IEICE Transactions on Electronics
Online ISSN : 1745-1353
Print ISSN : 0916-8524
Volume E100.C , Issue 2
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Recent Progress in Organic Molecular Electronics
Special Section on Fabrication Technologies Supporting the Photonic/Nanostructure Devices
  • Susumu Noda
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 149
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (75K)
  • Ryuichiro KAMIMURA, Kanji FURUTA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 150-155
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Dry etching is one of the elemental technologies for the fabrication of optical devices. In order to obtain the desired shape using the dry etching process, it is necessary to understand the reactivity of the materials being used to plasma. In particular, III-V compound semiconductors have a multi-layered structure comprising a plurality of elements and thus it is important to first have a full understanding of the basic trends of plasma dry etching, the plasma type and the characteristics of etching plasma sources. In this paper, III-V compound semiconductor etching for use in light sources such as LDs and LEDs, will be described. Glass, LN and LT used in the formation of waveguides and MLA will be introduced as well. And finally, the future prospects of dry etching will be described briefly.

    Download PDF (3636K)
  • Eiji HIGURASHI, Ken OKUMURA, Yutaka KUNIMUNE, Tadatomo SUGA, Kei HAGIW ...
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 156-160
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Wafers with smooth Au thin films (rms surface roughness: < 0.5nm, thickness: < 50nm) were successfully bonded in ambient air at room temperature after an Ar radio frequency plasma activation process. The room temperature bonded glass wafers without any heat treatment showed a sufficiently high die-shear strength of 47-70MPa. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed that direct bonding on the atomic scale was achieved. This surface-activated bonding method is expected to be a useful technique for future heterogeneous photonic integration.

    Download PDF (1045K)
  • Jitsuo OHTA, Jeong Woo SHON, Kohei UENO, Atsushi KOBAYASHI, Hiroshi FU ...
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 161-165
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Crystalline GaN films can be grown even on amorphous substrates with the use of graphene buffer layers by pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD). The graphene buffer layers allowed us to grow highly c-axis-oriented GaN films at low substrate temperatures. Full-color GaN-based LEDs can be fabricated on the GaN/graphene structures and they are operated successfully. This indicates that the present technique is promising for future large-area light-emitting displays on amorphous substrates.

    Download PDF (1277K)
  • Tatsuro ENDO, Hiroshi KAJITA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 166-170
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    For the future medical diagnostics, high-sensitive, rapid, and cost effective biosensors to detect the biomarkers have been desired. In this study, the polymer-based two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PC) was fabricated using nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for biosensing application. In addition, for biosensing application, label-free detection of fibrinogen which is a biomarker to diagnose the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be achieved using antigen-antibody reaction high-sensitively (detection limit: pg/ml order) and rapidly. Using this polymer-based 2D-PC, optical biosensor can be developed cost effectively. Furthermore, by using polymer as a base material for fabrication of 2D-PC, label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction can be performed in visible region.

    Download PDF (531K)
  • Takahiro KITADA, Hiroto OTA, Xiangmeng LU, Naoto KUMAGAI, Toshiro ISU
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 171-178
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Compact and room-temperature operable terahertz emitting devices have been proposed using a semiconductor coupled multilayer cavity that consists of two functional cavity layers and three distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) multilayers. Two cavity modes with an optical frequency difference in the terahertz region are realized since two cavities are coupled by the intermediate DBR multilayer. In the proposed device, one cavity is used as the active layer for two-color lasing in the near-infrared region by current injection and the other is used as the second-order nonlinear optical medium for difference-frequency generation of the two-color fundamental laser light. The control of the nonlinear polarization by face-to-face bonding of two epitaxial wafers with different orientations is quite effective to achieve bright terahertz emission from the coupled cavity. In this study, two-color emission by optical excitation was measured for the wafer-bonded GaAs/AlGaAs coupled multilayer cavity containing self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs). We found that optical loss at the bonding interface strongly affects the two-color emission characteristics when the bonding was performed in the middle of the intermediate DBR multilayer. The effect was almost eliminated when the bonding position was carefully chosen by considering electric field distributions of the two modes. We also fabricated the current-injection type devices using the wafer-bonded coupled multilayer cavities. An assemble of self-assembled QDs is considered to be desirable as the optical gain medium because of the discrete nature of the electronic states and the relatively wide gain spectrum due to the inhomogeneous size distribution. The gain was, however, insufficient for two-color lasing even when the nine QD layers were used. Substituting two types of InGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) for the QDs, we were able to demonstrate two-color lasing of the device when the gain peaks of MQWs were tuned to the cavity modes by lowering the operating temperature.

    Download PDF (2377K)
  • Hideki YAGI, Yoshihiro YONEDA, Mitsuru EKAWA, Hajime SHOJI
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 179-186
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper reports dual-polarization In-phase and Quadrature (DP-IQ) modulators and photodetectors integrated with the 90° hybrid using InP-based monolithic integration technologies for 100/200Gb/s coherent transmission. The DP-IQ modulator was monolithically integrated with the Mach-Zehnder modulator array consisting of deep-ridge waveguides formed through dry etching and benzocyclobutene planarization processes. This DP-IQ modulator exhibited the low half-wavelength voltage (Vπ=1.5V) and the wide 3-dB bandwidth (f3dB > 28GHz). The photodetector monolithically integrated with the 90° hybrid consisting of multimode interference structures was realized by the butt-joint regrowth. A responsivity including total loss of 7.9dB in the waveguide was as high as 0.155A/W at a wavelength of 1550nm, and responsivity imbalance of the In-phase and Quadrature channels was less than ±0.5dB over the C-band. In addition, the low dark current (less than 500pA up to 85°C @ -3.0V) and the stable operation in the accelerated aging test (test condition: -5V at 175°C) over 5,000h were successfully achieved for the p-i-n-photodiode array with a buried heterostructure formed through the selective embedding regrowth. Finally, a receiver responsivity including intrinsic loss of 3dB in the polarization beam splitter was higher than 0.070A/W at a wavelength of 1550nm through the integration of the spot-size converter, and demodulation of 128Gb/s DP-QPSK and 224Gb/s DP-16QAM modulated signals was demonstrated for the compact coherent receiver using this photodetector integrated with the 90° hybrid. Therefore, we indicated that these InP-based monolithically integrated photonic devices are very useful for 100/200Gb/s pluggable coherent transceivers.

    Download PDF (2331K)
  • Keita MOCHIZUKI, Tadashi MURAO, Mizuki SHIRAO, Yoshiyuki KAMO, Nobuyuk ...
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 187-195
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We have succeeded in developing three techniques, a precise lens-alignment technique, low-loss built-in Spatial Multiplexing optics and a well-matched electrical connection for high-frequency signals, which are indispensable for realizing compact high-performance TOSAs and ROSAs employing hybrid integration technology. The lens position was controlled to within ±0.3 µm by high-power laser irradiation. All components comprising the multiplexing optics are bonded to a prism, enabling the insertion loss to be held down to 0.8 dB due to the dimensional accuracy of the prism. The addition of an FPC layer reduced the impedance mismatch at the junction between the FPC and PCB. We demonstrated a compact integrated four-lane 25 Gb/s TOSA (15.1 mm × 6.5 mm × 5.6 mm) and ROSA (17.0 mm × 12.0 mm × 7.0 mm) using the built-in spatial Mux/Demux optics with good transmission performance for 100 Gb/s Ethernet. These are respectively suitable for the QSFP28 and CFP2 form factors.

    Download PDF (3743K)
  • Takuro FUJII, Koji TAKEDA, Erina KANNO, Koichi HASEBE, Hidetaka NISHI, ...
    Type: PAPER
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 196-203
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    We have developed membrane distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers on thermally oxidized Si substrate (SiO2/Si substrate) to evaluate the parameters of the on-Si lasers we have been developing. The lasers have InGaAsP-based multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on InP substrate. We used direct bonding to transfer this active epitaxial layer to SiO2/Si substrate, followed by epitaxial growth of InP to fabricate a buried-heterostructure (BH) on Si. The lateral p-i-n structure was formed by thermal diffusion of Zn and ion implantation of Si. For the purpose of evaluating laser parameters such as internal quantum efficiency and internal loss, we fabricated long-cavity lasers that have 200- to 600-µm-long active regions. The fabricated DBR lasers exhibit threshold currents of 1.7, 2.1, 2.8, and 3.7mA for active-region lengths of 200, 300, 400, and 600µm, respectively. The differential quantum efficiency also depends on active-region length. In addition, the laser characteristics depend on the distance between active region and p-doped region. We evaluated the internal loss to be 10.2cm-1 and internal quantum efficiency to be 32.4% with appropriate doping profile.

    Download PDF (1983K)
Regular Section
  • Zhi-Ming LIN, Po-Yu KUO, Zhong-Cheng SU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Microwaves, Millimeter-Waves
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 204-210
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    The mixer is a crucial circuit block in a WiMax system receiver. The performance of a mixer depends on three specifications: conversion gain, linearity and noise figure. Many mixers have been recently proposed for UWB and wideband systems; however, they either cannot achieve the high conversion gain required for a WiMAX system or they are prone to high power consumption. In this paper, a folded mixer with a high conversion gain is designed for a 2-11GHz WiMAX system and it can achieve a 20MHz IF output signal. From the simulation results, the proposed folded mixer achieves a conversion gain of 18.9 to 21.5dB for the full bandwidth. With a 0.2 to 4.4dBm IIP3, the NF is 13.5 to 17.6dB. The folded mixer is designed using TSMC 0.18µm CMOS technology. The core power consumption of the mixer is 11.8mW.

    Download PDF (1657K)
  • Terutaka TAMAI, Masahiro YAMAKAWA, Ichiro TAKANO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Electromechanical Devices and Components
    2017 Volume E100.C Issue 2 Pages 211-220
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Contact lubricants have been used in electric contacts such as connectors. Contact failures for down size of connector contacts with low contact force and cost down of gold plated are a serious problem to be solved. One solution is the application of lubricants to the contacts. Particularly these contacts are exposed to elevated temperature under reflow treatment in assembling processes. It is an important subject should be clarified that the deterioration phenomenon of increases in contact resistance properties under the reflow. This degradation should be induced by two causes. Namely, one is a surface contamination due to oxidation of diffused small amount of additives through gold plated layer. The other is decomposition of the coated lubricants. In this study, first of all, degradation of contact resistance properties were measured, and change of images of STM for exposure time of high temperature were observed. To clarify more in detail this degradation of the contact resistance, for both clean gold plated surface and heated clean surface were examined by using XPS and AES analysis. As results, contact resistance properties of clean surface were found to degrade for exposure at the elevated temperature. This degradation was found due to oxidation of base metal nickel and cobalt additive to gold plated surface. However, influence of the contact lubrication on the degradation of contact resistance was not recognized. The change of composition of an olefin lubricant was discussed by using STM images. Moreover, growth of oxide film on the clean surface was found as cubic law by using an ellipsometry.

    Download PDF (2449K)
feedback
Top