Objective: Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has become popular in recent years. Our affiliated institutes without neuro-endovascular specialists call our department to come to assist and perform thrombectomy (Drip and Go). In this study, the effectiveness of this inter-hospital cooperative system was evaluated.
Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2018, “Drip and Go” was performed in a total of 29 patients (20 males, average age of 75 years) from four hospitals located within a 1-hour drive, that frequently called for AIS assistance. The background and outcomes of such cases were then retrospectively collected and evaluated.
Results: The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and diffusion-weighed image-Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (DWI-ASPECTS) were 19 and 7, respectively. Gro in puncture was performed in 27 patients (93%) within 6 h of onset. Good reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [TICI] 2b/3) was obtained in 24 patients (82%) with only one patient exhibiting hemorrhagic complication. A total of 12 patients (41%) had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–3 after 90 days or at the time of discharge. Univariate analysis identified a DWI-ASPECTS of 7 or higher as the only significant factor associated with a good neurological prognosis (P <0.05). Neurological prognosis was the most favorable at the furthest hospital where patients had a good DWI-ASPECTS.
Conclusion: By employing a 1-hour arrival time window and proper patient selection, the “Drip and Go” inter-hospital cooperative system can be an alternative approach for covering areas where no neuro-endovascular specialists are available for AIS.
Objective: This study investigated the changes in higher brain function and cerebral blood flow (CBF) after carotid artery stenting (CAS), the relationship with CBF, and the impact of high intensities in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) after CAS.
Methods: We performed CAS between September 2017 and September 2019 in our department in 88 patients. Patients who did not undergo higher brain function tests according to our protocol or those who did not consent to participate in our study were excluded. This study targeted the 26 patients who were able to undergo the tests, including the Kana Pick-out Test (KPOT) II, three times: before, 1 week after, and 1–3 months after CAS. We investigated the chronological changes in higher brain function and their relationship with high intensity on DWI.
Results: The results of Symbol Digit Modalities Tests (SDMT) and KPOT I and II improved significantly. There was a significant correlation between the improvement of higher brain function and CBF in patients with stenosis exceeding 60%, a score of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) of 26 or less, and without other cause of higher brain dysfunction, including known dementia. High-intensity spots on DWI after CAS had no significant impact on higher brain function.
Conclusion: Higher brain function associated with attention and working memory improved significantly after CAS. There was a correlation between the improvement of higher brain function and CBF in patients with severe stenosis, mild cognitive impairment, and no known dementia. The prevention of subsequent ischemic attack and higher brain function should both be taken into account when performing CAS.
Objective: We report the characteristics of the platelet aggregation test using Hematracer ZEN (HTZ; DS medical, Tokyo, Japan) during the perioperative period.
Methods: Among patients undergoing neuroendovascular treatment (EVT) at our hospital between June 2019 and June 2020, 42 consecutive patients with preoperative dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were included. Oral administration of aspirin (ASA) at 81 mg and clopidogrel (CLP) at 75 mg was started 7 days before treatment (Flow Diverter [FD]: 14 days before). We evaluated platelet aggregation activity the day before treatment (FD: 2 days before) using HTZ. We adjusted the CLP dose according to the platelet aggregation test in each patient. We evaluated the platelet aggregating activity after EVT in patients requiring an intracranial stent or in which CLP was adjusted before EVT.
Results: Platelet aggregating activity was able to be evaluated in all patients. In the preoperative examination, the efficacy of CLP was insufficient in one patient (2.4%), optimal medical effects were confirmed in 16 (38.1%), mildly excessive effects were noted in 10 (23.8%), and highly excessive effects were noted in 15 (35.7%). Reassessment was performed postoperatively in 20 patients. We switched CLP to prasugrel in one patient in which the CLP efficacy was considered insufficient in the preoperative evaluation. We reduced the CLP dose in seven patients with marked overdose, and the optimum range was reached in all. We did not adjust the CLP dose in 12 patients judged to have optimal or mildly excessive effects preoperatively, but 4 exhibited highly excessive drug efficacy and required CLP reduction. No postoperative symptomatic cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage was observed (mean observation period: 11 months, range: 4–16 months).
Conclusion: The platelet aggregation test using HTZ was simple and inexpensive, and was useful for adjusting the dose of antiplatelet drugs, but its utility should be evaluated in more patients.
Objective: We report a patient with chronic headache due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) associated with transverse sinus (TS) stenosis. The symptom improved after stent placement at the site of stenosis.
Case Presentation: The patient was a 37-year-old woman with progressive headache and diplopia as chief complaints. She had severe bilateral papilledema. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography revealed stenosis of the bilateral TS. Lumbar puncture demonstrated raised intracranial pressure and IIH was tentatively diagnosed. Visual impairment progressed despite oral acetazolamide therapy. A venous pressure gradient was monitored during stent placement. The pressure gradient improved after stenting. Dual antiplatelet therapy was initiated 1 week before the procedure. Papilledema and headache resolved immediately after the procedure. No in-stent stenosis or occlusion occurred during the follow-up period.
Conclusion: Stent placement for TS stenosis can improve the cerebral venous return in IIH patients. Although restenosis is possible, venous sinus stenting is considered an effective treatment.
Objective: We report a case in which two coils became stuck in a microcatheter at the end of coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm.
Case Presentation: Two coils became stuck in the microcatheter at the final stage of stent-assisted coil embolization for an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The rear end of a detached coil was near the tip of the microcatheter. The coil inserted next was pushed out of the microcatheter and pulled back into the microcatheter. Then, the rear end of the detached coil and the retracted coil meshed into the microcatheter, and became immobile. The microcatheter and these two coils were removed simultaneously, and coil embolization was finished.
Conclusion: At the end of coil embolization, the filling rate is relatively high. Insertion of another coil and traction may cause the coils to become stuck in the microcatheter.
Objective: We report a case of cerebellar infarction caused by radiation-induced common carotid artery stenosis.
Case Presentation: The patient was a 72-year-old man who underwent irradiation for hypopharyngeal carcinoma 13 years ago. He was referred for asymptomatic left common carotid artery stenosis, but was brought to our hospital by ambulance with transient dysarthria and right facial dysesthesia 2 days after referral. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute infarction in the left cerebellar hemisphere, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated that the blood flow in the left internal carotid artery perfused the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) retrogradely through the left posterior communicating artery. The patient underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) for left common carotid artery stenosis and blood flow in the left PICA improved; however, in-stent restenosis was revealed during follow-up. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for in-stent restenosis was performed 9 months after the surgery.
Conclusion: We reported a rare case of ischemia in the PICA area caused by radiation-induced common carotid artery stenosis. Although CAS is recommended for the treatment of radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis, careful treatment and follow-up are needed to prevent perioperative complications and detect in-stent restenosis after CAS.
Objective: We treated a patient with internal carotid artery and vertebral artery ostium in-stent restenosis (ISR) treated by cutting balloon (CB) angioplasty.
Case Presentation: A 79-year-old man developed dizziness and right homonymous upper quadrantanopia. On arrival, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute-stage brain infarction. Angiography demonstrated left internal carotid artery and vertebral artery ostium stenosis (VAOS), which was thought to be related to the infarction. We performed stenting for both lesions, but 5 months later, restenosis occurred. The patient was successfully retreated by CB angioplasty for both lesions.
Conclusion: When treating carotid or vertebral artery ISR, plain balloon (PB) and stent-in-stent (SIS) procedures may induce insufficient dilatation, and hamper re-retreatment because of neointimal hyperplasia. Using CB should be considered as an option in such cases.
Objective: We report the usefulness and pitfalls of coil embolization using the T or half T-stent technique for aneurysms located at internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery (ICA-P-com) bifurcation in which the neck is wide and the P-com must be kept patent due to it being the fetal-type with a hypoplastic P1 segment.
Case Presentations: Two cases were treated using the T-stent technique and two were treated using the half T-stent technique. The average age of the patients was 70.3 years and all were females. One aneurysm ruptured. The average size of aneurysms and neck was 12 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, in the T-stent group, and 7.4 mm and 6.7 mm, respectively, in the half T-stent group. An S- or pigtail-shaped microcatheter (MC) was used to navigate into the P-com. Stent deployment was successful in all the cases. Retreatment was required in one case treated using the T-stent technique due to major recurrence.
Conclusion: T or half T-stent-assisted coil embolization can be an alternative endovascular treatment method for wide-necked ICA-P-com aneurysms in which the P-com must be kept patent due to it being the fetal-type with a hypoplastic P1 segment.
Objective: We report the use of a Goose Neck microsnare for cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion in a patient with dolichoarteriopathy in whom it was difficult to achieve recanalization.
Case Presentation: A 65-year-old woman underwent thrombectomy for a tandem lesion of left M1 occlusion and left cervical ICA occlusion. Recanalization of left M1 occlusion was achieved. For left cervical ICA occlusion, we attempted multiple thrombectomy using an existing device, but a hard clot with mobility was caught due to dolichoarteriopathy, which made thrombectomy difficult. Using a Goose Neck microsnare, we were able to capture the thrombus and achieve recanalization.
Conclusion: Thrombectomy by capturing the thrombus using a Goose Neck microsnare may be useful for capturing hard clots with mobility when it is difficult to achieve recanalization with existing devices.
Objective: To describe the technique of using a Woven Endo Bridge (WEB) device to treat a ruptured bilobed blister-like aneurysm (BLA) at the basilar artery (BA) fenestration.
Case Presentation: A previously healthy 66-year-old female presented at the emergency room with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), centered around the brainstem. Unenhanced CT and CT angiography showed a BLA of a basilar fenestration limb. The angiogram confirmed the diagnosis. A WEB device was chosen to treat this rare and challenging aneurysm.
Conclusion: In this article, we describe the successful endovascular treatment of a SAH patient with a ruptured BLA at the basilar artery fenestration using a WEB device. And an overview of treatment options is provided.