Patients with multi-infarct dementia often have periventricular low density lesions on computed tomography and periventricular hyper-intensity lesions on computed tomography and periventricular hyper-intensity lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. Hachinski called this condition leukoaraiosis and results of previous studies that in multi-infarct dementia leukoaraiosis correlates with cerebral hypoperfusion. Periventricular low-density lesions in the white matter also occur, but their origin and clinical significance insuch patients is unknown. We studied when these lesions develop in patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and whether their presence correlates with clinical findings and cerebral blood flow. The subjects were 37 patients with a probable diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia, as based on the Neuroepidermilogy Branch of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's disease and Related Disorders Association system. Autopsy findings were also available for 2 patients. Patients at higher Functional Assessment Staging of Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type stages had more extensive periventricular low-density lesions. Patients with the lesions were more likely to have grasp reflex and sucking relex. Blood flow to the frontal and parietal cortices was significantly less in patients with the lesions than in those without the lesions. Neither of the 2 autopsies cases yielded evidence of arteriolosclerosis. Periventricular low-density lesions in Alzheimer's dementia may be closely associated with a degenerative process different from that seen in multi-infarct dementia.
We studied age-related changes in the concentrations in serum of ferritin, glycosylated ferritin, and non-glycosylated ferritin. The concentrations were determined in 95 healthy subjects: 39 men and 56 women, aged from 22 to 94 years. In the men, age correlated significantly with serum ferritin (r=0.332, p<0.05) and non-glycosylated serum ferritin (r=0.628, p<0.001) but not with glycosylated serum ferritin. In the women, age correlated significantly with serum ferritin (r=0.456, p<0.001), non-glycosylated serum ferritin (r=0.439, p<0.001), and glycosylated serum serum ferritin (r=0.415, p<0.01). The ratio of glycosylated serum ferritin to serum ferritin correlated negatively with age both in men and in women (men: r=-0.661, p<0.001; women: r=-0.411, p<0.01). Serum non-glycosylated freeitin levels were higher in older men. Both serum glycosylated ferritin and non-glycosylated ferritin levels were higher in older women, but this phenomenon was more pronounced with respect to the non-glycosylated form. These results suggest that hyperferritinemia in the elderly is mainly caused by an increase in the concentration of non-glycosylated ferritin, both in men and in women.
We studied changes in water diffusion in cerebral white matter in 10 patients with Binswanger's disease (BD), 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who had periventricular hyperintensity lesions on T2-weighted images, and 8 age-matched controls. The apparent diffusion coefficients measured in the anterior and posterior white matter were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls, but there was no significant difference between patients with BD and those with AD. The anisotropy ratios, difined as diffusion perpendicular to the nerve fiber direction, were higher in the patients than in the controls. The anisotropy ratio in the anterior white matter was significantly higher in patients with BD than in those with AD, while in the posterior white matter the ratio was significantly higher in patients with AD than in those with BD. These results suggest that in BD and AD cerebral white matter lesions such as periventricular hyperintensity lesions reflect a loss of myelin and axons, and that loss of myelin occurs preferentially in the anterior white matter in BD and in the posterior white matter in AD.
Complications, prognosis, and efficacy of treatments were retrospectively studied in elderly patients, some of whom had lung, stomach, colon, pancreatic, and liver cancers. Hemoglobin concentration and characteristics of erythrocytes were measured for up to sixty months. Eighty-eight patietns died of cancer, and malignant tumors were detected before death in 57. The average survival periods were 11 months for patients with gastric cancer, 9 months for those with colon cancer, and 7 months for those with lung cancer. Malignancies of the digestive oragns and lung were often detected in elderly patients with anemia. In elderly people who were without cancer for more than 78 months the hemoglobin concentration did not change significantly, but in those with a malignancy the hemoglobin concentration continuously decreased. Patients with colon cancer who were given blood transfusions survived longer than those who were not given the transfusions, but the same was not true of patients with gastric or lung cancers. Iron therapy, however, was generally effective in patients with malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Among those who were near death, the red cell distribution widths differed significantly between patients with different types of carcinomas, but differences in mean corpuscular hemoglobin and in mean corpuscular volume were not statistically significant. In conclusion, hemoglobin concentration and characteristics of erythrocytes should not be neglected in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers in the elderly.
We studied the relationship between clinical characteristics and renal structural changes in 29 elderly patients in whom non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was diagnosed when they were 60 years of age or older. The clinical stage of nephropathy was graded according to the criteria of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan: stage 1 (12 patients), normoalbuminuria; stage 2 (11 patients), microalbuminuria; stage 3 (1 patient), persistent proteinuria; stage 4 (5 patients), chronic renal failure. Renal biopsy specimens were semiquantitatively evaluated with regard to diffuse glomerular lesions, nodular lesions, and vascular lesions. In patients at stage 1, minimal-to-moderate diffuse lesions were observed, and vascular lesions were already present. In patients at stage 2, various alterations in diffuse lesions were observed and were associated with prominent changes in the vascular lesions. More advanced changes in the diffuse and vascular lesions were noted in patients at stages 3 and 4, but nodular lesions were found in only one patient. These patients had a high incidence of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. We conclude that elderly diabetic patients with nephropathy of different clinical stages have different underlying diabetic renal lesions.
A 65-year-old woman was given a diagnosis of polymyositis in April 1991. She was treated with prednisolone until December 1993, at which time muscle strength had increased and high blood pressure had developed. In May 1994 she was hospitalized for muscle weakness and mild liver dysfunction. Prednisolone was given and the levels of hepatobiliary enzymes decreased. Immunological examination revealed strongly positive results for anti-mitochondria antibody and M-2 antibody, which lead to the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. administration of ursodeoxycholic acid in addition to prednisolone was followed by normalization of liver fucntion and a decrease in the production of the autoantibodies. Alghough polymyositis can be complicated by autoimmune diseases, reports of complication by primary biliary cirrhosis are rare. here we report that treatment with the combination of ursodeoxycholic acid and prednisolone was successful in a patient with liver dysfunction and primary biliary cirrhosis.
A 90-year-old man fell into a marsh and was rescued 18 hours later. When he was admitted to our emergency room, physical examination revealed no remarkable findings except for many abrasions on his skin. Laboratory examination revealed a serum CPK level of 46, 904IU/L, which had furthre increased to 84, 678IU/L by the following day. Oliguria developed on the second day, along with an increase in serum creatinine to 5.5mg/dl. Hemodialysis was considered for the treatment of acute renal failure, but his renal function recovered soon by the continuation of conservative fluid therapy. Fluid therapy may be an effective and easy treatment for acute renal failure due to the crush syndrome, even in very old patients.