Objective: Catastrophic complications may develop because of vessel deviation during device delivery into intracranial vessels for neurointerventions. We report a novel method using a silicon model capable of evaluating vessel deviation as a numerical value.
Methods: In all, 10 tiny markers, each with a pitch of approximately 5 mm, were attached to the vessel model along the long axis. We used a high-resolution camera to record movies of the deviation of the vessel model while employing different stent retrievers. The movies were reviewed to determine the maximum deviation of each marker on the vessel model.
Results: As expected, stent retrievers of the same type exhibited more vessel shifts when they had a larger diameter and longer length. On the other hand, stents with a segmental structure demonstrated less vessel deviation than those with a tubular structure, regardless of the large lumen and long length.
Conclusion: If the degree of vessel stress can be represented by a numerical value, areas where the careful use of different devices for neurointerventions is required may be able to be identified. Moreover, this method may be useful for training.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of the T2-weighted three-dimensional sequence method, known as “basi-parallel anatomical scanning (BPAS)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” in demonstrating the running course of the obstructed middle cerebral artery (MCA) before acute mechanical thrombectomy.
Methods: Patients whose M1 part and internal carotid artery (ICA) were occluded on preprocedural MRA, but well demonstrated on MCA anatomical scanning (MAS)-MRI were enrolled in this study. The MAS-MR images for patients in whom thrombectomy was performed were compared with the post-thrombectomy angiography. We compared the running course of the C1-M2 bifurcation on MAS-MRI and angiography after thrombectomy, and the results were classified into 3 groups (Excellent, Good, and Poor).
Results: A total of 13 patients (range: 54–89) were enrolled, among whom 12 underwent thrombectomy. We compared MAS-MRI and post-thrombectomy angiography in 10. On comparison between MAS-MRI and post-procedural angiography, visualization was excellent in six (60%) patients. The mean age was 75.7 years, ranging from 54 to 89, and 6 were males. 3 patients had ICA occlusion and seven had MCA occlusion.
Conclusion: MAS-MRI was considered useful to clarify the running course of the MCA before acute mechanical thrombectomy.
Objective: For carotid artery stenosis with a large amount of vulnerable plaque in a wide range, we performed a hybrid surgery combining carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS), and report the results of treatment.
Methods: Surgical treatment for carotid artery stenosis in 216 patients was performed between January 2016 and June 2018. Of these, 15 patients were treated in a hybrid operating room because both CEA and CAS were judged to be risky. We treated these patients with preparation of stenting for remote lesions far from the CEA arterial incision. The perioperative treatment results were retrospectively examined.
Results: Of the 15 patients treated in a hybrid operating room, 10 were stented after CEA. All these cases were treated by retrograde stent placement in the proximal common carotid artery (CCA). Treatment was completed in all patients, and no cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, or death was observed in the perioperative period. There were no cases of additional neurological events during the follow-up period, but asymptomatic restenosis was observed in one patient.
Conclusion: Hybrid surgery combining CEA and CAS was considered to be an effective treatment for carotid artery stenosis with a large amount of vulnerable plaque.
Objective: We report a rare complication, carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), due to vessel perforation during thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS).
Case Presentation: An 88-year-old woman underwent thrombectomy for left C4 occlusion of the internal carotid artery. There was strong resistance at the medial C4 while the microguidewire was guided distally, and a CCF was found after deploying and retrieving the stent. It was thought to have been caused by perforation due to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis of the internal carotid artery.
Conclusion: During thrombectomy for intracranial large vessel occlusion underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, the risk of vascular injury should be kept in mind.
Objective: The falx cerebri is known to have venous plexuses. Although some cases of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) associated with falcine sinus have been reported, DAVF in the falx with prominent falcine venous plexus has not previously been reported.
Case Presentation: A 59-year-old male was hospitalized with head trauma. MRI incidentally showed a possible occipital DAVF. CTA and DSA revealed a DAVF in the flax with prominent falcine venous plexus. We performed a selective transarterial embolization with glue and particle, obtaining a complete occlusion of the fistula.
Conclusion: We report a rare case of DAVF in the flax with prominent falcine venous plexus that was successfully treated by a transarterial embolization.
Objective: Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBA) often develop on the anterior wall of the internal carotid artery, and few cases have been reported at other sites. We report a case of stent-assisted coil embolization in the acute phase for a ruptured BBA of the basilar artery.
Case Presentation: A 53-year-old woman underwent emergency stent-assisted coil embolization for subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured BBA in the main trunk of the basilar artery. Seven months after the operation, cerebral angiography confirmed no recurrence and a good clinical course.
Conclusion: Stent-assisted coil embolization for BBA may be one treatment option.
Objective: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is often diagnosed based on angiography. However, it is difficult to distinguish from vasculitis by angiography. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the detailed intravascular findings of lesions in FMD using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Case Presentation: We present a case of a 30-year-old woman with left carotid artery stenosis. The lesion was diagnosed with a suspected case of FMD by MRA, and gradually progressed over the course of 7 years. Therefore, we underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) using OCT, and good dilatation of the lesion was obtained.
Conclusion: OCT evaluation during CAS allowed for a definitive diagnosis of FMD because the OCT images revealed a detailed finding of the three layers of the carotid artery.
Objective: Although several studies have reported on cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS)/hyperperfusion phenomenon (HPP) involving the anterior circulation after carotid artery stenting (CAS), little is known about CHS/HPP involving the posterior circulation after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting of the vertebral artery (VA).
Case Presentation: A 79-year-old man with known chronic occlusion of the left VA (V4 segment) was admitted to another hospital with right-sided hemiplegia, mild disturbance of consciousness, and dysphagia. A head MRI revealed multiple infarcts in posterior circulation areas, and severe stenosis of the right VA (V4 segment). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) indicated reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the posterior circulation, and DSA revealed 76% stenosis of the right V4 segment. On day 18, PTA/stenting was performed under general anesthesia for the severe stenosis of the right VA. However, head MRI and CT on postoperative day (POD)1 showed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) occupying an area measuring 2 cm in diameter in the left posterior lobe and a small subdural hematoma (SDH). SPECT on POD1 indicated increased CBF in the posterior lobe, and we diagnosed CHS might have caused ICH. Although SPECT on POD4 showed residual hyperperfusion, SPECT on POD11 revealed reduced CBF in the posterior circulation area.
Conclusion: Our patient developed ICH after undergoing PTA/stenting for known severe symptomatic stenosis of the right VA. CHS/HPP in the posterior cerebral artery territory might be one of the etiologies, and reduced CBF prior to the procedure could be a risk factor for CHS/HPP developing after PTA/stenting.
Objective: We report two patients with unruptured large aneurysms treated by overlapping stent-assisted coil embolization using low-profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS) stents.
Case Presentation: Case 1: An 80-year-old woman presented with abducens nerve palsy due to an internal carotid artery aneurysm. Case 2: A 75-year-old man presented with a partially thrombosed fusiform aneurysm in the vertebral artery (VA). Both patients were treated by overlapping LVIS stent-assisted coil embolization (overlapping LSACE). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) a few months after embolization demonstrated complete occlusion of the aneurysm, although immediate angiography revealed dome filling.
Conclusion: Overlapping LSACE may be an effective treatment method for aneurysms that are difficult to treat by standard SACE and result in better flow-diverting effects.