Objective: Intracranial atherosclerosis disease (ICAD) is one of the most common causes of acute ischemic stroke. In endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute large vessel occlusion stroke-related ICAD, reocclusion of the recanalized artery due to in situ thrombosis is problematic. In this study, the safety and efficacy of prasugrel administration to avoid reocclusion of emergent EVT for ICAD was investigated.
Methods: All consecutive emergent EVTs for ICAD between September 2019 and December 2022 were included in this study. The procedures were divided into two groups as receiving periprocedural prasugrel (PSG group) or not (non-PSG group). Target vessel patency on follow-up, postprocedural intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and clinical outcome were compared between PSG and non-PSG groups.
Results: A total of 27 procedures were included in this analysis. Nineteen target vessels were patent on follow-up and eight were non-patent. Fifteen patients received prasugrel (18.75 mg: 11 cases, 11.25 mg: 4 cases), and twelve patients did not receive prasugrel. The target vessel patency rate was better in the PSG group vs. non-PSG group (100% vs. 33.3%, respectively; p = 0.0002). The postprocedural ICH rate was not different between the groups (PSG: 40.0% vs. non-PSG: 25.0%; p = 0.68), and all ICHs were asymptomatic. Good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 3 at discharge) was more frequent in the PSG group than that in the non-PSG group (66.7% vs. 16.7%, respectively; p = 0.019).
Conclusion: Prasugrel administration was significantly associated with target vessel patency and good clinical outcome after emergent EVT for ICAD without increasing the symptomatic ICH rate. Prasugrel administration might be safe and effective to avoid reocclusion during and after emergent EVT for ICAD.
Objective: The flow diverter (FD) is a promising device. Apart from two main complications, hemorrhagic and ischemic ones, stent migration is reportedly an unusual complication. In particular, distal migration of the FD has rarely been reported. We report a case of asymptomatic acute distal migration of the flow-redirection endoluminal device (FRED).
Case Presentation: A 50-year-old woman was incidentally diagnosed with an unruptured right internal carotid–ophthalmic artery aneurysm with a maximum diameter of 8.0 mm, and she subsequently underwent endovascular treatment with FRED. Based on the vessel diameter (3.8 mm proximal and 3.6 mm distal to the aneurysm), a 4.0-mm-diameter and 18-mm-long FRED was deployed without postoperative complications. However, on MRA 12 months after treatment, the aneurysm was not occluded; angiography showed distal migration of the FRED. The postoperative MRA and skull X-ray images were retrospectively reviewed to determine the period of the migration. The skull X-ray images and the signal loss area due to the FRED on MRA 1 day after the treatment had already demonstrated the migration of the FRED. In the second treatment, a 4.0-mm-diameter and 23-mm-long FRED was deployed in an overlapping fashion up to the proximal part of the carotid siphon. Prompt identification of distal migration of the FD without neurologic signs could be challenging.
Conclusion: It is important to follow up meticulously with MRA and skull X-ray images after FD treatment for detecting stent migrations as early as possible.
Objective: Persistent proatlantal artery (PPA) is a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis (CVA); acute ischemic stroke due to basilar artery (BA) occlusion via a PPA is extremely rare.
Case Presentation: An 84-year-old female developed disturbance of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale E2V1M5) and quadriparesis with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 35. Head CT revealed early ischemic changes in the right temporal lobe, and a hyperdense vessel sign in the BA. Cerebral angiography showed that the left vertebral artery (VA) did not originate from the left subclavian artery or aortic arch. A left common carotid artery angiogram showed the presence of the left PPA originating from the left external carotid artery. Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) with contact aspiration using a Penumbra 5MAX ACE 60 aspiration catheter was performed, and successful recanalization was achieved after clot retrieval in the first attempt (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction scale 2b). MRI performed the following day, however, revealed a newly developed large hemorrhagic infarction in the pons, with no improvement in her symptoms (modified Rankin Scale score of 5 at 90 days).
Conclusion: Although MT achieved successful recanalization of the BA via the PPA, her clinical symptoms did not improve, probably because of poor collateral circulation or the long length of the occlusion. In patients with acute vertebro-BA occlusion, if the VA does not originate from the subclavian artery or aortic arch, the presence of a primitive CVA should be considered.
Objective: We report here an atypical case of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) with a septation that separates the cavernous sinus (CS) into two components, namely, normal cerebral venous drainage and shunted blood drainage into the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) alone. The CSDAVF was successfully treated by selective transvenous embolization (TVE) through the septum with the trans-inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) approach.
Case Presentation: A 74-year-old woman presented with right exophthalmos and tinnitus on the right side. Neuroradiological examination showed CSDAVF mainly supplied by multiple feeders from the bilateral ascending pharyngeal artery and meningohypophyseal trunk with a shunted pouch located medial-dorsally to the right CS. Blood from the CSDAVF drained via the anterior component of the CS to the right SOV only. Normal cerebral venous blood from the right superficial middle cerebral vein drained through the dorsolateral component of the right CS into the right IPS. These findings suggest that a septal barrier exists between the outflow tract of the dural arteriovenous fistula and the normal cerebral venous outflow tract within the CS. The CSDAVF was successfully treated by selective TVE through the septum with the trans-IPS approach after detailed evaluation of 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) and MRA/MR venography (MRV) cross-sectional images. The patient’s symptoms improved, and she was discharged uneventfully.
Conclusion: Septation within the CS can completely separate the drainage route of the CSDAVF from the normal cerebral drainage route. Successful catheterization to the shunted pouch through the septum with the IPS approach and selective embolization were possible with detailed evaluation of anatomy on MRA/MRV cross-sectional images and 3DRA images.