Aim: In this study, we aimed to clarify the relationship between the swallowing function and the jaw-opening force after cerebrovascular disease.
Methods: Elderly patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease with swallowing disability were enrolled in the present study. The swallowing function was evaluated using the Dysphagia Severity Scale (DSS), and the jaw-opening force was measured using Jaw-Opening Sthenometer (TK2014). The correlation between the DSS and jaw-opening force was analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Patients were also classified into three groups according to the DSS: normal, dysphagia, and aspiration groups. The jaw-opening forces of the three groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test.
Results: Fifty-two patients (27 women, average age 78.8±8.2 years) were recruited. A significant negative correlation was found between the patient age and jaw-opening force in all subjects (r=−0.362, p=0.008) as well as in men (r=−0.548, p=0.005). A significant positive correlation was found between the DSS and jaw-opening force in all subjects (r=0.560, p=0.000) and in both men (r=0.636, p=0.001) and women (r=0.587, p=0.001). The jaw-opening force of the aspiration group was significantly lower than that of the normal group in all subjects (p=0.006), as well as in men (p=0.024) and women (p=0.015).
Conclusions: The DSS and jaw-opening force may have a significant positive correlation. Furthermore, it was shown that the jaw-opening force of the aspiration group was significantly lower than that of the normal-swallowing group.
Aim: Memorization comprises three stages: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Using neuropsychological tests, we investigated the stage at which encoding and storage are retained in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with progressive memory disorder. Methods: The target patients were an amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group (21 cases) and FAST 4 (37 cases), 5 (10 cases), and 6 (4 cases) AD groups. The neuropsychological tests performed were the Rivermead behavioral memory test and Wechsler memory scale-revised. These were carried out in the MCI group as well as in each AD stage group. We investigated the delayed recall (free recall and cued recall) based on the disease stage and raw score of the sub-items in delayed recognition. Results: The MCI group had 48% (median 0 point) correct respondents (providing ≥1 correct answer) for free recall, whereas FAST 4 and 5 groups had ≤14% correct respondents. In the verbal paired associates II evaluated in cued recall, the MCI group had 90% correct respondents, and the FAST 4, 5, and 6 groups had rates of 51%, 60%, and 50%, respectively. For the pictures and photos in the delayed recognition tasks, there were no significant differences in the percentage of correct respondents between the MCI group (100%) and the FAST 4 and 5 groups (70%-90%). Conclusions: Given that retrieval is impossible if encoding and storage are impaired, we inferred that the encoding and retrieval abilities were retained even in moderately advanced AD.
Aim: Physical restraints are defined as limitations on patients' freedom of movement, such as bed/chair belts and/or the use of mittens. Such restraints may be harmful, and the predictors of or factors reducing physical restraint use are unclear. This study investigated the factors determining physical restraint use in patients with stroke admitted to an acute care hospital.
Methods: This retrospective study analyzed patients' data obtained between August 2014 and September 2015. The variables analyzed were age, sex, physical restraint use, operations performed, presence of tubes, stroke severity, psychotropic medication use, disturbance of consciousness, motor paralysis, cognitive status, independence in activities of daily living, and presence of behavioral disorders. Patient characteristics associated with physical restraints were analyzed using the t-test, Fisher's exact test, and a logistic regression analysis.
Results: The analysis included 253 patients (179 in the non-restraint group and 74 in the restraint group). The prevalence of physical restraint use was 29.2%. The age, cognitive status, stroke severity, operations performed, presence of tubes, disturbance of consciousness, motor paralysis, independence in the activities of daily living, presence of behavioral disorders, and psychotropic medication use significantly differed between the two groups. A logistic regression analysis showed that the age, cognitive status, stroke severity, and presence of behavioral disorders were risk factors.
Conclusion: Physical restraint use is more likely in elderly patients and those with cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, or serious strokes. Physical restraints are also more likely to be applied in patients with cognitive impairment than in those with merely physical impairment.
Aim: This study aimed to examine the relationship of obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity (SO) with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in elderly patients with diabetes.
Methods: Subjects included in this study were patients with diabetes ≥65 years of age and who were receiving treatment on an outpatient basis at the Ise Red Cross Hospital. To determine the presence of LVDD, we divided the early diastolic left ventricular filling velocity (E) by the early mitral annular motion velocity (E') (E/E'), which was measured using tissue Doppler imaging. To evaluate sarcopenia, SARC-F-J, a self-administered questionnaire consisting of five items, was used. Obesity was defined as a body mass index >25. Using a multiple logistic regression analysis with LVDD as the dependent variable and sarcopenia, obesity, and SO as explanatory variables, we calculated the odds ratios of LVDD for each variable.
Results: The subjects were 291 (157 male and 134 female) patients. Among male patients, the odds ratios after moderating for LVDD in the sarcopenia, obese, and SO groups were 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI) ], 0.20 to 3.27, P=0.784), 1.92 (95% CI, 0.69 to 5.32, P=0.207), and 6.41 (95% CI, 1.43 to 28.53, P=0.015), respectively, whereas among female patients, these ratios were 1.31 (95% CI, 0.31 to 5.51, 0.708), 1.41 (95% CI, 0.45 to 4.37, P=0.551), and 3.18 (95% CI, 0.93 to 10.9, P=0.064), respectively.
Conclusions: In male elderly patients with diabetes, SO was significantly correlated with LVDD. We believe that it is important to consider LVDD when examining male elderly patients with SO.
Aim: Although urinary incontinence (UI) in the elderly appears to be related to polypharmacy, it is unclear whether multiple medications elevate UI quantitatively or qualitatively. There have been few studies on the association of polypharmacy with each type of UI. The present survey aimed to clarify these issues.
Method: The subjects were elderly home health care patients ≥65 years of age taking ≥5 prescription medications and not being treated with anti-cancer agent. The visiting nurses filled out a questionnaire based on their nursing and medication records. Types of UI were evaluated according to a UI checklist.
Results: A total of 167 subjects (97 women, 70 men, mean age of 83.8 years) were eligible for the data analysis. Subjects talking 5-9 prescription medications accounted for 59.3%, while those talking≥10 counted for 40.7%. Men talking ≥10 medications showed a slight but non-significant increased risk of UI. In women, α-adrenergic antagonists and benzodiazepines significantly increased the risk of stress UI and urge UI, respectively. Furthermore, α-adrenergic antagonists reduced the risk of functional UI, whereas acetylcholinesterase inhibitors elevated it. α-adrenergic antagonists in combination with benzodiazepines also significantly increased the risk of stress UI and urge UI, while α-adrenergic antagonists with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors increased the risk of stress UI. In men, there were no prescription medications that were particularly related to UI.
Conclusions: The present results suggest that there are gender differences in prescription medications-induced UI. It is likely that the causing medications are different depending on the type of UI, and the combination of them significantly increase the risk of UI.
Purpose: This study aimed to clarify the utility of the Life-trouble Scale-based care planning tool for elderly patients with dementia (Life-trouble Scale, viewpoints, and care points of the elderly with dementia suffering from life troubles) in order to develop an appropriate care plan and practices in a long-term care health facility.
Method: Participants were elderly patients with dementia who were evaluated by care staff using the abovementioned scale at baseline and after intervention (one month later) from September to December 2017. The patients were divided into an intervention group, which received care based on the Life-Trouble Inclusion Scale, and the control group, which received the usual care. The outcomes of these two groups were compared.
Results: The intervention and control groups comprised 14 and 12 elderly patients with dementia, respectively. More than 60% of the care staff worked with both groups. Scores on the agitation sub-scale of the NPI [please define abbreviation] and "life-trouble associated with irritation and confusion" sub-scale of the Life-Trouble Scale improved significantly in the intervention group. Among the care staff, self-efficacy related to caring for elderly patients with dementia and scores on the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization sub-scales of the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory improved significantly.
Conclusion: The present findings suggest that care intervention using the Life-trouble Scale-based care planning tool was beneficial for both elderly patients with dementia and their care staff.
Aim: This study aimed to determine the perceptions among healthcare providers of the clinical need for cosmetic therapy among older adults.
Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 190 medical staff regarding their perceptions of cosmetic therapy for older adults. The survey included questions on occupation, sex, age, cosmetic therapy in older adults, and acceptable cosmetic treatments. Nurses answered questions regarding the type of ward in which they worked.
Results: Completed questionnaires were collected from 121 people (mean age 33.3±9.4; men n=42). The participants included nurses (n=55), physical therapists (n=25), occupational therapists (n=15), and other occupations (n=26). Most participants believed that makeup improves the quality of life of older adults; however, many participants first became aware of the existence of cosmetic therapy through this survey. Half of the participants were interested in participating in cosmetic therapy, and a high number of women and nurses were interested. Most cosmetic treatments were acceptable to those caring for outpatients, while those caring for hospitalized patients showed low acceptance rates for treatments other than skin care. The acceptance rates tended to be particularly high for participants who worked in rehabilitation wards.
Conclusion: Many participants believed cosmetic therapy to be effective in improving the quality of life; however, only about half of all subjects were interested in participating in cosmetic therapy. The acceptance rate of cosmetic treatments differed by work environment. This study provided valuable data contributing to the spread of cosmetic therapy.
A 79-year-old woman came to us because of sudden onset of dysarthria. She had taken apixaban due to her non-valvular atrial fibrillation. A neurological examination revealed mild facial palsy of her right side, and magnetic resonance imaging showed acute brain infarction at the left frontal lobe. There were no stenotic lesions on intracranial or extracranial magnetic resonance angiography, and she was diagnosed with cardioembolic stroke. Intravenous infusion of heparin and edaravone was initiated, and her neurological symptoms improved. However, she gradually developed jaundice and anemia. Gastro-intestinal bleeding was not observed, and her blood test met the diagnostic criteria for hemolytic anemia. Because both the direct Coombs test and cold agglutinin were positive, she was diagnosed with mixed-type autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Although her serum hemoglobin level decreased to 7.0 g/dl on the 12th hospital day, her anemia gradually improved after steroidal therapy with transfusion. It was revealed that she had shown mild anemia (hemoglobin: 9.2-10.9 g/dl) and hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin: 1.8-2.6 mg/dl) for 6 months. Therefore, her latent autoimmune hemolytic anemia became activated with the occurrence of cardioembolic stroke. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia might have promoted cardiac thrombus formation despite the administration of an anticoagulant in this case. It should be noted that autoimmune hemolytic anemia can develop as thrombotic disease. In the present case, autoimmune hemolytic anemia was diagnosed based on the development of cardioembolic stroke.
Sulfonylureas, a potent stimulator of insulin release from pancreatic β cells, can cause hypoglycemia, which is apt to recur with a prolonged duration in elderly patients. Octreotide acetate, a long-acting somatostatin analogue, suppresses the secretion of insulin and is recognized as a possible treatment for sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia. However, there are few reports on its use in an actual clinical setting, especially in the elderly. We herein report a case in which subcutaneous injection of octreotide was effective for treating prolonged and recurrent hypoglycemia caused by sulfonylureas in an elderly man. An 89-year-old man was transported to the emergency department of our hospital for disturbance of consciousness in the morning. He had been treated for type 2 diabetes with 0.5 mg glimepiride, with the most recent HbA1c measurement being 5.7%. His plasma glucose level was low (22 mg/dL), and he was in a coma (Japan Coma Scale: 300). Under a diagnosis of hypoglycemic coma caused by sulfonylurea, we dripped 10% glucose solution and administered 50% glucose solution every 1 to 2 h through a peripheral vein, but his hypoglycemia recurred several times. Finally, 50 μg octreotide was subcutaneously injected. Thereafter, hypoglycemia did not recur, and additional injections of 50% glucose solution were not required. The same dose of octreotide was additionally administered after 8 h. In conclusion, the subcutaneous injection of octreotide can be an effective and safe method of treating prolonged hypoglycemia caused by sulfonylureas in the elderly.