Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive decline and physical activity, sitting time, and social participation among elderly people living independently in a local community.
Methods: In January 2015, 1,133 independently-living elderly individuals from a local Japanese community completed self-administrated questionnaires. A total of 929 participants completed the questionnaire (valid response rate: 82.0%). A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between cognitive decline, physical activity, sitting time, and social participation. The factors related to cognitive decline were examined using three statistical models: (1) Model 1 was not adjusted for any factors; (2) Model 2 was adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, and drinking status; and (3) Model 3 was adjusted for the covariates in Model 2, plus depression.
Results: Cognitive decline was observed in 33% of men and 26% of women. The results indicated that decreased social participation was significantly related to cognitive decline in Models 1 and 2. For men, local community activity and political/economic activity were significantly associated with cognitive decline in Models 1 and 2. Among women, physical activity was significantly related to cognitive decline in Model 1. There was also a significant association between social participation and cognitive decline in Models 1 and 2; decreased volunteer activity was significantly related to cognitive decline in all three models.
Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that attending volunteer activities was significantly related to cognitive decline in women.
Aim: The aim of our study was to draft a scale measuring the social participation of community-dwelling frail older adults.
Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 37 items was prepared based on the findings of previous studies. We recruited community-dwelling older adults ≥65 years of age living in Mitaka City, Tokyo. The inclusion criteria were as follows: native speakers of Japanese; not being covered as support and care level; support level 1; support level 2; care level 1; and care level 2. In total, 328 individuals were investigated. The selected individuals were categorized into the following six groups, according to a Japanese frailty scale and the Japanese Long-term Care Insurance System: non-frail, frail and at high-risk of requiring long-term care, support level 1, support level 2, care level 1, and care level 2. We then randomly selected individuals adjusted for age and gender in each group. The Rasch model was used to select items and to examine the validity. Cronbach's α was calculated to examine reliability.
Results: We analyzed 170 subjects. Of the 37 items, 22 were considered based on the Rasch model for inclusion in a draft scale of social participation. The Cronbach's α for these items ranged from 0.86-0.87.
Conclusions: We conducted a preliminary survey to develop a scale describing social participation among community-dwelling frail older adults. The construct validity and reliability were adequate for this scale. Based on the findings of this preliminary survey, we will investigate a larger sample size to enhance the scale.
We have developed a cloud system, the e-Renraku Notebook (e-RN) for sharing of home care information based on the concept of "patient-centricity". In order to assess the likelihood that our system will enhance the communication and sharing of information between home healthcare staff members and home-care patients, we selected patients who were residing in mountainous regions for inclusion in our study. We herein report the findings.
Eighteen staff members from 7 medical facilities and 9 patients participated in the present study.
The e-RN was developed for two reasons: to allow patients to independently report their health status and to have staff members view and respond to the information received. The patients and staff members were given iPads with the pre-installed applications and the information being exchanged was reviewed over a 54-day period.
Information was mainly input by the patients (61.6%), followed by the nurses who performed home visits (19.9%). The amount of information input by patients requiring high-level nursing care and their corresponding staff member was significantly greater than that input by patients who required low-level of nursing care.
This patient-centric system in which patients can independently report and share information with a member of the healthcare staff provides a sense of security. It also allows staff members to understand the patient's health status before making a home visit, thereby giving them a sense of security and confidence. It was also noteworthy that elderly patients requiring high-level nursing care and their staff counterpart input information in the system significantly more frequently than patients who required low-level care.
An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hypoglycemia attack. She was diagnosed with insulinoma based on her high insulin level at the time of the hypoglycemia attack and the presence of a hypervascular tumor in her pancreas. The patient refused surgical treatment and octreotide was used to prevent hypoglycemia.
It is known that octreotide suppresses the secretion of insulin from the pancreas; however, insulin secretion is not always suppressed in patients with insulinoma. Moreover, there is no particular protocol for the use of octreotide in the treatment of insulinoma.
We examined the effect of octreotide in preventing hypoglycemia using CGM. The injection of octreotide (50 μg) at 21: 00 prevented hypoglycemia during the night.
However the patient could not perform self-injection due to the sequelae of a cerebral infarction. We therefore chose to have her eat an extra meal at 11 pm.
After a while the patient became exhausted by eating meals at night. We examined the effects of octreotide LAR using CGM, and it was found to prevent hypoglycemia for 4 weeks. The patient's QOL was improved by being released from a restriction that affected her daily life.
An 86-year-old male who was able to perform all activities of daily living (ADL) was diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) at 70 years of age. Following his diagnosis, he had been receiving treatment at our hospital. After the sudden onset of a consciousness disorder, he was admitted to our hospital's emergency department with asterixis, a high serum ammonia level, and hepatic encephalopathy. After angiography, he was diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy due to portal hepatic venous shunts. HHT is characterized by abnormal blood vessel construction and the formation of peripheral vasodilatation and shunt blood vessels. Although rare, portal hepatic venous shunts may sometimes cause hepatic encephalopathy. The extent of this shunt increases with age. As Japan is an increasingly aging society, the number of HHT patients with hepatic encephalopathy is likely to increase markedly in the future.
The clinical entity idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is characterized by dementia, urinary incontinence, gait ataxia. An 80-year old man with a past history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to our hospital. Combination of twice Aspart and Aspart premixed30/70 insulin were used. Although, he was unable to inject insulin by himself recently. On physical examination, he walked in a mildly wide based manner. According to his family, urinary incontinence was existed. Laboratory data were as follows: Postrandial blood glucose 243 mg/dl and glycated hemoglobin 8.0% (NGSP). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed thinning of the corpus callosum with enlargement of the lateral ventricles on a colonal image. Evan's ratio was 0.29. The revised version of Hasegawa's Dementia scale (HDS-R) was 10. The patient showed no evidence a related antecedent event, such as head trauma, intracerebral hemorrhage and meningitis. Thus, he was diagnosed as having possible Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The following several psychological tests and walking test were applied. Before and after the tap, he was evaluated using the HDS-R, Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Timed Up and Go test (TUG). Insulin was replaced by glargine, and Sitagliptin was added. On the 31 day, the patient underwent Ventriculo-perioneal shunt. Laboratoly data and memory impairment were also improved. 8 month's later, HbA1c was 7.5%. iNPH occurs in the elderly and is characterized by a clinical triad of gait disturbance, urinary incontinence and dementia. In the present case, thinning of the corpus callosum with enlargement of the lateral ventricles was detected by MRI. 49% of iNPH patients had Diabetes mellitus. However, we were unable to detect a relationship iNPH and Diabetes mellitus. Cognitive impairment may interfere with the insulin therapy. In the present case, failure of insulin self-injection was the first clinical sign to appear. We were able to reduce dose of insulin. We conclude that iNPH is a treatable disorder, especially when treatment is started early in the course of the disease.