Endosaccular coiling is recognized as a feasible method for treating unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). We retrospectively reviewed cases of UIAs treated by coiling in the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 3, a nationwide survey of NET between 2010 and 2014, the beginning period of intracranial stents in Japan. Data were extracted for 6844 UIAs (6619 procedures) from 40,169 registered records of all NETs in the JR-NET 3 databases. The features of the aneurysms and procedures, immediate radiographic findings, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes at 30 days after the procedures were assessed. Of 6844 UIAs, 81.8% were located in the anterior circulation. The mean patient age was 61.3 years (72.4% females). Compared with the preceding JR-NET 1 and 2, there were significant increases (P <0.05) in the rates of the following in JR-NET 3: wide-necked and small UIAs measuring <10 mm (from 56.4% to 58.8%), adjunctive techniques (54.8% to 71.8%), and stent usage (1.1% to 22.1%). Both pre- (85.6% to 96.7%) and post-procedural (84.0% to 94.6%) antiplatelet therapy were more frequently administered in JR-NET 3. Although procedure-related complication rates did not differ between the two groups, ischemic complication rates increased from 4.6% to 5.9%, leading to an increase in the 30-day morbidity (modified Rankin Scale >2) from 2.1% to 2.8%. In conclusion, introduction of neck-bridge stent was associated with an increase in cases of wide-necked aneurysms. However, the ischemic complication rate increased despite the greater use of periprocedural antiplatelet therapy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the carotid artery stenting (CAS) procedure on cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive performance in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis. In this prospective observational study, 16 consecutive patients in a single institute were treated with CAS from 2010 to 2011 (71.7 ± 7.3 years old, 12 males, and six left-sided procedures). Before and after the CAS procedure, all patients were evaluated with single photon emission computed tomography using 123I-iodoamphetamine and acetazolamide as well as the Weschler Adult Intelligent Scale (WAIS) to assess three intelligent quotients and four indexes. Patients with decreased preprocedural cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) experienced significant increases in CBF and CVR (P = 0.01 and 0.03). Twelve (75%) patients experienced a significant increase in one or more WAIS scores, while two (13%) showed a significant decrease. The most frequently improved scores were the Working Memory Index and Processing Speed Index (seven patients/44%). Preprocedural CBF was significantly correlated with the Full-scale and Performance Intelligent Quotients (r = 0.51–0.56, P = 0.02–0.04), and patients who experienced a significant increase in these scores had larger increases in CVR than patients with unchanged scores (P = 0.0097–0.019). These results indicate that the CAS procedure improved impaired cerebral hemodynamics and might benefit the cognitive function of patients with internal carotid artery stenosis related to impaired cerebral hemodynamics.
We conducted a feasibility study to investigate the therapeutic effect of bevacizumab on vestibular schwannomas (VS) associated with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) in a sample of Japanese patients. Ten NF2 patients were selected between 2013 and 2018: nine women and one man, with ages ranging from 12 to 45 years (mean: 29.4). Bevacizumab was administered intravenously in 5 mg/kg doses four times, with an inter-dose interval of 2 weeks. Seventeen tumors were followed for 3–72 months (mean: 39). A reduction from baseline tumor volume of at least 20% was considered a therapeutic radiologic response. Maximum reduction in tumor volume was identified in the 3rd month in 11 tumors, and in the 6th month in three tumors. Three tumors did not show any response to bevacizumab. A radiologic response was detected in seven tumors (41%). There was a significantly lower tumor volume mean in the 3rd month in comparison to the baseline for the entire sample. Tumors in patients aged 25 and above showed a significant reduction in volume in the 3rd month and significantly lower tumor-volume-to-baseline ratio than younger patients in both the 3rd and 6th months. The interaction between ‘time’ and ‘age group’ factors significantly affected the therapeutic outcome of bevacizumab on tumor volume. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of bevacizumab on NF2-associated vestibular schwannomas in Japanese patients. Bevacizumab appears to be a useful therapeutic choice in NF2 cases to control the growth of VS. Therefore, a randomised control trial to prove this assumption is necessary.
We analyzed the cell characteristics, neuroprotective, and transplantation effects of human cranial bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hcMSCs) in ischemic stroke model rats compared with human iliac bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiMSCs). The expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF ) as neurotrophic factors were analyzed in both MSCs. hiMSCs or hcMSCs were intravenously administered into ischemic stroke model rats at 3 or 24 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and neurological function was evaluated. The survival rate of neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cells (NG108-15) after 3 or 24 h oxidative or inflammatory stress and the neuroprotective effects of hiMSCs or hcMSCs-conditioned medium (CM) on 3 or 24 h oxidative or inflammatory stress-exposed NG108-15 cells were analyzed. The expressions of BDNF and VEGF were higher in hcMSCs than in hiMSCs. hcMSCs transplantation at 3 h after MCAO resulted in significant functional recovery compared with that in the hiMSCs or control group. The survival rate of stress-exposed NG108-15 was lower after 24 h stress than after 3 h stress. The survival rates of NG108-15 cells cultured with hcMSCs-CM after 3 h oxidative or inflammatory stress were significantly higher than in the control group. Our results suggest that hcMSCs transplantation in the early stage of ischemic stroke suppresses the damage of residual nerve cells and leads to functional recovery through the strong expressions of neurotrophic factors. This is the first report demonstrating a functional recovery effect after ischemic stroke following hcMSCs transplantation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cerebral hyperperfusion phenomenon (CHP) and carotid artery flow volume as measured by a transit time flowmeter during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). We retrospectively investigated 74 patients who underwent both transit time flowmetry and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The flow volumes of the internal carotid artery (ICA) before and after the endarterectomy were recorded during surgery as the pre- and the post-ICA (mL/min), respectively. We defined the difference between the pre- and the post-ICA as the ΔIC (mL/min). Two independent board-certified neurosurgeons analyzed the asymmetry index (affected side/contralateral side) of regional qualitative cerebral blood flow before and after the CEA respectively. We defined the CHP as an excessive increase in this asymmetry index between preoperative and postoperative SPECT. The CHP was observed in five of the 74 patients (6.8%). The pre-ICA of the CHP cases was significantly lower than that of the non-CHP cases (in mL/min, median 29 vs. 97; P = 0.01). The ΔIC of the CHP cases was significantly higher than that of the non-CHP cases (in mL/min, median 154 vs. 50; P = 0.002). The cut-off value of the ΔIC was 81 mL/min (sensitivity 100%, specificity 78.3%, area under the curve 0.912). The findings of this study suggest that the ΔIC is associated with the CHP. The transit time flowmeter is useful to predict the CHP during surgery.
The present study examined the kinematics and biomechanical parameters of the head of a person thrown forward by the judo technique ‘Seoi-nage’. A judo expert threw an anthropomorphic test device (the POLAR dummy) five times. Kinematics data were obtained with a high-speed digital video camera. Linear and angular accelerations of the head were measured by accelerometers mounted at the center of gravity of the dummy’s head. When Seoi-nage was performed, the dummy fell forward accompanied by contacting the anterior parietal regions of the head to the tatami, and the linear and angular accelerations of most axes reached peak values when the head contacted the tatami. Peak resultant linear and angular accelerations were 20.3 ± 9.8 G and 1890.1 ± 1151.9 rad/s2, respectively (means ± standard deviation). Peak values in linear and angular acceleration did not significantly differ between the three directional axes. Absolute angular accelerations in all axes observed in Seoi-nage were high and the resultant value was approximately equal to the already reported in Ouchi-gari, one of the predominant techniques causing judo-related acute subdural hematoma. However, the remarkable increase of linear acceleration in the longitudinal direction and/or angular acceleration in the sagittal plane, as previously reported in techniques being thrown backward (i.e., Ouchi-gari and Osoto-gari), was not detected. The likely mechanism of acute subdural hematoma caused by Seoi-nage is that a large angular acceleration causes large strains and deformations of the brain surface and subsequent rupture of cortical vessels.