Aim: To investigate the current status of elderly dementia patients with physical illnesses and identify optimal care strategies for this growing population. Methods: This retrospective study included elderly dementia patients who (i) received in-patient treatment for a physical comorbidity at the dementia ward of the Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, and (ii) who were discharged from April 2009 to March 2011. Results: The study population was 390 patients (144 males, 246 females), with a mean [±SD] age of 80.5 [±8.1] years. Two hundred thirteen of the patients had Alzheimer's disease; the remaining 177 had other types of dementia. The comorbidities necessitating admission were: malignant neoplasms (n=65), respiratory conditions (n=57), genitourinary conditions (n=50), trauma or fracture (n=41), and other (n=177). Among the 239 subjects who were hospitalized from their homes and who were discharged alive, 157 (65.7%) returned to their homes. The hospital stays of patients who were discharged were significantly shorter (P<0.000) and their N-ADL scores were significantly better at admission (P<0.013) and at discharge (P<0.000). The proportion of subjects who were capable of oral ingestion was significantly higher among the patients who were discharged to their homes (P<0.025). The subjects who lived in their homes alone at the time of hospitalization were significantly less likely to be discharged to their homes (P<0.018). Conclusions: Elderly dementia patients should ideally return home after hospitalization for comorbid illnesses. This was facilitated by minimizing their hospital stay. During in-patient treatment, efforts should be made to maintain their N-ADL levels and support their oral intake.
Aim: A low physical activity leads to obesity and a decline in the physical function. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether the association between a low physical activity and low physical function was mediated by obesity. Methods: A total of 73 community-dwelling elderly people participated in this study. The analysis included 56 participants without knee and hip osteoarthritis, low cognitive function (the Mini Mental State Examination score <24) and rheumatoid arthritis (mean age±SD: 73.3±4.1, female: 50%). The daily step count was collected as a measure of physical activity by a single axial accelerometer. The physical function was measured by the gait speed. Obesity was measured by the body mass index and waist circumference. To assess whether the association between the physical activity and physical function was mediated by obesity, linear regression models were fitted according to Baron and Kenny procedures for a mediation analysis. A p value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The body mass index did not act as a mediator in the association between the physical activity and gait speed, whereas the waist circumference acted as a full mediator in the association between the physical activity and gait speed. Conclusion: An increased waist circumference mediates the association between a low physical activity and a low physical function in community-dwelling elderly people.
In 2010, the World Health Organization classified gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) into three types: NET grade (G) 1, NET G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). NECs are associated with a very poor prognosis. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was initially diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscope with type 3 advanced gastric cancer with stenosis of the gastric cardia. Her overall status and performance status did not allow for operations or intensive chemotherapy. Palliative radiotherapy was performed and resulted in a significant reduction in the size of the tumor as well as the improvement of the obstructive symptoms. She died 9 months after radiotherapy. An autopsy provided a definitive diagnosis of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was pathologically-confirmed. Palliative radiotherapy may be a useful treatment option for providing symptom relief, especially for old patients with unresectable advanced gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma.