Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a severely disabling disease. Endovascular therapy is a powerful and highly effective treatment option for these patients and has recently become standard of care. The benefits of endovascular treatment (EVT) are tremendous both from a patient and from an economic perspective, since it dramatically improves individual patient outcomes while reducing long-term healthcare costs at the same time. The effect of EVT is highly time-dependent. Thus, the overarching goal in AIS is to quickly transport and diagnose the patient to minimize treatment delays. In this review, we provide an overview about the current state of stroke care, propose a fast and simplified imaging protocol and management approach for AIS patients. We also highlight the challenges we are currently facing in endovascular stroke treatment and suggest possible solutions to overcome these.
Objective: We report a patient with basilar artery embolism caused by vertebral artery stenosis who was successfully treated using simultaneous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and mechanical thrombectomy.
Case Presentation: A 64-year-old male, who had undergone medical treatment for cerebellum infarction at another hospital, was referred to our hospital due to disturbance of consciousness. Angiography revealed acute occlusion of the first part of the right vertebral artery and an embolism of the top of basilar artery. After performing PTA to create an approach route for the embolism, we collected it using a clot recovering device. The postoperative course was good, and the patient was discharged with mild ataxia and dysarthria.
Conclusion: We report the successful treatment of progressive cerebral infarction of the posterior circulation with revascularization 30 hours after symptom onset. Unlike the anterior circulation, the posterior circulation consists of smaller arteries and fewer collateral arteries, making it vulnerable to ischemic attack. Therefore, shortening the time until treatment may improve the outcome.
Objective: Iatrogenic artery dissection during reperfusion therapy is one of the complications causing a poor prognosis. We report two cases of emergent stent placement for iatrogenic cervical carotid artery dissection during reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke.
Case Presentation: Two patients, a 77-year-old woman and a 77-year-old man, were diagnosed with acute major cerebral artery occlusion, and underwent reperfusion therapy. The iatrogenic internal carotid artery dissection was caused by derivation of a 6-Fr catheter and 0.014-inch wire in the tortuous cervical internal carotid artery, and emergent stent placement was performed. Recanalization was confirmed and no deterioration caused by the iatrogenic dissection was found.
Conclusion: In patients in whom cerebral infarction is localized on MRI, additional stent placement may be effective for preventing adverse events caused by iatrogenic cervical internal carotid artery dissection during reperfusion therapy for intracranial cerebral artery occlusion related to atherosclerotic change.
Objective: We report a case of anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) in which ocular movement was impaired after Onyx embolization from the ophthalmic artery (OphA).
Case Presentation: A 76-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for treatment of an incidentally found anterior cranial fossa dAVF. Onyx was injected from the right anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) to close the shunt. Onyx refluxed to the third portion of the OphA to make a plug, but was unable to reach the venous side beyond the shunt; therefore, a small shunt remained. Although his visual acuity and field were normal, vertical diplopia developed after embolization and disappeared 1 month later. Diplopia worsened when the patient tilted his head to the right. Neuro-ophthalmological examination confirmed right superior oblique muscle impairment. The cause of diplopia was considered to be ischemic injury of the superior oblique muscle associated with embolization of the AEA, which provides nutrients to the superior oblique muscle and trochlear nerve.
Conclusion: Embolization from the OphA beyond the third portion may cause external ophthalmoplegia, although it may heal spontaneously.
Objective: Graft stent for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is known to be a useful treatment. Here, we report our experiences of treatment with graft stents for CCFs.
Case Presentations: From 2015 through 2018, six patients underwent graft stent placement for CCF occlusion. Clinical and angiographic data were retrospectively reviewed. Access and deployment of a graft stent was successful in all patients and complete occlusion immediately after the procedure or 3-month follow-up angiography.
Conclusion: Graft stents should be considered as an alternative option of treating CCFs and preserving the parent artery by arterial wall reconstruction especially in patients with a fistula that cannot be successfully occluded with detachable balloons or coils.