Objective: Antiplatelet therapy is advised to prevent thrombotic complications during endovascular coil embolization of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Due to multiple antithrombotic treatments, bleeding risk is a concern in patients using oral anticoagulants for existing comorbidities. We investigated the hemorrhagic and ischemic events following endovascular treatment (EVT) of unruptured cerebral aneurysms in patients taking anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy.
Methods: Between March 2013 and February 2019, 262 patients undergoing EVT for unruptured cerebral aneurysms and having at least 6 months of postoperative follow-up data were included in this retrospective study. Patients taking oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs for cerebral vascular events following EVT were compared with those taking only antiplatelet agents.
Results: Of the 262 patients, 12 (4.6%) used anticoagulants before EVT for a preexisting condition. Cerebrovascular events after coil embolization were observed in 3 patients taking both anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs and in 14 patients taking only antiplatelet drugs (25% vs. 5.6%, respectively, p = 0.035). Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) was administered in five patients and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in seven patients. Patients taking VKA experienced cerebrovascular events, whereas those taking DOACs did not (p = 0.045).
Conclusion: Our study showed that patients using oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs experienced more cerebrovascular events after EVT for unruptured cerebral aneurysms. These results suggest that in patients requiring oral anticoagulants, DOACs may be more beneficial than VKA for preventing stroke occurrences after EVT.
Objective: We report a case in which transient cerebral vasospasm after carotid artery stenting (CAS) was effectively treated using arterial and intravenous infusion of fasudil hydrochloride, but cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) developed during subsequent treatment.
Case Presentation: The patient was a 79-year-old man who underwent right CAS to treat symptomatic right carotid artery stenosis. After the procedure, the patient developed left paresis and unilateral spatial neglect. The following day, he developed diffuse cerebral vasospasm in the right middle cerebral artery that improved immediately upon arterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride. Intravenous infusion of fasudil hydrochloride was then started, but CHS with epileptic seizures developed after 1 day of treatment. After 23 days of medical treatment, the condition of the patient improved to mild hemiparesis.
Conclusion: The present case suggests that transient cerebral vasospasm after CAS may turn into CHS during treatment and that continuous monitoring for cerebral perfusion is important.
Objective: A few cases of postsurgical iatrogenic arteriovenous shunts have been reported, with the arterial blood flow directly entering the pial veins. Herein, we reported a patient with a dural artery–pial vein shunt found 1 year after aneurysmal clipping.
Case Presentation: A 64-year-old male presented with generalized convulsion 1 year after cerebral aneurysmal clipping. A CT showed intracerebral hemorrhage in the temporo-occipital cortex and a dural artery–pial vein shunt in proximity to the previous craniotomy center. The arterial blood flow from the deep temporal artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the anterior auricular branch of the superficial temporal artery shunted into the superficial middle cerebral vein, with evident cortical venous reflux. Embolization was performed with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and completely occluded the shunt. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits.
Conclusion: Endovascular liquid embolization may be an effective treatment for iatrogenic dural artery–pial vein shunt.