flow rates of the FS and the DS by changing their values were also studied. Membrane transport equations were derived, consisting of two external concentration polarizations and an internal concentration polarization. The previous hemodiafiltration module model, involving the above membrane transport equations as a basic membrane transport model, was introduced to the numerical analysis for this FO system. It was demonstrated that the presented module model provides a reasonable explanation for FO test data of permeated water flow rates and outlet solute concentrations of the DS and the FS.
We examined the effects of several detergents on the stability of halophilic Nesterenkonia halobia α-amylase（NhAmy）. NhAmy was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant by simple one-step dextrin affinity column chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to be highly resistant to several detergents, including sodium dodecyl sulfate, which is one of the strongest protein denaturants.