Omnibus operators in Japan especially in rural areas keep their services mainly by public subsidies. Recently, The Government of Japan has taken the policy to impose stronger incentive for these subsidized operators’ balance improvement to decrease the deficit and to cut public spending. The paper has evaluated the policy by analyzing the past 10 years’ data of certain scaled operators from 2007 to 2016. The analysis has showed that omnibus businesses have been strongly affected by regional factors. Thus, the incentive policy cannot create enough change of operators’ motivation or ability to improve their revenue. They may be expected just to decrease their omnibus services in rural areas. Therefore, the policy may not have the incentive to improve Japan’s omnibus service quality, just have the risk to deteriorate the sustainability in rural areas.
After 2000s’ changes of subsidy systems of buses with the deregulation, the national government invests public funds about main lines and local governments do about other lines. And the national financially helps local governments by intergovernmental subsidy (Tokubetsu-kofuzei). However, this fiscal measure has problems. It is fixed rate specific subsidy, so it does not guarantee the transport needed for living in regions. It should be converted to a flat rate specific subsidy. Furthermore, local governments cannot organize budget considering it, because of the rules of Tokubetsu-kofuzei.
This study examined efforts by local administrative bodies (Aufgabenträger) to secure short-distance bus services in Germany. It outlined the regulations based on various laws that differ according to the type of operation. With a questionnaire survey conducted on local administrative bodies, it has clarified that there are discrepancies between the European Union and local administrative bodies in terms of the approach to procurement of local bus services. It also pointed out that they have been established support systems by the federal law to ensure that local administrative bodies are autonomous in their approach to securing local bus services.
In recent years, the use rate of Maritime Single Window (MSW) system for port related administrative procedures in Japan hit a plateau. In order to consider the measure to improve the use rate, we conduct a questionnaire survey to shipping agencies, who apply the procedures, to acquire and analyze factors of non-electronic application (manual application or paper-based application). Considering the result of the survey and analysis, we suggest that firstly the functionalities and the operational rules of Japan’s MSW must be improved. Secondly, incentive measures such as reduction of port charge and charging for manual application should be introduced.
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry is planning to promote “Logistics MaaS” with reference to MaaS (Mobility as a Service) introduced in the field of passenger transport, and EU truck data standardization named FMS (Fleet Management System). Reviewing the original concept and practice of MaaS and EU FMS, we conclude that standardization of truck data, match making between logistics need and supply, and expansion of the FMS service market play an important role to promote Logistics MaaS. Furthermore the standardization of truck data involving concerned stakeholders is expected to produce social benefits as well.