The issues of “disruption” and “continuation” before and after World War II have long permeated the history of social welfare. For instance, the role of a social work administrator is an overlooked topic although it is presumed to have simply “continued” from the pre-war era to the post-war era. The archives of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare describe social work administrators as pioneers of their time but do not elaborate further. Therefore, this discussion attempts to reveal the outline of the Edict on the Social Work Staff System of Local Government, which provided a legal basis for their work, as well as the attributes of several persons employed as social work administrators at the time. Moreover, the education system of social work trainees is examined. The results indicate that social work administrators, regarded as specialists in their field prior to the war, experienced a “disruption” in their profession in 1944. However, the influence exerted by the aforementioned training system on post-war social welfare professional education, as well as the roles fulfilled by individuals employed as social work administrators in the post-war social welfare system, represent a “continuation” that cannot be overlooked. These will be future topics of research.
We conducted an interview survey of children’s care home leavers who had entered university and investigated the forms of support that facilitates university entry. The analysis revealed that the courses that children undertook before university enrollment can be classified into three types:“self-control,” “others-control,” and “constant.” Moreover, it was observed that there were two support services necessary for university enrollment:the informative support service, wherein children are provided with information and explanation regarding their career and presented with a broad range of career options to help them envision their career, and the instructive support service, wherein children are taught concrete knowledge and methods to realize their envisaged career. Even when children’s circumstances or their backgrounds prevented them from forming a goal or career image, these support services created a momentum for considering their desired career by affecting the process by which they made career decisions. Additionally, the presence of supporters was found to greatly affect their career decision when these supporters exemplified their ideal future career identity.
This research explores the framework of care ideology among people with serious physical and speech impairments, which has not previously been elucidated. To achieve this, the study will examine the care ideology and practices of the President of the Hyogo Aoi-Shiba-no-Kai, Takashi Sawada.The first section of this research will focus on the arguments of Kouichi Yokozuka, who played a central role in the development of Aoi-Shiba-no-Kai. In the same section, we will also consider Aoi-Shiba-no-Kai’s position on issues such as “Denial of Able-Bodied Civilization” and “the thesis that care workers must function as the hands and feet of disabled persons.” In the second section, this paper explores the ways in which Sawada’s practice was influenced by Yokozuka’s ideas. The third section will clarify the limitations and challenges in practicing the care ideology promoted by Aoi-Shiba-no-Kai, especially those encountered by Sawada, who had severe speech disabilities himself. As the caregivers’ interpretations were formed by the attributes of the president of the Hyogo-Aoi-Shiba-no-Kai, the problem that arose between them was sharpened. As the conclusion of this research, the fourth section will consider care ideology in “people with serious physical and speech impairments” based on Sawada’s care ideology and practice.
The objective of the present study was to determine the structure for community-living assistance and decision-making support provided for individuals with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. This study primarily used interviews. The participants were two individuals with severe motor and intellectual disabilities living in a community away from their parents, and supporters of the two individuals. The study findings revealed that support comprised multiple inter-related categories. The supporters were required to assist with decision-making in daily life and respond to challenges specific to community living. The role of a key person was essential for providing such assistance and daily life took place under the leadership of the key person. Continuation of such support gave rise to a common intention among the supporters to create a life centered on the person with disabilities in collaboration with the supporters. By elucidating the support structure, we recognized the need to discuss decision-making support that does not cut off living assistance and that ensuring a flexible support system and accumulation of social experiences by the person with disabilities is required for decision-making support grounded in daily living.
This study examined care workers’ process of becoming irritated by users of long-term care and welfare facilities for older people by adopting the modified Grounded Theory Approach to prevent inappropriate care and promote appropriate practices. Analysis revealed that care workers came to work with poor mental and physical conditions and reduced motivation as factors that increased irritability. While performing their duties under such conditions, in addition to irritation caused by care provided by other workers and consequent burdens as a factor that worsens irritation, their impatience with work and irritation with users intensified. Care workers’ irritation with users finally led to irritation with themselves, resulting in a vicious circle due to the various causes cited. To address this situation, all facility workers, facilities, and administrative bodies should fulfill their roles and adopt comprehensive approaches to prevent inappropriate care, rather than simply blame care workers for it.
This study examines the difficulties faced by rehabilitation coordinators in a probation office setting and organizes the actual work processes in a systematic manner. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven rehabilitation coordinators through individual interviews. Subsequently, the data were analyzed verbatim using a modified grounded-theory approach. From the analysis result, 14 difficult concepts were established, and from the relationships identified between them, the concepts were collected into five categories:stresses on social work practice in the criminal justice system, stresses on the treatment environment, stresses caused by client behavior, stresses that are difficult to coordinate in terms of regional support, and stresses caused by support deadlock. In this research, predictions were made about the difficulties that could be faced in social work in terms of the existing legislation.