This study was conducted for the purpose of evaluating the relationship between aortic disease (area and atherosclerosis) and age, sex, and arterial disease in the aged. One hundred and twenty-eight consecutively necropsied aortas of the cases aged 50 to 93 years were determined by cutting open each standard segment of the aorta longitudinally, after formalin fixation, pinning it flat, measuring its internal circumference and length, and tracing its outline of the aortic area, radiopaque calcified lesions and raised atherosclerotic lesions for measurement with planimetry and point-counting method. Following results were obtained in both sexes. 1) The area of the standard aortic segment increased in size progressively with aging. Both the length and circumference of the aorta were also shown to increase, especially in the circumference of the thoracic aorta and in the cases after the age of 70. 2) The area of the aortic calcified lesions showed close correlations with each of advancing age, increasing aortic area affected and % aortic area affected by raised atherosclerotic lesions. The area of the aortic calcification increased significantly in the cases after the age of 70 with large individual variability in seveirty. 3) Both aortic area affected and % area affected by raised atherosclerotic lesions showed positive correlations with each of aging and the area of the standard aortic segment, especially a better correlation with the latter. The extent of raised aherosclerotic lesions of the aorta increased significantly in the cases after the age of 70 with large individual variability in severity. 4) There were no obvious correlations between heart weight and area of the standard aortic segment, and aortic raised atherosclerotic lesions. 5) Both mean area and mean % area of raised atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta were remarkably greater in the cases of the group of non-inflammatory arterial disease than in cases with non-arterial disease. However, a noticeable individual variability was demonstratedin both groups and sexes. The mean aortic area, which was proportional to the advancing age, showed no significant difference in these two groups. 6) The mean areas of both aortic calcification and raised atherosclerotic lesions ran parallel to the severity of postmortem radiopaque coronary calcified lesions in both sexes, but marked individual variability was noted in severity. The mean age proportional to the mean area of standard aortic segment was found to run parallel to the severity of coronary and aortic arteriosclerosis in men but not in women.
In this paper, a quantitative analysis was made of the relationship between renal small arterial and arteriolar changes with regard to aging and arterial disease particular to the condition of arteriosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis, in a total of 66 unselectively necropsied kidneys of the cases aged 50 to 93 years, examined by postmortem stereoangiographic technique and parallel histologic examination of the speciments to check the condition of filling of the injection specimens, and to estimate stenosis indexes that account for thickening of small arteries and arterioles with narrowing of their lumina. For purposes of comparison all the vessels were classified into group A (2r<50μ), group B (50μ≤2r <100μ) and group C (100μ≤2r<200μ) from their size (2r). Following results were obtained. 1) Mean stenosis indexes in the groups A, B and C showed significant correlations with each other. 2) Mean stenosis indexes in the groups A, B and C on a decade age basis showed an increase with advancing age and were the greatest at the 8th decade. 3) Mean stenosis indexes in the groups A, B and C were greater in the patients with arterial disease than patients with non-arterial disease. 4) Mean stenosis indexes in the groups A, B and C were greater in subjects with systolic blood pressure above 180mm. Hg than those with systolic blood pressure below 180mm. Hg. No obvious relationship was found between mean stenosis indexes and levels of diastolic blood pressure. 5) Mean stenosis indexes in the groups B and C appeared proportionately greater to the thinning of cortical thickness. 6) Mean stenosis indexes in the groups A, B and C showed significant correlations with the circumference of the thoracic aorta and % aortic area affected by raised atherosclerotic lesions. 7) The findings of postmortem renal fine stereoangiography were classified into two groups: the control group showed minimal changes in irregularity of calibre and arrangement of renal arterial architecture and distorted group showed moderate to severe degree of distortion of the vessels. Comparison of these two groups revealed statistically significantly higher mean age, lower average renal longitudinal diameter, weight and cortical thickness, and greater mean stenosis indexes in the distorted group than in the control group.
The axillay temperature of the aged, over 65 years old, were measured between 1 and 4 p.m. The time used for measurement was 30min. Blood pressure, body weight and body height were also measured simultaneously. The data from 2470 people (875 male and 1595 female), which were capable to live normal for himself, were used for further statistical analyses. The comparison with the data about the axillary temperature of adult Japanese people, reported by Tasaka et al were also performed. 1) The distribution of the axillary temperature of the aged is close to the normal distribution. Its mean value is 36.66°C and its standard deviation is 0.42°C. The mean value of the axillary temperature of the aged is 0.23°C lower than that of the adult people (36.89°C). The fact that the standard deviation of the axillary temperature of the aged is greater than that of the adult people (0.34°C), indicating the greater personal difference of the axillary temperature of the aged than that of the adult people. 2) The mean value and the standard deviation of the axillary temperature of the male aged was 36.55°C and 0.41°C, and these of female aged was 36.72°C and 0.42°C. The mean value of the axillary temperature of the male aged was 0.17°C lower than that of female aged. This relationship is reverse to the result of the adult people, because the mean value of the axillary temperature of the male (36.92°C) is higher than that of the female (36.85°C) in the adult people. 3) The correlation between the axillary temperature and the blood pressure was not significant. But the inverse correlation between the axillary temperature and the body weight, the body height and the weight-height ratio was significant; that is, the axillary temperature of the thicker aged was lower than that of the thinner aged.