Objective: Evaluation of intracranial stent placement by MRI suffers the problems of signal artifacts during time-of-flight MRA (TOF-MRA). Therefore, angiographic examination is required for detailed intravascular assessment of the stent placement site. Recently, 3D T1-turbo spin echo (3D-TSE) has been developed for evaluation of carotid artery stent placement. We investigated the use of the 3D-TSE imaging method for the evaluation of intracranial vascular stent placement.
Methods: The subjects consisted of nine patients who underwent intracranial vascular stent placement between April 2015 and December 2019. Postoperatively, the lumens of the placed stents were measured by TOF-MRA, DSA, and 3D-TSE imaging. Analysis was performed by type of stent and placement site.
Results: The stents used were Neuroform Atlas (3 patients), LVIS (3 patients), LVIS Jr (2 patients), and Integrity (1 patient). TOF-MRA of the stent placement site showed defects in the image or poor visualization in all nine patients, whereas 3D-TSE imaging visualized the lumen at the stent indwelling site in all patients. The blood vessel diameter measured by the DSA and 3D-TSE imaging exhibited positive correlations regardless of the stent type and placement site.
Conclusion: 3D-TSE imaging allows visualization of the lumen of the site of an intracranial vascular stent, regardless of the type of stent or the vessel. Thus, this method may be useful for evaluating the vascular lumen of a lesion.
Objective: We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of endovascular embolization for femoral iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms (PAs) following therapeutic and diagnostic neuroendovascular procedures.
Methods: This study included 12 patients with femoral PA due to femoral puncture at our department between May 2014 and April 2021. We performed an analysis of baseline characteristics, treatment, and outcome of these cases.
Results: Endovascular embolization was performed in 10 of the 12 PAs using coils and/or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Of these, 10 PAs were treated with endovascular embolization and 9 were successfully occluded, whereas complete occlusion was not achieved in 1 case of PA (success rate: 90%). No new intraoperative or postoperative complications or postoperative recurrences occurred.
Conclusion: Endovascular embolization for PA can be immediately performed under local anesthesia without discontinuation of antithrombotic therapy and may be a safe and effective option for access site complication treatment.
Objective: There are insufficient coherent reports on mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for occlusion of the second segment of the middle cerebral artery (M2 occlusion) in a real-world clinical setting. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of MT for M2 occlusions and compared the primary thrombectomy strategies (stent retriever, aspiration catheter, and combined technique) to analyze factors predicting good functional outcomes.
Methods: We evaluated background factors, preprocedural factors, procedural factors, and procedural time for patients who underwent MT for M2 occlusions from our retrospective cohort. According to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score three months after MT, patients were divided into good (mRS ≤2) and poor (mRS ≥3) prognosis groups.
Results: A total of 29 patients (median age, 78 years; 11 [37.9%] females) were included in the study. In this cohort, rates of successful reperfusion, thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 3, postprocedural hemorrhage (PPH), and symptomatic PPH were 82.8, 34.5, 31.0, and 0%, respectively. Good prognoses were achieved in 13 (45%) cases. A prognostic factor of MT for M2 occlusions is TICI 3 from multivariate analysis (OR, 11.7; 95% CI, 1.003–136; p = 0.0497). There was no statistically significant difference in the functional outcome three months after MT based on the choice of the primary thrombectomy strategy.
Conclusion: MT for M2 occlusions is a reliable and relatively safe procedure. The presence of TICI 3 was a prognostic factor in this cohort. Future studies are warranted to investigate the optimal thrombectomy strategy for medium vessel occlusion.
Objective: To report a case of symptomatic large cerebral aneurysm of the internal carotid artery (ICA), associated with a primitive trigeminal artery variant (PTAv), which was treated with a balloon occlusion test (BOT) to evaluate ischemic tolerance.
Case Presentation: A 79-year-old woman was diagnosed with a symptomatic large cerebral aneurysm of the ICA bifurcating the PTAv due to diplopia. After confirming the ischemic tolerance of the perfusion area and PTAv by BOT, we performed ICA parent artery occlusion with selective embolization of the PTAv. Postoperative MRI showed no ischemic lesion and the diplopia was resolved.
Conclusion: ICA parent artery occlusion with PTAv selective embolization after evaluation by BOT is useful in the treatment of large aneurysms.
Objective: We report a case of dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms treated with multiple low-profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS) stents followed by flow redirection endoluminal device (FRED) flow diverter to prevent the growth of the thrombosed aneurysm.
Case Presentation: A 71-year-old man developed diplopia due to oculomotor nerve palsy after 11 years of follow-up for an enlarging thrombosed dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery aneurysm. He initially had a fusiform thrombosed aneurysm from the right vertebral artery to the basilar artery. This lesion was tortuous and strongly compressed the pons. A total of 11 LVISs were deployed from the right posterior cerebral artery to the right vertebral artery. Six months after surgery, there was no enlargement of the thrombosed aneurysm on MRI and the contrast leakage out of the stent was markedly reduced in DSA compared to immediately after surgery. One year and seven months after surgery, contrast leakage out of the stent was increased in DSA. The FRED was placed within the overlapped LVISs, and contrast leakage was somewhat reduced. After 2 years and 7 months from the initial treatment, the contrast leakage was still observed. However, there was no enlargement of the aneurysm and no complications related to treatments were observed.
Conclusion: Treatment with multiple LVIS stents followed by FRED flow diverter treatment for dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms (DVAs) may be one of the treatment options for controlling the growth of thrombotic aneurysms without complications, but the long-term prognosis of this case is unclear, and careful follow-up is mandatory.
Objective: Plaque protrusion (PP) during carotid artery stenting (CAS) is considered to be associated with periprocedural ischemic stroke. A new double-layer micromesh stent, the CASPER stent (CS), was approved for use in Japan in 2020. The expectation is that this micromesh stent system will reduce the risk of PP, but we report a case of PP during CAS despite the use of a CS.
Case Presentation: An 87-year-old man presented with left hemiparesis. MRI showed right brain infarction and angiography showed right internal carotid artery stenosis with thrombus. Follow-up angiography after medical treatment showed that thrombus disappeared. We therefore performed CAS for right internal carotid artery stenosis with unstable plaque. CAS was performed under local anesthesia with Mo.Ma Ultra and FilterWire EZ protection using a CS placed to sufficiently cover the stenotic region. Conservative post-dilatation was then performed. Intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) after post-dilatation showed the presence of PP. A second CS was then added using the stent-in-stent technique. No postoperative neurological abnormalities were found and the patient was discharged without postoperative complications. No stroke or restenosis has been observed as of 16 months after CAS.
Conclusion: PP can occur even when CAS is performed using the CS for carotid artery stenosis with unstable plaque. The importance of checking for PP using IVUS is suggested.