Objective: Protected code stroke has been widely introduced in the emergency medical system for acute stroke in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to confirm the effects of protected code stroke formulated by the Japan Stroke Society (JSS-PCS) on the quality and outcomes of reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS), followed by evaluating its validity.
Methods: The subjects were 109 consecutive patients with AIS who underwent reperfusion therapy between January 2016 and July 2021, excluding in-hospital onset cases. Patients were classified according to the treatment date into the pre-COVID-19 (n = 82) and the with-COVID-19 (n = 27) groups. JSS-PCS was applied to all patients in the latter group. Statistical comparisons were made between groups on time indicators for initial treatment (onset-to-door time, door-to-imaging time [DTI], door-to-needle time [DTN], door-to-puncture time [DTP], door-to-reperfusion time, and puncture-to-reperfusion time [PTR]). The time indicator transition over the entire period was also evaluated by subgroup analysis. Subsequently, the outcomes at discharge were statistically compared between the two periods, followed by a subgroup comparison. Finally, univariate and multivariate analyses examined whether the application of JSS-PCS affected clinical outcomes.
Results: Slight delays were revealed in DTI, DTN, DTP, and PTR in the with-COVID-19 group with no statistical significance. The time indicators were delayed once entering the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and then shortened again. The outcomes at discharge tended to worsen slightly in the with-COVID-19 group with no significance. Subgroup analysis depicted a transient deterioration of outcomes early in the pandemic. Applying JSS-PCS did not significantly affect clinical outcomes in univariate and multivariate analyses.
Conclusion: Regarding reperfusion therapy at our facility, the introduction and application of JSS-PCS during the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected neither time indicators nor outcomes. Infection control should be a top priority in the first medical practice for AIS in today’s world, where COVID-19 shows no signs of termination.
Objective: To identify factors associated with the outcome and prognosis of coil embolization for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 118 patients with World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade IV or V subarachnoid hemorrhage at our institute between January 2010 and December 2020. Outcomes were assessed using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge and at six months after aSAH onset. In addition, patient background, aneurysm characteristics, and treatment outcome were compared between patients showing favorable (mRS scores: 0–2) and unfavorable (mRS scores: 3–6) outcomes at six months. Factors for change of mRS during follow-up were explored, and cut off values were calculated for age using the receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Results: Endovascular treatment was performed in 51 of the 118 enrolled patients. Data were analyzed for 43 of these patients who underwent coil embolization of ruptured aneurysms and had complete datasets. The mean age was 61.7 years and 24 (55.8%) patients had WFNS grade V aSAH. Coil embolization-related complications were observed in three patients. There were no treatment-related deaths; however, eight patients (18.6%) died at three months. Multivariate analysis showed that the maximum diameter of the aneurysm (p=0.041) and the postoperative dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) (p=0.040) were associated with unfavorable and favorable outcomes, respectively. Older age (p=0.033) was independently associated with mRS score deterioration following discharge. Age 72 years and older was the cut off value for mRS deterioration.
Conclusion: Aneurysm size and postoperative DAPT might be associated with outcomes at 6 months. Moreover, we identified older age as an independent factor that influences mRS deterioration following discharge; thus, especially in cases of elderly patients over 72 years of age, it is highly likely that long-term care to prevent disuse and regular follow-up on imaging will be necessary.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the status of perioperative antiplatelet therapy in stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) in Japan.
Methods: The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions and used Google forms, and was sent to institutions where endovascular specialists were employed. The results were analyzed.
Results: The responses from 307 centers indicated that the timing of initiation of antiplatelet therapy was 14 days–1 month before treatment in half of centers, and 7–14 days before treatment in the other half. Platelet function tests were performed at 165 centers (56.2%), of which 136 centers (46.3%) performed these tests for all patients, with the VerifyNow system being the most widely used tool. The duration of postoperative dual antiplatelet therapy was 6, 3, and 12 months in 169 (57.7%), 70 (23.5%), and 42 (14.3%) centers, respectively. The antiplatelet agents used for monotherapy were P2Y12 receptor antagonists or aspirin, with a postoperative period of up to 12 months in 139 centers (47.3%), 24 months in 68 centers (23.1%), and longer than 24 months in 50 centers (17%).
Conclusion: Current antiplatelet therapy for SAC in Japan varies widely among institutions. Moreover, each center has its own empirical rules for SAC. Therefore, the findings of this survey suggest the need to establish guidelines for optimal periprocedural antiplatelet therapy for SAC.
Objective: We report a case of accidental N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue migration into the vertebral artery (VA) via dangerous anastomosis during transarterial embolization (TAE) for transverse sinus (TS)-dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), which was rescued by mechanical retrieval using a stent retriever and aspiration devices.
Case Presentation: A 49-year-old right-handed female patient was admitted to our hospital with motor aphasia. MRI revealed congestion in the left temporal and occipital lobes, involving a small hemorrhage. DSA revealed a DAVF complicated by a sinus thrombus in the left TS. The DAVF was mostly fed by the left occipital artery (OA) and drained into the cortical veins of the temporal and occipital lobes through the patent part of the sinus. TAE was performed via the left OA with low-concentration NBCA. However, NBCA glue migrated into the left VA through a dangerous anastomosis, and a left VA angiogram revealed severe VA stenosis and floating NBCA glue. There was a fragile attachment of the NBCA glue to the arterial inner wall; therefore, we successfully retrieved the NBCA glue with a stent retriever and aspiration devices without complications. Finally, TAE was performed using another feeder, and the DAVF was completely obliterated.
Conclusion: TAE using NBCA is useful for the treatment of DAVF; however, it should be noted that there is a risk of migration via potential anastomotic routes. Low-concentration NBCA glue can be retrieved using these devices in limited cases.
Objective: Marfan’s syndrome (MFS) is a systemic connective tissue disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance. Cardiovascular complications of MFS such as aortic root or valve disease and aortic aneurysm or dissection are potential cause of access route problems of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Here, we report a case of a patient with MFS who underwent MT for AIS.
Case Presentation: A 58-year-old woman with MFS presented with a sudden onset of consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis, and was referred to our hospital. After the infusion of tissue plasminogen activator, CTA showed a type III arch in the aortic arch and severe tortuosity of the thoracoabdominal aorta; thus, angiography was performed using the transbrachial approach. Left common carotid angiogram showed complete recanalization of the left middle cerebral artery. On the sixth day, the patient presented a sudden consciousness disturbance and left hemiparesis. MRA showed right internal carotid artery occlusion. MT was performed by the transbrachial approach, and complete recanalization was achieved on the first pass.
Conclusion: MT via the transbrachial approach is a treatment option that should be considered, especially in MFS, where the transfemoral approach is difficult due to anatomical problems.